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CONCRETE STRUCTURES

CE 498 Design Project

September 26, 2006

OUTLINE

INTRODUCTION

PERFORMANCE CRITERIA

STRUCTURAL DESIGN

ADDITIONAL CRITERIA

INTRODUCTION

Why concrete?

Concrete is particularly suited for this application

because it will not warp or undergo change in

dimensions

When properly designed and placed it is nearly

impermeable and extremely resistant to corrosion

Has good resistance to natural and processing

chemicals

Economical but requires significant quality control

What type of structure?

Our focus will be conventionally reinforced cast-inplace or precast concrete structures

Basically rectangular and/or circular tanks

No prestressed tanks

INTRODUCTION

How should we calculate loads?

Design loads determined from the depth and unit

weight of retained material (liquid or solid), the

external soil pressure, and the equipment to be

installed

Compared to these loads, the actual live loads are

small

Impact and dynamical loads from some equipments

What type of analysis should be done?

The analysis must be accurate to obtain a

reasonable picture of the stress distribution in the

structure, particularly the tension stresses

Complicated 3D FEM analysis are not required. Simple

analysis using tabulated results in handbooks etc.

PERFORMANCE CRITERIA

What are the objective of the design?

The structure must be designed such that it is watertight,

with minimum leakage or loss of contained volume.

The structure must be durable it must last for several

years without undergoing deterioration

How do you get a watertight structure?

Concrete mix design is well-proportioned and it is well

consolidated without segregation

Crack width is minimized

Adequate reinforcing steel is used

Impervious protective coating or barriers can also be

used

of mix design, stress & crack control, and adequate

reinforcem.

PERFORMANCE CRITERIA

How to design the concrete mix?

The concrete mix can be designed to have low

permeability by using low water-cement ratio and

extended periods of moist curing

Use water reducing agents and pozzolans to reduce

permeability.

How to reduce cracking?

Cracking can be minimized by proper design,

distribution of reinforcement, and joint spacing.

Shrinkage cracking can be minimized by using joint

design and shrinkage reinforcement distributed

uniformly

PERFORMANCE CRITERIA

How to increase durability?

Concrete should be resistant to the actions of

chemicals, alternate wetting and drying, and

freeze-thaw cycles

Air-entrainment in the concrete mix helps improve

durability. Add air-entrainment agents

Reinforcement must have adequate cover to

prevent corrosion

Add good quality fly-ash or pozzolans

Use moderately sulphate-resistant cement

obtained from ASCE 7 (2006), which is the standard

for minimum design loads for building structures

endorsed by IBC

Content loads

Grit from grit chamber .. 110 lb/ft3

Digested sludge aerobic. 65 lb/ft3

Digested sludge anerobic 70 lb/ft3

For other numbers see ACI 350.

Live loads

Heavy equipment room 300 lb/ft2

approach), the load factors and combinations from ACI

318 can be used directly with one major adjustment

The load factors for both the lateral earth pressure H and

the lateral liquid pressure F should be taken as 1.7

318 must be increased by durability coefficients

developed from crack width calculation methods:

strength should be 1.3 U

In calculations for reinforcement in direct tension,

including hoop tension, the required strength should be

1.65 U

The required design strength for reinforcement in shear

should be calculated as Vs> 1.3 (Vu-Vc)

For compression use 1.0 U

STRUCTURAL DESIGN

compressible soil may be considered as beams on

elastic foundations.

Sidewalls of rectangular tanks and reservoirs can be

designed as either: (a) cantilever walls fixed at the

bottom, or (b) walls supported at two or more

edges.

Circular tanks normally resist the pressure from

contents by ring tension

Walls supporting both interior water loads and

exterior soil pressure must be designed to support

the full effects of each load individually

sometimes the tank is empty.

STRUCTURAL DESIGN

appreciably as they are filled and drained.

either permit these movements or be strong enough

to resist them without cracking

three or four sides is explained in detail in the PCA

publication that is available in the library and on

hold for the course

distributions etc. for different boundary conditions

and can be used directly for design

It also includes some calculation and design examples

STRUCTURAL DESIGN

contact with liquids should have a minimum thickness

of 12 in.

of small diameter bars for main reinforcement rather

than an equal are of larger bars

and when 2 in. cover is required then it is at least 8 in.

reinforcement is a function of the distance between

joints in the direction

less thank the ratios given in Figure 2.5 or ACI 350

The reinforcement should not be spaced more than 12 in.

and should be divided equally between the two surfaces

STRUCTURAL DESIGN

and table showing minimum cover for

reinforcement required

STRUCTURAL DESIGN

tension reinforcement has to be limited

surrounding concrete, which cracks.

Hence, minimizing the stress and strain in the

reinforcing bar will minimize cracking in the concrete.

