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CE 498 Design Project
September 26, 2006








Why concrete?
Concrete is particularly suited for this application
because it will not warp or undergo change in
When properly designed and placed it is nearly
impermeable and extremely resistant to corrosion
Has good resistance to natural and processing
Economical but requires significant quality control
What type of structure?
Our focus will be conventionally reinforced cast-inplace or precast concrete structures
Basically rectangular and/or circular tanks
No prestressed tanks

How should we calculate loads?
Design loads determined from the depth and unit
weight of retained material (liquid or solid), the
external soil pressure, and the equipment to be
Compared to these loads, the actual live loads are
Impact and dynamical loads from some equipments
What type of analysis should be done?
The analysis must be accurate to obtain a
reasonable picture of the stress distribution in the
structure, particularly the tension stresses
Complicated 3D FEM analysis are not required. Simple
analysis using tabulated results in handbooks etc.

What are the objective of the design?
The structure must be designed such that it is watertight,
with minimum leakage or loss of contained volume.
The structure must be durable it must last for several
years without undergoing deterioration
How do you get a watertight structure?
Concrete mix design is well-proportioned and it is well
consolidated without segregation
Crack width is minimized
Adequate reinforcing steel is used
Impervious protective coating or barriers can also be

This is not as economical and dependable as the approach

of mix design, stress & crack control, and adequate

How to design the concrete mix?
The concrete mix can be designed to have low
permeability by using low water-cement ratio and
extended periods of moist curing
Use water reducing agents and pozzolans to reduce
How to reduce cracking?
Cracking can be minimized by proper design,
distribution of reinforcement, and joint spacing.
Shrinkage cracking can be minimized by using joint
design and shrinkage reinforcement distributed

How to increase durability?
Concrete should be resistant to the actions of
chemicals, alternate wetting and drying, and
freeze-thaw cycles
Air-entrainment in the concrete mix helps improve
durability. Add air-entrainment agents
Reinforcement must have adequate cover to
prevent corrosion
Add good quality fly-ash or pozzolans
Use moderately sulphate-resistant cement


All the loads for the structure design can be

obtained from ASCE 7 (2006), which is the standard
for minimum design loads for building structures
endorsed by IBC
Content loads

Raw Sewage 63 lb/ft3

Grit from grit chamber .. 110 lb/ft3
Digested sludge aerobic. 65 lb/ft3
Digested sludge anerobic 70 lb/ft3
For other numbers see ACI 350.

Live loads

Catwalks etc 100 lb/ft2

Heavy equipment room 300 lb/ft2


When using the LRFD (strength or limit states design

approach), the load factors and combinations from ACI
318 can be used directly with one major adjustment

The load factors for both the lateral earth pressure H and
the lateral liquid pressure F should be taken as 1.7

The factored load combination U as prescribed in ACI

318 must be increased by durability coefficients
developed from crack width calculation methods:

In calculations for reinforcement in flexure, the required

strength should be 1.3 U
In calculations for reinforcement in direct tension,
including hoop tension, the required strength should be
1.65 U
The required design strength for reinforcement in shear
should be calculated as Vs> 1.3 (Vu-Vc)
For compression use 1.0 U


Large reinforced concrete reservoirs on

compressible soil may be considered as beams on
elastic foundations.
Sidewalls of rectangular tanks and reservoirs can be
designed as either: (a) cantilever walls fixed at the
bottom, or (b) walls supported at two or more
Circular tanks normally resist the pressure from
contents by ring tension
Walls supporting both interior water loads and
exterior soil pressure must be designed to support
the full effects of each load individually

Cannot use one load to minimize the other, because

sometimes the tank is empty.


Large diameter tanks expand and contract

appreciably as they are filled and drained.

The connection between wall and footing should

either permit these movements or be strong enough
to resist them without cracking

The analysis of rectangular wall panels supported at

three or four sides is explained in detail in the PCA
publication that is available in the library and on
hold for the course

It contains tabulated coefficients for calculating stress

distributions etc. for different boundary conditions
and can be used directly for design
It also includes some calculation and design examples


Reinforced concrete walls at least 10 ft. high that are in

contact with liquids should have a minimum thickness
of 12 in.

