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UMTS and Beyond

Prof. Hamid Aghvami


Centre for Telecommunications Research - Kings College London
Wireless Multimedia Communications Ltd

Mobile System Generations

First Generation (1G) mobile systems were designed to


offer a single service, i.e., speech.

Second Generation (2G) mobile systems were also


designed primarily to offer speech with a limited capability
to offer data at low rates.

Third Generation (3G) mobile systems are expected to


offer high-quality multi-media services and operate in
different environments.

3G systems are referred to as Universal Mobile


Telecommunications System (UMTS) in Europe and
International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 (IMT2000)
worldwide.

UMTS
UMTS will be a mobile communications system that can offer
significant user benefits including high-quality wireless multimedia
services to a convergent network of fixed, cellular and satellite
components.
It will deliver information directly to users and provide them with
access to new and innovative services and applications.
It will offer mobile personalised communications to the mass
market regardless of location, network and terminal used.
UMTS Forum 1997

UMTS Main Requirements (3 Ms)


Multi-media
Multi-environment
Multi-operator

Virtual operators

Mobile Multimedia Services


Mobile Multimedia
2M
384K

64K

Video
Conference
(High quality)

Internet
Access

Video
Conference
(Low quality)

WWW

Remote medical
service
(Medical image)

e-mail
32K
16K

9.6K
2.4K

Telephone
Conference

Telephone

ftp

Voice
Mail

IP
telephony
etc

Broadcast

Database Access
Video
Catalog
shopping

Video on
demand
-Sports
-News
-Movies

Electronic
Newspaper

ISDN
Karaoke

Information
Distribution
Services
News

Weather
forecast
Traffic
information

pager

Electronic
Publishing

Mobile TV

Mobile
Radio

Sports
information
Leisure
Information

Electronic
Mail

Image

FAX

Data

1.2K

Voice

Symmetric

Asymmetric

Point to Point

Multicast

Multi Point

Different Environments for UMTS

Global

Suburban

Urban
In- Building

Micro-Cell
Macro-Cell

Home-Cell
Pico-Cell

First phase of UMTS

Europe has decided to adopt an evolutionary approach for


the UMTS core network based on migration from the
GSM/GPRS infrastructure.

For the actual air interface, a revolutionary approach has


been chosen. That is a new radio air interface for UMTS
Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA).

There is another parallel activity concerning the UMTS air


interface using an evolutionary approach (an intermediate
approach).

Radio Access

GSM
Infrastructure

Public
Network

Dual-mode
Evolved
GSM
Radio Access
PSTN

(GERAN)

NSS

N-ISDN
B-ISDN

And

New
Radio Access

IP-based
Networks

GSNs

(UTRAN)
Dual-mode

Evolution approach based on GSM Infrastructure

Evolution Approach

Evolutionary approach for the GSM Air Interface

In this approach the GSM air interface has evolved within GSM
phase 2+ to support higher rate data services. The most
important developments in this approach are:
1. General Packet Radio Services (GPRS )
2. High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD )
3. Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE )

It is referred to GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network (GERAN)

UMTS Phase I
PDN
HLR

Gc

GMSC

GGSN

Gr
D

Gn
Gs

SMSC/
VLR

SGSN
Iu,ps

Iu,cs

Packet Switched
(GPRS)

Internet

Iu,cs

RNC
.
Node B Node B

...

Iu,ps

RNC
.
Node B Node B

UTRAN

Circuit Switched
(GSM)

PSTN

Legacy mobile
signalling
network

Applications
& Services

SGW

Mh

Multimedia
IP networks

Mm

Ms
HSS
(HLR)

CSCF

Cx

Gi

Gr
TE

MT
R

TE

Um

MT
R

Iu-PS
UTRAN

Gn

Gi
Gf

Gn

MGCF
Mc

GGSN

Uu

Gi

Gi

SGSN
Gp

Mg

MRF

Gc

GERAN

Mr

MGW

PSTN/
legacy/external

EIR

GGSN
Other PLMN

SGSN

Signalling interface
Signalling and data transfer interface

Simplified architecture for the support of IP-based multimedia services in 3GPP release 5

New Functional Entities for the All IP Architecture


Call State Control Function (CSCF) executes the call control. It is based on the
IETF Session Initiation Protocol (SIP).
Media GateWay (MGW) provides an inter-connection from GGSN to legacy
circuit-switched networks such as PSTN.
Media Gateway Control Function (MGCF) controls the MGW.
Media Resource Function (MRF) performs multiparty call and multimedia
conferencing functions.
Signalling GateWay (SGW) performs signalling conversion to/from legacy
mobile signalling network.
Home Subscriber Server (HSS) is an evolved HLR.

