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EE Correlation

Engineering Sciences and


Allied Subjects

CHEMISTRY

CHEMISTRY
Defined as the science that deals with the
study of the structure and properties of matter
and the principles governing the changes it
undergoes

Branches:

1. Organic study of carbon compounds


2. Inorganic study of all the properties and
characteristics of other elements
3. Analytical analysis and identification of
substances
4. Physical concerned with the natural laws and
principles governing both physical and chemical
changes
5. Biochemistry concerned with materials found in

Elements in the study of


Matter anything that occupies space and
Chemistry

has mass
Mass the amount of matter present in a
substance
Weight is the force needed to pull matter
towards the center of the earth

Properties of Matter

Defined as characteristics that differentiate a


substance from all other substances

Properties of Matter
Intrinsic are properties that are independent of
the size and shape of a substance. Example:
temperature, pressure
Extrinsic are properties that are related to size
and shape. Example: volume, mass
Physical properties that matter can show
without being destroyed
Chemical are properties which matter can show
by losing its identity
Exothermic Changes are physical or chemical
changes that causes the release of energy from
the substance to its surroundings
Endothermic Changes are physical or chemical
changes where energy is absorbed by a
substance

Classification of Matter
Pure Substance a form of matter that cannot be
separated into two or more forms except by
means of a chemical change. It is also
characterized as having definite composition
and a definite boiling point.
a. Elements are pure substances that cannot
be decomposed further into simpler substances
by means of chemical change
b. Compounds a pure substance with
characterized by constant composition that can
be broken down into elements by means of a
chemical process

Classification of Matter
Mixture a form of matter that can be separated
into pure substances by means of physical
change. These substances have no definite
composition nor boiling point.
a. Homogeneous mixtures whose
composition are uniform and are not readily
distinguishable. Solutions are considered as
homogeneous mixtures.
b. Heterogeneous mixtures whose parts are
readily visible and easily identifiable. Colloids
are considered as heterogeneous mixtures.

Classification of Matter
MATTER
Pure Substance

Element

Compound

Metals

Non-Metals

Mixture

Homogeneous

Heterogeneous

Laws governing chemical


changes

Law of Conservation of Mass Matter can


neither be created nor destroyed
Law of Conservation of Energy Matter can
neither be created nor destroyed but can be
transformed from one form to another. Proposed
by Antoine Lavoisier.
Law of Definite Composition Atoms combine
in specific ratios when they form compounds. A
pure compound is always made up of the same
constituent elements combined in definite
proportion by weight
Law of Multiple Proportion When two
elements react to form one compound, the
different weights of one that combine with the

Atomic Theory Atomic


Structure
Atom the smallest particle of matter; derived
from the greek word atomos, which means
uncut or indivisible
Molecule the smallest particle in a compound
Anode positively-charged electrode
Cathode negatively-charged electrode

Sub-atomic particles
Particle

Mass

Charge

Electron

9.11 x 10-28 g

(-) 1.6 x 10-19 C

Proton

1.67 x 10-24 g

1.6 x 10-19 C

Neutron

1.67 x 10-24 g

Atomic Number
Equal to the number of protons in the nucleus of an
atom

Mass Number / Atomic


Weight
Equal to the sum of the number of protons and the
number of neutrons in an atom

Formula Weight
Used for compounds made up of ions and that
primarily have ionic bonds
Example: Formula weight of H20:
H=2x1
=2
O = 1 x 16
= 16
Formula Weight = 18 amu

Molecular Weight
Used for compounds made up of molecules and
that primarily have covalent bonds

Mole
A counting number unit that consists of 6.022 x
1023 particles (atoms, molecules or ions). This
number is called Avogadros number

MOLE = (mass) / (molecular


weight)
Example: Calculate the number of molecules in
24.5 g of CO2.

Example: Calculate the volume in cubic cm


occupied by 3.5 x 1026 atoms of aluminum if the
density of Al is 2.70 g/cm3.