For crack control, it is preferable to use a large number

of small diameter bars for main reinforcement rather
than an equal are of larger bars

The minimum thickness of any minor member is 6 in.,

and when 2 in. cover is required then it is at least 8 in.

Maximum bar spacing should not exceed 12 in.

The amount of shrinkage and temperature

reinforcement is a function of the distance between
joints in the direction

Shrinkage and temperature reinforcement should not be

less thank the ratios given in Figure 2.5 or ACI 350
The reinforcement should not be spaced more than 12 in.
and should be divided equally between the two surfaces


Figure showing minimum shrinkage reinforcement

and table showing minimum cover for
reinforcement required


In order to prevent leakage, the strain in the

tension reinforcement has to be limited

The strain in the reinforcing bars is transferred to the

surrounding concrete, which cracks.
Hence, minimizing the stress and strain in the
reinforcing bar will minimize cracking in the concrete.
Additionally, distributing the tension reinforcement
will engage a greater area of the concrete in carrying
the strain, which will reduce cracking even more.

The strength design requires the use of loads, load

combinations and durability coefficients presented


Serviceability for normal exposures

For flexural reinforcement located in one layer, the
quantity Z (crack control factor of ACI) should not
exceed 115 kips/in.
The designer can use the basic Gergley-Lutz
equation for crack width for one way flexural
The reinforcement for two-way flexural member
may be proportioned in each direction using the
above recommendation too.
Alternate design by the working stress method with
allowable stress values given and tabulated in ACI
350. Do not recommend this method for us.


Impact, vibration, and torque issues

When heavy machines are involved, an appropriate
impact factor of 1.25 can be used in the design
Most of the mechanical equipment such as
scrapers, clarifiers, flocculators, etc. are slow
moving and will not cause structural vibrations
Machines that cause vibration problems are forceddraft fans and centrifuges for dewatering clarifier
sludge or digester sludge
The key to successful dynamic design is to make
sure that the natural frequency of the support
structure is significantly different from frequency of
disturbing force


To minimize resonant vibrations, ratio of the natural

frequency of the structure to the frequency of the
disturbing force must not be in the range of 0.5 to
It should preferably be greater than 1.5
Methods for computing the structure frequency are
presented in ACI 350 (please review if needed)
Torque is produced in most clarifiers where the
entire mechanism is supported on a central column

This column must be designed to resist the torque

shear without undergoing failure


The cement should conform to:

Portland cement ASTM C150, Types I, IA, II, IIA, .

Blended hydraulic cement ASTM C595
Expansive hydraulic cement ASTM C845
They cannot be used interchangeably in the same

Sulfate-resistant cement must have C3A content not

exceeding 8%. This is required for concrete exposed
to moderate sulfate acctak (150 to 1000 ppm)

Portland blast furnace slab cement (C595 may be

Portland pozzolan cement (C595 IP) can also be used
But, pozzolan content not exceed 25% by weight of
cementitous materials


The air entraining admixture should conform to


Improves resistant to freeze-thaw cycles

Improves workability and less shrinkage

If chemical admixtures are used, they should meet

ASTM C494. The use of water reducing admixtures
is recommended
The maximum water-soluble chloride ion content,
expressed as a % of cement, contributed by all
ingredients of the concrete mix should not exceed


Mix proportioning all material should be proportioned

to produce a well-graded mix of high density and

Type of cement as mentioned earlier

Maximum water-cement ratio = 0.45

28 day compressive strength of 3500 psi where the

concrete is not exposed to severe weather and freeze-thaw
28 day compressive strength of 4000 psi where the
concrete is exposed to severe weather and freeze-thaw