Additionally, distributing the tension reinforcement

will engage a greater area of the concrete in carrying

the strain, which will reduce cracking even more.

combinations and durability coefficients presented

earlier

STRUCTURAL DESIGN

For flexural reinforcement located in one layer, the

quantity Z (crack control factor of ACI) should not

exceed 115 kips/in.

The designer can use the basic Gergley-Lutz

equation for crack width for one way flexural

members.

The reinforcement for two-way flexural member

may be proportioned in each direction using the

above recommendation too.

Alternate design by the working stress method with

allowable stress values given and tabulated in ACI

350. Do not recommend this method for us.

STRUCTURAL DESIGN

When heavy machines are involved, an appropriate

impact factor of 1.25 can be used in the design

Most of the mechanical equipment such as

scrapers, clarifiers, flocculators, etc. are slow

moving and will not cause structural vibrations

Machines that cause vibration problems are forceddraft fans and centrifuges for dewatering clarifier

sludge or digester sludge

The key to successful dynamic design is to make

sure that the natural frequency of the support

structure is significantly different from frequency of

disturbing force

STRUCTURAL DESIGN

frequency of the structure to the frequency of the

disturbing force must not be in the range of 0.5 to

1.5.

It should preferably be greater than 1.5

Methods for computing the structure frequency are

presented in ACI 350 (please review if needed)

Torque is produced in most clarifiers where the

entire mechanism is supported on a central column

shear without undergoing failure

MATERIAL DESIGN

Blended hydraulic cement ASTM C595

Expansive hydraulic cement ASTM C845

They cannot be used interchangeably in the same

structure

exceeding 8%. This is required for concrete exposed

to moderate sulfate acctak (150 to 1000 ppm)

used)

Portland pozzolan cement (C595 IP) can also be used

But, pozzolan content not exceed 25% by weight of

cementitous materials

MATERIAL DESIGN

ASTM C260

Improves workability and less shrinkage

ASTM C494. The use of water reducing admixtures

is recommended

The maximum water-soluble chloride ion content,

expressed as a % of cement, contributed by all

ingredients of the concrete mix should not exceed

0.10%

MATERIAL DESIGN

to produce a well-graded mix of high density and

workability

Maximum water-cement ratio = 0.45

concrete is not exposed to severe weather and freeze-thaw

28 day compressive strength of 4000 psi where the

concrete is exposed to severe weather and freeze-thaw

ratio should be 0.45

1 in. aggregate max 536 lb/yd3

0.75 in. aggregate max 564 lb/yd3

MATERIAL DESIGN

6.0 1 % for 1.0 or 0.75 in. aggregate

Slump requirements

when you get a chance)

retaining covers, or applying a liquid membraneforming compound seal coat

immediately after form removal

ADDITIONAL CRITERIA

dense, watertight, and resistant to most chemical

attack. Under ordinary service conditions, it does

not require additional protection against chemical

deterioration or corrosion

Reinforcement embedded in quality concrete is well

protected against corrosive chemicals

There are only special cases where additional

protective coatings or barriers are required

In special cases, where H2S evolves in a stagnant

unventilated environment that is difficult or

uneconomical to correct or clean regularly, a coating

may be required

REFERENCES

Books on reserve in the library

Emails from Jeffrey Ballard, structural engineer,

HNTB. He will visit to talk with us soon.

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

CONCRETE STRUCTURES

CE 498 Design Project

November 16, 21, 2006

OUTLINE

INTRODUCTION

LOADING CONDITIONS

DESIGN METHOD

WALL THICKNESS

REINFORCEMENT

CRACK CONTROL

INTRODUCTION

have been used extensively. They will be the focus

of our lecture today

Structural design must focus on both the strength

and serviceability. The tank must withstand applied

loads without cracks that would permit leakage.

This is achieved by:

Proper spacing and detailing of construction joints

Use of quality concrete placed using proper

construction procedures

important for understanding the design of tanks.

LOADING CONDITIONS

that it will be subjected to during many years of

use. Additionally, the loads during construction

must also be considered.

Loading conditions for partially buried tank.

the forces from each of these loading conditions

LOADING CONDITIONS

hydrostatic pressure at the bottom when empty.

It is important to consider all possible loading

conditions on the structure.

Full effects of the soil loads and water pressure

must be designed for without using them to

minimize the effects of each other.

The effects of water table must be considered for

the design loading conditions.

DESIGN METHODS

inappropriate due to the lack of reliable assessment

of crack widths at service loads.

Strength design is the most commonly adopted

procedure for conventional buildings

decades has led to the acceptance of strength design

methods

inflated load factors to control service load crack

widths in the range of 0.004 0.008 in.

Design Methods

include computations of crack widths and their long

term effects on the structure durability and

functional performance.

The current approach for RC design include

computations done by a modified form of elastic

analysis for composite reinforced steel/concrete

systems.

temperature are well known at service level

The computed stresses serve as the indices of

performance of the structure.