Methods of expressing solution


Percent by mass
concentration
%M = (mass of substance) /
(mass of solution)
Percent by volume
%V = (volume of substance) / (volume
of solution)
Weight volume fraction (W/V)
W/V = (weight of solute, g) / (volume of
solution, ml)
Mole fraction (nf)
nf = (moles of solute) / (moles of
solution)

Methods of expressing solution


Molarity (M)
concentration
M = (moles of solute) / (volume
of solution)
Molality (m)
m = (moles of solute) / (kilograms of
solution)
Normality (N)
N = (equivalent of solute) / (liters of
solution)
Where:
equivalent of solute = (weight nfe) /
(molecular weight)
nfe = number of free electrons

Balancing Equations
STEPS:

Count the number of atoms of each element on


the reactant side and product side
Find out which atoms are unbalanced
Balance one element at a time by assigning
coefficients to each compound or formula
Verify whether balance has been achieved

Types of chemical reactions


Synthesis / Direct Combination
Two or more substances (elements or
compounds) react to form one product

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

A+B
AB
Metal + Non-metal Binary compound (oxide,
sulfide, halide)
Non-metal + Oxygen Non-metal oxide
Metal + Oxygen Metal Oxide
Non-metal oxide + Water Oxyacid
Metal Oxide + Water Metal Hydroxide (base)
Metal Oxide + Non-metal Oxide Salt

Types of chemical reactions


Decomposition
A compound decomposes into two or more new
substances. The products formed by this
reaction may either be elements or compounds.
Heat is often necessary to cause this reaction.

AB
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

A+

B
Hydrates Water + Anhydrous salt
Chlorates Chlorides + Oxygen
Metal Oxides Metal + Oxygen
Carbonates Oxide + CO2
Bicarbonates Oxide + Water + CO2

Types of chemical reactions


Replacement / Single Displacement
An element reacts by replacing another element
in a compound
A + BC
AC + B
Metathesis / Double Displacement
Two compounds react to form two new
compounds.

AB + CD
AC + BD

Types of chemical reactions

Neutralization
A reaction that involves an acid or non-metal
oxide and a base or metal oxide, forming salt
and water.
1. Acid + Base Water + Salt
2. Metal oxide (basic anhydride) + Acid Water +
Salt
3. Non-metal oxide (acid anhydride) + Base
Water + Salt
4. Basic Oxide (metal oxide) + Acid Oxide (nonmetal oxide) Salt
5. Ammonia + Acid Ammonium Salt

Example: EE Board September 2003


What is the mass in grams of 1 liter of carbon
monoxide at standard temperature and pressure
(STP)? The molecular weight of CO is 28 g/mole,
and at STP, 1 mole of any gas occupies a volume of
22.4 liters.

Example: EE Board April 2003


A 0.064 kg of octane vapor (MW = 114) is mixed with
0.91 kg of air (MW = 29) in the manifold of an
engine. The total pressure in the manifold is 86.1
kPa, and the temperature is 290 K. Assume octane
behaves ideally. What is the partial pressure of the
air in the mixture in kPa?

Example: EE Board April 2003


Hydrogen peroxide solution for hair bleaching is
usually prepared by mixing 5 grams of hydrogen
peroxide (H2O2, MW = 34 g/mole) per 100 ml of
solution. What is the molarity of the solution?

Example: EE Board April 2001


The molecular diameter of CO is 3.19 x 10-8 at 300 K
and pressure of 100 mmHg. What is the mean free
path of the gas in cm?

Example: EE Board March 1998


When 0.5 g of liquid is completely evaporated and
collected in a liter manometer, the pressure is 0.25
atm and the temperature is 27C. Assuming ideal
gas behavior, find the molecular weight if the gas
constant is 0.0821 L-atm/mole-K.

QUIZ

1. What is the molecular weight of barium chloride


dehydrate (BaCl2 2H2O)?
2. How many grams of H3PO4 are confined in a 700 ml
container if its normality is 0.5?
3. What is the molality of the solution that contains 65
g of sucrose (C12H22011) dissolved in 300 g of water?
4. How many moles of oxygen are in a 70L tank at
25C if the pressure is 2000 psi?
5. Calculate how many moles of ammonia can be
produced from 8 moles of hydrogen reacting with
oxygen.