If pozzolan is used, the maximum water-cement + pozzolan

ratio should be 0.45

Minimum cementitious material content

1.5 in. aggregate max 517 lb/yd3

1 in. aggregate max 536 lb/yd3
0.75 in. aggregate max 564 lb/yd3


Air entrainment requirements

5.5 1 % for 1.5 in. aggregate

6.0 1 % for 1.0 or 0.75 in. aggregate

Slump requirements

1 in. minimum and 4 in. maximum

Concrete placement according to ACI 350 (read

when you get a chance)

Curing using sprinkling, ponding, using moisture

retaining covers, or applying a liquid membraneforming compound seal coat

Moist or membrane curing should commence

immediately after form removal


Concrete made with proper material design will be

dense, watertight, and resistant to most chemical
attack. Under ordinary service conditions, it does
not require additional protection against chemical
deterioration or corrosion
Reinforcement embedded in quality concrete is well
protected against corrosive chemicals
There are only special cases where additional
protective coatings or barriers are required

The steel bars must be epoxy coated (ASTM A775)

In special cases, where H2S evolves in a stagnant
unventilated environment that is difficult or
uneconomical to correct or clean regularly, a coating
may be required


ACI 350 (1989)

Books on reserve in the library
Emails from Jeffrey Ballard, structural engineer,
HNTB. He will visit to talk with us soon.

CE 498 Design Project
November 16, 21, 2006









Conventionally reinforced circular concrete tanks

have been used extensively. They will be the focus
of our lecture today
Structural design must focus on both the strength
and serviceability. The tank must withstand applied
loads without cracks that would permit leakage.
This is achieved by:

Providing proper reinforcement and distribution

Proper spacing and detailing of construction joints
Use of quality concrete placed using proper
construction procedures

A thorough review of the latest report by ACI 350 is

important for understanding the design of tanks.


The tank must be designed to withstand the loads

that it will be subjected to during many years of
use. Additionally, the loads during construction
must also be considered.
Loading conditions for partially buried tank.

The tank must be designed and detailed to withstand

the forces from each of these loading conditions


The tank may also be subjected to uplift forces from

hydrostatic pressure at the bottom when empty.
It is important to consider all possible loading
conditions on the structure.
Full effects of the soil loads and water pressure
must be designed for without using them to
minimize the effects of each other.
The effects of water table must be considered for
the design loading conditions.


Two approaches exist for the design of RC members

The use of strength design was considered

inappropriate due to the lack of reliable assessment
of crack widths at service loads.

Strength design, and allowable stress design.

Strength design is the most commonly adopted
procedure for conventional buildings

Advances in this area of knowledge in the last two

decades has led to the acceptance of strength design

The recommendations for strength design suggest

inflated load factors to control service load crack
widths in the range of 0.004 0.008 in.

Design Methods

Service state analyses of RC structures should

include computations of crack widths and their long
term effects on the structure durability and
functional performance.
The current approach for RC design include
computations done by a modified form of elastic
analysis for composite reinforced steel/concrete

The effects of creep, shrinkage, volume changes, and

temperature are well known at service level
The computed stresses serve as the indices of
performance of the structure.


The load combinations to determine the required

strength (U) are given in ACI 318. ACI 350 requires two

Modification 1 the load factor for lateral liquid pressure

is taken as 1.7 rather than 1.4. This may be over
conservative due to the fact that tanks are filled to the
top only during leak testing or accidental overflow
Modification 2 The members must be designed to meet
the required strength. The ACI required strength U must
be increased by multiplying with a sanitary coefficient

The increased design loads provide more conservative

design with less cracking.
Required strength = Sanitary coefficient X U
Where, sanitary coefficient = 1.3 for flexure, 1.65 for direct
tension, and 1.3 for shear beyond the capacity provided by
the concrete.


The walls of circular tanks are subjected to ring or

hoop tension due to the internal pressure and
restraint to concrete shrinkage.

Any significant cracking in the tank is unacceptable.

The tensile stress in the concrete (due to ring tension
from pressure and shrinkage) has to kept at a
minimum to prevent excessive cracking.
The concrete tension strength will be assumed 10%
fc in this document.