4G Concept

Towards 4G
User centric,
user controlled services
and
context-aware
applications

4G Concept

What does user controlled services mean?

The user has freedom and flexibility to select any desired service
with reasonable QoS and affordable price, anytime, anywhere using
any device in a secure manner

4G Concept

What does context-aware applications mean?


A context-aware application means the behaviour of the
application adapts itself to user context changes. User context
includes:
-user profile and preferences.
-user device and access network capabilities.
-user environment and mobility.

Technologies

Challenges

Convergence/integration/inter-working of all
existing and emerging fixed and mobile (wired
and wireless) networks including broadcast

IP
Technology

Simple to select and easy to use desired


services

Agent
Technology

Universal and low cost terminals

Reconfigurable
Technology

Network Level Concepts

Inter-working Concept
Integration Concept

Interworking/Integration
For the design of next generation wireless networks two different approaches
are currently being considered. They are:
- Interworking with next generation Internet (tight coupling)
- Integration within next generation Internet (very tight coupling)
In the first approach, the access network and the core network use different IP
protocols and mechanisms and only the core network is considered as a
sub-network of the Internet.
In the second approach, both the core and access networks use common IP
based protocols and mechanisms and the access network is considered as a
sub-network of the Internet.

Inter-Working
Billing

VHE

SIP Proxy
Server

Signalling WAP
Gateway

Accounting

ISP

The
Internet
Satellite FES
IP backbone

Context-aware information
Centre

Broadcast Networks
(DAB, DVB-T)
GSM /
GPRS
UMTS

IP-based
micro-mobility

Wireless
LANs

Integration
Applications
AP2

AP1

AP3

APn

Middleware
Service support sub-layer
Location

Accounting/billing

Media conversion

Distribution

Basic network management sub-layer


RRM

MM

IP-based transport NW
IP
Radio

IP
Radio

C/SM

Security

IP

QoS

ISDN/
PSTN

IP

IP

IP
IP
Radio

General architecture of the IP-based IMT network platform

Internet

Hierarchical coverage layers for 4G

IP-based backbone
Satellite

Global coverage
Regional coverage

National coverage

Local area coverage

DAB and DVB-T, DVB-S

2G, 3G and 4G Cellular

Wireless LANs

Personal area coverage


Wireless PANs
Vertical Handover

Horizontal Handover

The complexity of the problem: user prospective


From a user prospective
Multiple Heterogeneous network
operators
part of
Multiple user environments
accessed using
Multiple heterogeneous devices
owned by
heterogeneous users

The complexity of the problem: network prospective


From a network prospective
Multiple Heterogeneous network
operators
providing
Multiple services
through
multiple access networks
to
users with heterogeneous devices

A Heterogeneous Network Architecture

Future Internet

UTRAN

WLAN

4G RAN

PAN
Intra-Cell PAN
Ad-hoc Network

PAN
PAN

PAN

Core Network

Wireless
Access Network

Inter-working between two radio access networks


Open coupling

Inter-working between two radio access networks


Loose coupling

Inter-working between two radio access networks


Tight coupling

Inter-working between two radio access networks


Very tight coupling

Inter-working examples - caching

Inter-working examples
user centric
Delivery options

Content Delivery
Notification
Content: video clip(15MB)
Service: Music Clips
Company: MTV
Please select delivery options
Send to PDA (5 eur) 15min
Send to office PC (10 eur) 7min
Send to STB (20 eur)-2min

Network provides device delivery options


including cost and delivery times

User selects desired destination

Slide:30
-40
Slide:30-40

Inter-working examples network centric


Load balancing i.e. Using DVB to multicast or broadcast to large number of
users

Handovers i.e. Users in train moving outside the coverage of a network

Slide:31
-40
Slide:31-40

Network Selection
Most Appropriate Network Selection Criteria

Service Type
- Data rate
- QoS

Available Resources
User Context
- Environment (When and Where)
- Mobility
- User preferences

Convergenc
e

Convergence of Cellular Mobile Networks and WLANs


Benefits
For cellular mobile operators
Higher bandwidths.
Lower cost of networks and equipment.
The use of licence-exempt spectrum.
Higher capacity and QoS enhancement.
Higher revenue.
For users
Access to broadband multimedia services with lower cost and where
mostly needed (e.g. in Central Business Districts and Business
Customer Premises).
Inter-network roaming.