DESIGN METHODS

strength (U) are given in ACI 318. ACI 350 requires two

modifications

is taken as 1.7 rather than 1.4. This may be over

conservative due to the fact that tanks are filled to the

top only during leak testing or accidental overflow

Modification 2 The members must be designed to meet

the required strength. The ACI required strength U must

be increased by multiplying with a sanitary coefficient

design with less cracking.

Required strength = Sanitary coefficient X U

Where, sanitary coefficient = 1.3 for flexure, 1.65 for direct

tension, and 1.3 for shear beyond the capacity provided by

the concrete.

WALL THICKNESS

hoop tension due to the internal pressure and

restraint to concrete shrinkage.

The tensile stress in the concrete (due to ring tension

from pressure and shrinkage) has to kept at a

minimum to prevent excessive cracking.

The concrete tension strength will be assumed 10%

fc in this document.

thickness of 12 in.

The concrete wall thickness will be calculated as

follows:

WALL THICKNESS

Effects of shrinkage

with a re-bar. The block height is 1 ft,

t corresponds to the wall thickness,

the steel area is As, and the steel

percentage is

block assuming that the re-bar is

absent. The block will shorten due to

shrinkage. C is the shrinkage per unit

length.

block when the re-bar is present. The

re-bar restrains some shortening.

2(b) and 2(c) is xC, an unknown

quantity.

WALL THICKNESS

result, the concrete is subjected to tension, the re-bar

to compression, but the section is in force equilibrium

fss=CEs[1/(1+n)]

and

fcs=CEs[/(1+n)]

tension of T will be equal to:

[Ac+nAs]

WALL THICKNESS

horizontal steel As for all the ring tension at an

allowable stress fs as though designing for a cracked

section.

Substitute in equation on previous slide to calculate

tension stress in the concrete.

Limit the max. concrete tension stress to fc = 0.1 fc

Then, the wall thickness can be calculated as

t = [CEs+fsnfc]/[12fcfs]* T

range of 0.0002 to 0.0004.

Use the value of C=0.0003

Assume fs= allowable steel tension =18000 psi

Therefore, wall thickness t=0.0003 T

WALL THICKNESS

small. Low fs will actually tend to increase the

concrete stress and potential cracking.

[Acfs+nT]*T

For the case of T=24,000 lb, n=8, Es=29*106 psi,

C=0.0003 and Ac=12 x 10 = 120 in3

If the allowable steel stress is reduced from 20,000

psi to 10,000 psi, the resulting concrete stress is

increased from 266 psi to 322 psi.

Desirable to use a higher allowable steel stress.

REINFORCEMENT

of reinforcement has a great

effect on the extent of

cracking.

sufficient for strength and

serviceability including

temperature and shrinkage

effects

The amount of temperature

and shrinkage reinforcement

is dependent on the length

between construction joints

REINFORCEMENT

that cracking can be better controlled by using

larger number of small diameter bars rather than

fewer large diameter bars

The size of reinforcing bars should not exceed #11.

Spacing of re-bars should be limited to a maximum

of 12 in. Concrete cover should be at least 2 in.

In circular tanks the locations of horizontal splices

should be staggered by not less than one lap length

or 3 ft.

Chapter 12 of ACI 318 for determining splice lengths.

The length depends on the class of splice, clear cover,

clear distance between adjacent bars, and the size of

the bar, concrete used, bar coating etc.

CRACK CONTROL

prevent leakage and corrosion of reinforcement

A criterion for flexural crack width is provided in ACI

318. This is based on the Gergely-Lutz equation

z=fs(dcA)1/3

dc = concrete cover measured from extreme tension

fiber to center of bar located closest.

A = effective tension area of concrete surrounding the

flexural tension reinforcement having the same

centroid as the reinforcement, divided by the number

of bars.

CRACK CONTROL

In ACI 350, the cover is taken equal to 2.0 in. for any

cover greater than 2.0 in.

Rearranging the equation and solving for the

maximum bar spacing give: max spacing = z3/(2 dc2

fs3)

Using the limiting value of z given by ACI 350, the

maximum bar spacing can be computed

For severe environmental exposures, z = 95 k/in.

Wall with hinged base and free top; triangular load

and trapezoidal load

Wall with shear applied at top

Wall with shear applied at base

Wall with moment applied at top

Wall with moment applied at base

fixed against rotation and such an assumption

would lead to an improperly designed wall.

For the tank structure, assume

Height = H = 20 ft.

Diameter of inside = D = 54 ft.

Weight of liquid = w = 62.5 lb/ft3

Shrinkage coefficient = C = 0.0003

Elasticity of steel = Es = 29 x 106 psi

Ratio of Es/Ec = n = 8

and its effect upon restraint at the base. But, it is more

reasonable to assume that the base is hinged rather

than fixed, which results in more conservative design.