RC walls 10 ft. or higher shall have a minimum

thickness of 12 in.
The concrete wall thickness will be calculated as


Effects of shrinkage

Figure 2(a) shows a block of concrete

with a re-bar. The block height is 1 ft,
t corresponds to the wall thickness,
the steel area is As, and the steel
percentage is

Figure 2(b) shows the behavior of the

block assuming that the re-bar is
absent. The block will shorten due to
shrinkage. C is the shrinkage per unit

Figure 2(c) shows the behavior of the

block when the re-bar is present. The
re-bar restrains some shortening.

The difference in length between Fig.

2(b) and 2(c) is xC, an unknown


The re-bar restrains shrinkage of the concrete. As a

result, the concrete is subjected to tension, the re-bar
to compression, but the section is in force equilibrium

Concrete tensile stress is fcs = xCEc

Steel compressive stress is fss= (1-x)CEs

Section force equilibrium. So, fss=fcs

The resulting stresses are:




The concrete stress due to an applied ring or hoop

tension of T will be equal to:

Solve for x from above equation for force equilibrium

T * Ec/(EcAc+EsAs) = T * 1/[Ac+nAs] = T/[Ac(1+n)]

The total concrete tension stress = [CEsAs + T]/



The usual procedure in tank design is to provide

horizontal steel As for all the ring tension at an
allowable stress fs as though designing for a cracked

Assume As=T/fs and realize Ac=12t

Substitute in equation on previous slide to calculate
tension stress in the concrete.
Limit the max. concrete tension stress to fc = 0.1 fc
Then, the wall thickness can be calculated as
t = [CEs+fsnfc]/[12fcfs]* T

This formula can be used to estimate the wall thickness

The values of C, coefficient of shrinkage for RC is in the

range of 0.0002 to 0.0004.
Use the value of C=0.0003
Assume fs= allowable steel tension =18000 psi
Therefore, wall thickness t=0.0003 T


The allowable steel stress fs should not be made too

small. Low fs will actually tend to increase the
concrete stress and potential cracking.

For example, the concrete stress = fc = [CEs+fs]/

For the case of T=24,000 lb, n=8, Es=29*106 psi,
C=0.0003 and Ac=12 x 10 = 120 in3
If the allowable steel stress is reduced from 20,000
psi to 10,000 psi, the resulting concrete stress is
increased from 266 psi to 322 psi.
Desirable to use a higher allowable steel stress.


The amount size and spacing

of reinforcement has a great
effect on the extent of

The amount must be

sufficient for strength and
serviceability including
temperature and shrinkage
The amount of temperature
and shrinkage reinforcement
is dependent on the length
between construction joints


The size of re-bars should be chosen recognizing

that cracking can be better controlled by using
larger number of small diameter bars rather than
fewer large diameter bars
The size of reinforcing bars should not exceed #11.
Spacing of re-bars should be limited to a maximum
of 12 in. Concrete cover should be at least 2 in.
In circular tanks the locations of horizontal splices
should be staggered by not less than one lap length
or 3 ft.

Reinforcement splices should confirm to ACI 318

Chapter 12 of ACI 318 for determining splice lengths.
The length depends on the class of splice, clear cover,
clear distance between adjacent bars, and the size of
the bar, concrete used, bar coating etc.


Crack widths must be minimized in tank walls to

prevent leakage and corrosion of reinforcement
A criterion for flexural crack width is provided in ACI
318. This is based on the Gergely-Lutz equation

Where z = quantity limiting distribution of flexural rebar

dc = concrete cover measured from extreme tension
fiber to center of bar located closest.
A = effective tension area of concrete surrounding the
flexural tension reinforcement having the same
centroid as the reinforcement, divided by the number
of bars.


In ACI 350, the cover is taken equal to 2.0 in. for any
cover greater than 2.0 in.
Rearranging the equation and solving for the
maximum bar spacing give: max spacing = z3/(2 dc2
Using the limiting value of z given by ACI 350, the
maximum bar spacing can be computed

For ACI 350, z has a limiting value of 115 k/in.

For severe environmental exposures, z = 95 k/in.