Convergenc
e
Convergence of Mobile Communications and Broadcasting
Drivers
From broadcaster point of view

Introducing interactivity to their unidirectional point-to-multipoint


broadcasting systems. That is, a broadband downlink based on
DAB/DVB-T and a narrowband uplink based on 2G/3G cellular
systems.

From the cellular mobile operator point of view

Providing a complementary broadband downlink in vehicular


environments to support IP-based multi-media traffic which is
inherently asymmetrical.

Convergenc
e
Benefits

Broadcasters will benefit from the use of cellular mobile systems to


adapt the content of their multi-media services more rapidly in
response to the feedback from customers.

Cellular

operators will benefit from offering their customers a range of


new broadband multi-media services in vehicular environments.

Users will benefit from faster access to a range of broadband multimedia services with reasonable QoS and lower cost.

IP Layer Model

Steve Deering - Cisco : Fifty-first IETF; London, England, August 5-10, 2001

IP Layer Model for WLANs


Higher Layers
Additional IP Functions
Mobility Management
Quality of Service
AAA

IP Sec
Ad-Hoc Routing
etc.

Native IP Functions:
Routing
Addressing
Packet Formatting and Handling
Data Interface

Control Interface

Error Control
Buffer Management
QoS Support
Segmentation/Reassembly
Header Compression
Multicast Support

Configuration Management
Address Management
QoS Control
Handover Control
Idle Mode Support
Security Management

Lower Layers

IP Network Layer

IP Convergence Layer

IP Layer Model

The functionalities and structure of the IP layer model are not


sufficient and/or efficient to achieve the requirements of future
inter-worked or integrated networks.

No fundamental changes have been made in the design of IPV6.

The question is:


Are some radical changes needed to the IP layer model in
order to offer better solutions to the convergence issue? If yes,
what are the consequences and implications?

Agent Definition
An agent is a software component (object) that is situated within an
execution environment (e.g. computers) and acts autonomously on
behalf of a user or process and has specific goal.

AP

AP

AP

AP
2G, 3G
WLAN

Service Centre

AP: Agent Platform

Agent Technology
Mandatory features
Reactive: senses changes in the environment and
reacts in accordance.
Autonomous: has control over its own actions
Goal-driven: is pro-active
Optional features
Collaborative: communicates/negotiates with other
agents
Mobile: travels from one host to another
Learning: adapts in accordance with previous
experience
Believable: appears believable to the end-user.

Mobile vs. Static Agents


request
respond

Client

Server
request
respond

Client

Server

Software components that can migrate under their own control from host to host in a network or between networks

Mobile Agents
Mobile agents have already been used for network
monitoring and service delivery including education
at a distance.
In an ever-increasing world of service providers and
service packages, a user demands a simple
approach to the selection of the desired service and
its delivery mechanism in real-time with least effort.
This can be achieved through the use of mobile
agents.
The use of mobile agents can also overcome
the constraints imposed on applications by
the limited processing power and speed of
mobile terminals.

Agent Technology
An open question:

Static or mobile agents for wireless networks?


What are the pros and cons?

Re-configurable Technology
What does Reconfiguration mean?
Reconfiguration refers to the software
re-definition and/or adaptation of every element
within each layer of the communication chain.

RF
Front End

A/D Converter
D/A Converter

Baseband
Processing

User
Data

Re-configurable Technology
Benefits

Users
- Select network depending on service requirements and cost.
- Connect to any network Worldwide roaming.
-Access to new services.

Operators
- Respond to variations in traffic demand (load balancing).
- Incorporate service enhancements and improvements.
- Correction of software bugs and upgrade of terminals.
- Rapid development of new personalised and customised services

Manufacturers
- Single platform for all markets.
- Increased flexible and efficient production.

Re-configuration Procedures

Mode
Monitoring

Reconfiguration
Trigger

Initiated by network
operator or user

Mode
Identification

What networks are


available?

Mode
Negotiation

What is the most suitable


network (based on QoS, user
preferences etc.)?

Mode Switch
Decision
Download software
modules that are required
for the target mode

Software
Download

Decision on preferred mode

Reconfigure
Terminal

Re-configurable Technology
CHALLENGES
Regulatory and Standardisation issues.
Business models.
User preference profiles.
Inter-system handover mechanisms and criteria.
Software download mechanisms.
Flexible spectrum allocation and sharing between operators.
Enabling Technologies (RF and antenna elements, ADC/DAC etc.)

Conclusion

IP Technology

Reconfigurable
Technology

4G
Vision

Agent Technology