For a wall with a hinged base and free top, the

coefficients to determine the ring tension, moments,

and shears in the tank wall are shown in Tables A-5, A7, and A-12 of the Appendix

Each of these tables, presents the results as functions

of H2/Dt, which is a parameter.

tension T is calculated.

Assume, thickness = t = 10 in.

Therefore, H2/Dt = (202)/(54 x 10/12) = 8.89 (approx. 9

in.)

shear

tank, and 1.0 H corresponds to the bottom of the

tank.

The ring tension per foot of height is computed by

multiplying wu HR by the coefficients in Table A-5 for

the values of H2/Dt=9.0

wu for the case of ring tension is computed as:

wu = 1.65 x (1.7 x 62.5) = 175.3 lb/ft3

Therefore, wu HR = 175.3 x 20 x 54/2 = 94, 662 lb/ft3

where the base is free to slide. Since, it cannot do

that, the value of wu HR must be multiplied by

coefficients from Table A-5

compression at the top, but it is very small.

assumed that the base has no radial displacement

Figure compares the ring tension for tanks with free

sliding base, fixed base, and hinged base.

The amount of ring steel required is given by:

center in two curtains.

Resulting As = 1.32in2/ft.

The reinforcement along the height of the wall can be

determined similarly, but it is better to have the same

bar and spacing.

service loads including the effects of shrinkage is

fc = [CEsAs + Tmax, unfactored]/[Ac+nAs] = 272 psi < 400 psi

Therefore, adequate

that are considered 1 ft. wide are

computed by multiplying wuH3 by

the coefficients from table A-7.

sanitary coefficient x (1.7 x lateral

forces)

Therefore, wu = 1.3 x 1.7 x 62.5 =

138.1 lb/ft3

Therefore wuH3 = 138.1 x 203 =

1,104,800 ft-lb/ft

height are shown in the Table.

The figure includes the moment for

both the hinged and fix conditions

and hinged, but probably closer to hinged.

conservative although not wasteful design

Depending on the fixity of the base, reinforcing may be

required to resist moment on the interior face at the

lower portion of the wall.

the wall for a maximum moment of 5,524 ft-lb/ft. is:

dbar/2)

From the standard design aid of Appendix A, take the

value of 0.0273 and obtain a value for from the Table.

Obtain=0.0278

Required As = bdfc/fy = 0.167 in2

min = 200/Fy = 0.0033 > 0.00189

Use #5 bars at the maximum allowable spacing of 12 in.

the coefficient from Table A-12

1.0 (assuming that no steel rft. will be needed)

wuH2 = 1.0 x 1.7 x 62.5 x 202 = 42,520 kips

Applied shear = Vu = 0.092 x wuH2 = 3912 kips < Vc

tank construction, but rectangular tanks are

frequently preferred for specific purposes

tanks when the footprint needs to be reduced

Rectangular tanks are used where partitions or tanks

with more than one cell are needed.

the behavior of circular tanks

the reason for our analysis of only unit width of the

tank

The ring tension in circular tanks was uniform around

the circumference

concept to the design of circular tanks

modifications for the liquid pressure loading factor

and the sanitary coefficient are the same.

The major differences are the calculated moments,

shears, and tensions in the rectangular tank walls.

The requirements for durability are the same for

rectangular and circular tanks. This is related to crack

width control, which is achieved using the Gergely

Lutz parameter z.

The requirements for reinforcement (minimum or

otherwise) are very similar to those for circular tanks.

The loading conditions that must be considered for

the design are similar to those for circular tanks.

determine deflection, shears and bending moments for

loading conditions.

include both hinged and fixed edges.

However, in reality, neither of these two extremes

actually exist.

It is important that the designer understand the degree of

restraint provided by the reinforcing that extends into the

footing from the tank wall.

If the designer is unsure, both extremes should be

investigated.

process

weight of the tank and the weight of soil on top of the slab

Mx = moment per unit width about the xaxis stretching the fibers in the y direction

when the plate is in the x-y plane. This

moment determines the steel in the y

(vertical direction).

My = moment per unit width about the yaxis stretching the fibers in the x direction

when the plate is in the x-y plane. This

moment determines the steel in the x

(horizontal direction).

y

when the plate is in the y-z plane. This

moment determines the steel in the y

(vertical direction).

y

x

x-y and y-z planes, respectively.

M =(M Coeff.) x q a2/1000

x

x

rectangular tanks

wall. Follow force equilibrium - explain in class.

to add to the effects of orthogonal moments M x and My

for the purpose of determining the steel reinforcement

The Principal of Minimum Resistance may be used for

determining the equivalent orthogonal moments for

design

Mtx = Mx + |Mxy|

Mty = My + |Mxy|

Then Mty = 0 and Mtx = Mx + |Mxy2/My| > 0

tension

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