Wall with fixed base and free top; triangular load

Wall with hinged base and free top; triangular load
and trapezoidal load
Wall with shear applied at top
Wall with shear applied at base
Wall with moment applied at top
Wall with moment applied at base


In practice, it would be rare that a base would be

fixed against rotation and such an assumption
would lead to an improperly designed wall.
For the tank structure, assume

Height = H = 20 ft.
Diameter of inside = D = 54 ft.
Weight of liquid = w = 62.5 lb/ft3
Shrinkage coefficient = C = 0.0003
Elasticity of steel = Es = 29 x 106 psi

Ratio of Es/Ec = n = 8

Concrete compressive strength = fc = 4000 psi

Yield strength of reinforcement = fy = 60,000 psi


It is difficult to predict the behavior of the subgrade

and its effect upon restraint at the base. But, it is more
reasonable to assume that the base is hinged rather
than fixed, which results in more conservative design.
For a wall with a hinged base and free top, the
coefficients to determine the ring tension, moments,
and shears in the tank wall are shown in Tables A-5, A7, and A-12 of the Appendix
Each of these tables, presents the results as functions
of H2/Dt, which is a parameter.

The values of thickness t cannot be calculated till the ring

tension T is calculated.
Assume, thickness = t = 10 in.
Therefore, H2/Dt = (202)/(54 x 10/12) = 8.89 (approx. 9

Table A-5 showing the ring tension values

Table A-7, A-12 showing the moment and



In these tables, 0.0 H corresponds to the top of the

tank, and 1.0 H corresponds to the bottom of the
The ring tension per foot of height is computed by
multiplying wu HR by the coefficients in Table A-5 for
the values of H2/Dt=9.0
wu for the case of ring tension is computed as:

wu = sanitary coefficient x (1.7 x Lateral Forces)

wu = 1.65 x (1.7 x 62.5) = 175.3 lb/ft3
Therefore, wu HR = 175.3 x 20 x 54/2 = 94, 662 lb/ft3

The value of wu HR corresponds to the behavior

where the base is free to slide. Since, it cannot do
that, the value of wu HR must be multiplied by
coefficients from Table A-5


A plus sign indicates tension, so there is a slight

compression at the top, but it is very small.

The ring tension is zero at the base since it is

assumed that the base has no radial displacement
Figure compares the ring tension for tanks with free
sliding base, fixed base, and hinged base.


Which case is conservative? (Fixed or hinged base)

The amount of ring steel required is given by:

As = maximum ring tension / (0.9 Fy)

As = 67494/(0.9 * 60000) = 1.25 in2/ft.

Therefore at 0.7H use #6bars spaced at 8 in. on

center in two curtains.
Resulting As = 1.32in2/ft.
The reinforcement along the height of the wall can be
determined similarly, but it is better to have the same
bar and spacing.

Concrete cracking check

The maximum tensile stress in the concrete under

service loads including the effects of shrinkage is
fc = [CEsAs + Tmax, unfactored]/[Ac+nAs] = 272 psi < 400 psi
Therefore, adequate


The moments in vertical wall strips

that are considered 1 ft. wide are
computed by multiplying wuH3 by
the coefficients from table A-7.

The value of wu for flexure =

sanitary coefficient x (1.7 x lateral
Therefore, wu = 1.3 x 1.7 x 62.5 =
138.1 lb/ft3
Therefore wuH3 = 138.1 x 203 =
1,104,800 ft-lb/ft

The computed moments along the

height are shown in the Table.
The figure includes the moment for
both the hinged and fix conditions


The actual restraint is somewhere in between fixed

and hinged, but probably closer to hinged.

For the exterior face, the hinged condition provides a

conservative although not wasteful design
Depending on the fixity of the base, reinforcing may be
required to resist moment on the interior face at the
lower portion of the wall.

The required reinforcement for the outside face of

the wall for a maximum moment of 5,524 ft-lb/ft. is:

Mu/( fc bd2) = 0.0273 (where d = t cover

From the standard design aid of Appendix A, take the
value of 0.0273 and obtain a value for from the Table.
Required As = bdfc/fy = 0.167 in2


=0.167/(12 x 7.5) = 0.00189

min = 200/Fy = 0.0033 > 0.00189
Use #5 bars at the maximum allowable spacing of 12 in.

