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GSM Architecture

5/22/15

RTTC, Nagpur

GSM
Various subsystems
1.

Network Subsystem includes the equipments and


functions related to end-to-end call.

2.

Radio Subsystem includes the equipments and functions


related to the management of the connections on the
radio path.

3. Operations and Maintenance subsystem includes the


operation and maintenance of GSM equipment for the
radio and network interface.
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RTTC, Nagpur

Network Architecture

1 MSC=16 BSC
1 BSC=1024 TRU

OSS

HLR

B
T
S

PSTN
ISDN
B
T
S

BSC
BSC

MSC VLR

Data
Networks

A Interface
B
T
S

A-bis interface
MSC VLR

Air interface
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RTTC, Nagpur

BSC:BASE STATION CONTROLLER, BTS: BASE TRANSRECEIVER STATION, OSS: OPERATION AND SUPPORT
SUBSYSTEM.ss

GSM
Functions of Mobile Station
Voice and data transmission
Frequency and time synchronization
Monitoring of power and signal quality of
the surrounding cells
Provision of location updates even during
inactive state
Equalization of multi path distortions
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RTTC, Nagpur

GSM
Mobile Station - Power Levels
Power
Class
1
2
3
4
5
5/22/15

Max. Peak
Power
20W
(43 dBm)
8W
(39 dBm)
5W
(37 dBm)
2W
(33 dBm)
0.8W
(29 dBm)
RTTC, Nagpur

Tolerance (dB)
Normal Extreme
+/- 2
+/- 2.5
+/- 2

+/- 2.5

+/- 2

+/- 2.5

+/- 2

+/- 2.5

+/- 2

+/- 2.5
6

Vehicle
mounted

GSM
SIM Card

SIM Module
Unique Subscribers ID IMSI and ISDN
PIN( Personal Identification Number)
Key Ki
, Kc and A3,A5 and A8
algorithms
SIM has CPU, ROM, RAM and EPROM
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( Identification Key)

RTTC, Nagpur

GSM
Mobile Identification Numbers

IMEI
MSISDN
IMSI
TMSI
MSRN

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RTTC, Nagpur

RADIO SUB SYSTEM (RSS)

MSC/VLR

BSC

BSC
BSC

RSS
RSS
n BTS
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RTTC, Nagpur

n BTS
16

GSM
FUNCTION OF BTS -I

Encodes, encrypts, multiplexes, modulates and


feeds the RF signals to the antenna

Transcoding and rate adaption Functionality

Time and frequency synchronisation signals


transmission.

11 power classes from .01 watts to 320 watts

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GSM
FUNCTION OF BTS -II
Frequency hopping
Random access detection
Uplink radio channel measurements
BTS mainly consists of a set of transceivers
(TRX).
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RTTC, Nagpur

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GSM
FUNCTIONS OF BSC-I

It is connected to BTS and offloads MSC


Radio resource management
Inter-cell handover
Reallocation of frequencies
Power control

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RTTC, Nagpur

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Network and Switching


Subsystem (NSS)
SS7 Signalling
Traffic Path

VLR

D
C

HLR

AUC
E

EIR

Other
MSC

MSC

(PSTN)
(BSS)
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RTTC, Nagpur

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GSM
MSC ( MOBILE SWITCHING CENTRE)
Manages communication between GSM &
other network
Call setup functions, basic switching are done
MSC takes into account the RR allocation in
addition to normal exchange functions
MSC does gateway function while its customers
roams to other network by using HLR /VLR

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RTTC, Nagpur

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INTERWORKING FUNCTION
-It provide the Interfacing Capability to Data N/Ws.
-IMF. A part of MSC, provides the subscriber with
access to data rate and protocol conversion facilities so
that data can be transmitted between GSM Data
Terminal Equipment ( DTE ) and a land line DTE.

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RTTC, Nagpur

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GSM
Home Location Register(HLR)-I
Reference store for subscribers parameters, numbers,
authentication & Encryption values.
Current subscriber status and associated VLR.
Both VLR and HLR can be implemented in the
same equipment in an MSC.
one PLMN may contain one or several HLR.
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RTTC, Nagpur

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GSM
Home Location Register(HLR)-II
Permanent data in HLR
Data stored is changed only by man-machine.
IMSI, MS-ISDN number.
Category of MS ( whether pay phone or not )
Roaming restriction ( allowed or not ).
Supplementary services like call forwarding
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RTTC, Nagpur

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GSM
Home Location Register(HLR)-III
Temporary data in HLR
The data changes from call to call & is dynamic
MSRN
RAND /SRES and Kc
VLR address , MSC address.
Messages waiting data used for SMS
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GSM
VISITOR LOCATION REGISTER (VLR)-I
It controls those mobiles roaming in its area.
VLR reduces the number of queries to HLR
One VLR may be incharge of one or more LA.
VLR is updated by HLR on entry of MS its area.

VLR assigns TMSI which keeps on changing.

IMSI detach and attach operation


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GSM
Data in VLR

IMSI & TMSI


MSISDN
MSRN.
Location Area
Supplementary service parameters
MS category
Authentication Key

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RTTC, Nagpur

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GSM
AUTHENTICATION CENTRE (AUC )-I
AUC is a separate entity and physically
included in HLR
Protect against intruders in air interface
Authentication (Ki) and ciphering (Kc) key are
stored in this data base.
Keys change randomly with each call
Keys are never transmitted to MS on air Only
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RTTC, Nagpur
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calculated response
are sent.

