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TCP and UDP

The two most common Transport layer protocols of TCP/IP


(TCP) and (UDP
UDP is a simple, connectionless protocol providing for low
overhead data delivery. The pieces of communication in UDP
are called datagrams

TCP is a connection-oriented protocol, additional overhead to


gain functions. Additional functions specified by TCP are the
same order delivery, reliable delivery, and flow control. Each
TCP segment has 20 bytes of overhead in the header
encapsulating
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What is the protocol which implement transport layer ?


UDP Header

TCP Header

or
Application
Header + data

TCP Header=20 bytes


UDP Header=8 bytes
UDP is lower overhead

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2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Network Layer
The protocols of Network layer specify addressing and
processes that enable Transport layer data to be packaged and
transported.

IPv4

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2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Network layer protocols.

IP is supported by
another protocols at layer3
ICMP
ARP
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2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Network Layer Communication from Host to host


Layer 3 uses four basic processes:
Addressing.
Encapsulation.
Routing.
Decapsulation.

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2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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IPv4 packet header


Identify the major header fields in the IPv4 protocol and
describe each field's role in transporting packets

ITE PC v4.0
Chapter 1

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

Layer 3 devices
Router :
- best path determination
- creating routing table
- connecting different LANs

All interfaces of the


router are members
in a multiple
broadcast domain,
and multiple
collision domains
ITE PC v4.0
Chapter 1

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

Dividing the networks - networks from networks


Describe the purpose of further subdividing networks
into smaller networks

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Chapter 1

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

IP address:
Routing packets between network computers is done using IP
address (each computer has a unique IP).
IP address consists of 32 bits divided into four groups (each
group 8 bit) and separated by dots.

IP address

Dotted decimal

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10000001

00010000

00011011

00000001

129

16

27

0255

0255

0255

0255

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Each host is a part of a network.


Network 1
Network 3
Host

Small networks are connected


together to formulate bigger ones.
The IP address must indicate both:
Network address. Host address.

IP
IP address
address
Network 2

Host address

Network address

Indicates the hose


address inside the
network.

Indicates the address


of the network w.r.t the
other networks

Use the subnet mask to indicate the host and network address so
that:
Ones: define the network address.
Zeros: define the host address.

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2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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10

Subnet mask

11111111

Dotted decimal

255

IP address

Dotted decimal

11111111

00000000

00000000

255

10000001

00010000

00011011

00000001

129

16

27

Network Address

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Host Address

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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