As = 0.31 in2 and = 0.0035

The shear capacity of a 10 in. wall with fc=4000 psi is

Vc = 2 (fc)0.5 bwd = 11,384 kips

Therefore, Vc = 0.85 x 11,284 = 9676 kips

The applied shear is given by multiplying w u H2 with

the coefficient from Table A-12

The value of wu is determined with sanitary coefficient =

1.0 (assuming that no steel rft. will be needed)
wuH2 = 1.0 x 1.7 x 62.5 x 202 = 42,520 kips
Applied shear = Vu = 0.092 x wuH2 = 3912 kips < Vc


The cylindrical shape is structurally best suited for

tank construction, but rectangular tanks are
frequently preferred for specific purposes

Rectangular tanks can be used instead of circular

tanks when the footprint needs to be reduced
Rectangular tanks are used where partitions or tanks
with more than one cell are needed.

The behavior of rectangular tanks is different from

the behavior of circular tanks

The behavior of circular tanks is axisymmetric. That is

the reason for our analysis of only unit width of the
The ring tension in circular tanks was uniform around
the circumference


The design of rectangular tanks is very similar in

concept to the design of circular tanks

The loading combinations are the same. The

modifications for the liquid pressure loading factor
and the sanitary coefficient are the same.
The major differences are the calculated moments,
shears, and tensions in the rectangular tank walls.
The requirements for durability are the same for
rectangular and circular tanks. This is related to crack
width control, which is achieved using the Gergely
Lutz parameter z.
The requirements for reinforcement (minimum or
otherwise) are very similar to those for circular tanks.
The loading conditions that must be considered for
the design are similar to those for circular tanks.


The restraint condition at the base is needed to

determine deflection, shears and bending moments for
loading conditions.

Base restraint conditions considered in the publication

include both hinged and fixed edges.
However, in reality, neither of these two extremes
actually exist.
It is important that the designer understand the degree of
restraint provided by the reinforcing that extends into the
footing from the tank wall.
If the designer is unsure, both extremes should be

Buoyancy Forces must be considered in the design


The lifting force of the water pressure is resisted by the

weight of the tank and the weight of soil on top of the slab


Mx = moment per unit width about the xaxis stretching the fibers in the y direction
when the plate is in the x-y plane. This
moment determines the steel in the y
(vertical direction).
My = moment per unit width about the yaxis stretching the fibers in the x direction
when the plate is in the x-y plane. This
moment determines the steel in the x
(horizontal direction).

Mz = moment per unit width about the z-

axis stretching the fibers in the y direction

when the plate is in the y-z plane. This
moment determines the steel in the y
(vertical direction).



Mxy or Myz = torsion or twisting moments for plate or wall in the

x-y and y-z planes, respectively.

All these moments can be computed using the equations

M =(M Coeff.) x q a2/1000

My=(My Coeff.) x q a2/1000

Mz=(Mz Coeff.) x q a2/1000

Mxy=(Mxy Coeff.) x q a2/1000

Myz=(Myz Coeff.) x q a2/1000

These coefficients are presented in Tables 2 and 3 for

rectangular tanks

The shear in one wall becomes axial tension in the adjacent

wall. Follow force equilibrium - explain in class.


The twisting moment effects such as M xy may be used

to add to the effects of orthogonal moments M x and My
for the purpose of determining the steel reinforcement
The Principal of Minimum Resistance may be used for
determining the equivalent orthogonal moments for

Where positive moments produce tension:

Mtx = Mx + |Mxy|

Mty = My + |Mxy|

However, if the calculated M tx < 0,

If the calculated Mty < 0

then Mtx=0 and Mty=My + |Mxy2/Mx| > 0

Then Mty = 0 and Mtx = Mx + |Mxy2/My| > 0

Similar equations for where negative moments produce