AUTHENTICATION & ENCRIPTION


AUC
Database
IMSI1

ki1

IMSI2

ki2
ki3

IMSI3

Generation
of Random
Number
RAND
5/22/15

SRES RAND

Kc
Algorithm for
Ciphering
A8
Algorithm for
Authenticatio
n
A3

RTTC, Nagpur

Kc
64 bits
SRES
32 bits
RAND
33

HLR

GSM
EQUIPMENT IDENTITY REGISTER ( EIR )
This data base stores IMEI for all registered mobile
equipments and is unique to every ME.
Only one EIR per PLMN.
White list : IMEI, assigned to valid ME.
Black list : IMEI reported stolen
Gray list : IMEI having problems like faulty software,
wrong make of equipment etc.
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Operations and Maintenance Centre


OMC
The centralized operation of the various units in
the system and functions needed to maintain the
subsystems.
Dynamic monitoring and controlling of the
network

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functions

Functions Of OMC

-O&M data function

-Configuration management
--Fault report and alarm handling
-Performance supervision/management
-Storage of system software and data

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GSM
Uplink & Downlink
Frequency Bands
GSM 900 Mhz
DCS 1800 MHz

K
N
I
L
UP
NL
W
O
D
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K
N
I

RTTC, Nagpur

B
T
S

43

GSM Specifications
RF
Spectrum :
GSM 900
Mobile to BS
BS to Mobile
MHz

(UP-LINK)

- 890 to 915 MHz

(DOWN -LINK) -

935 to 960

Bandwidth - 25 MHz
GSM 1800 ( DCS )
Mobile to Cell (UP-LINK)
- 1710 to 1785 MHz
Cell to Mobile (DOWN -LINK) 1805 to 1880 MHz
Bandwidth - 75 MHz
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GSM Specifications

Carrier Separation

- 200 kHz

Duplex Distance

- 45 MHz

No. of RF Carriers

- 124

Access Method

- TDMA/FDMA

Modulation Method

- GMSK

Transmission Rate

- 270.833 Kbps

Speech Coding

- Full rate 13 Kbps


Half rate 6.5

Kbps
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RTTC, Nagpur

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GSM
LOGICAL CHANNELS
USER INFORMATION( TRAFFIC)
SIGNALLING INFORMATION (CONTROL)

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GSM
CONTOL CHHANELS OVER LOGICAL CHANNELS
Intended to carry signalling and synchronisation
THREE TYPES OF CONTROL CHANNELS
Broadcast control channel BCCH
Common control channel CCCH
Dedicated control channel DCCH

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GSM
THREE TYPES OF CONTROL CHANNELS
Broadcast control channel BCCH
P- MP
For Freq Correction
For Syncronisation
Common control channel CCCH
For ACCESS Management

PCH
RACH
AGCH

Dedicated control channel DCCH


P- P
5/22/15

For Registration
,authentication
& Handover

RTTC, Nagpur

FCCH
SCH
BCCH

55

SDCCH
SACCH
FACCH

OPERATIONAL CONCEPTS
IDLE MODE
-

When MS is powered on (active)


without being in dedicated mode

MS stays continuously in touch with BS

Listens to transmissions from BS to


intercept
Messages
( for incomingincalls)
Paging
Monitors
Radio Environment
order to evaluate Chl
Quality & choose the most suitable BS
Listens to BS to avail short message broadcast service

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RTTC, Nagpur

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OPERATIONAL CONCEPTS
ACCESS PROCEDURE
-- Access to system
( switch over from IDLE to DEDICATED Mode)

MS indicates to BS that it needs a connection

BS accepts the request & indicates which


traffic CHL it may use

For above purpose specific transmission is done over


Common Channels

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RTTC, Nagpur

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OPERATIONAL CONCEPTS
MOBILE O/G Call

MS sends access over RACH

System allocates SDCCH through AGCH

Set up information exchanged over SDCCH


( Authentication , Measurement Reports, Power Control)
Lastly TCH is assigned through SDCCH when a
conversation can start

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RTTC, Nagpur

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OPERATIONAL CONCEPTS
MOBILE I/C Call

Paging to MS through PCH since MS is monitoring PAGCH

MS responds by sending a page response over RACH

As a result system allocates SDCCH to MS over AGCH

Set up information exchanged over SDCCH


( Authentication, Call set-up messages , Power Control)
Lastly TCH

is allocated to mobile over SDCCH .

Mobile starts conversation.

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RTTC, Nagpur

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OPERATIONAL CONCEPTS
IDLE MODE

ACCESS PROCDURE DEDICATED MODE

IDLE MODE

----FCCH
---- SCH
----BCCH

MS O/G Call

----RACH
----AGCH
----SDCCH
----TCH

MS I/C Call

----PCH
----RACH
----AGCH
----SDCCH
----TCH

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GSM - RADIO INTERFACE


SUMMARY
Radio Interface
Frequency Bands & Specifications
Multiple Access Method FDMA & TDMA
FDMA /TDMA Frame Representation
Modulation Method
Logical Channels Traffic & Control
Operational Concepts
Other Salient Features of RF I/F- DTX, Time Alignment
Diversity, Fr. Hopping,
Power Control.
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RTTC, Nagpur
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MOBILE COMMUNICATION

THANKS !!

5/22/15

RTTC, Nagpur

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