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ESTIMATION

QUIZ: Group

1. What is the cost object?

2. What are the direct cost?

3. What are the indirect cost?

2. Direct cost: materials: aluminum

block, titanium silica,

3. Indirect cost: MH operator, QC

operator, power, maintenance cost,

machine depreciation, liquid coolant

2. Direct cost: materials: board, direct

labor

3. Indirect cost: MH operator, QC

operator, power, maintenance cost,

machine depreciation, support

material: ink, coat: epoxy, screw

Cost Terms

Cost Driver:

Manufacturing

Cost:

Administrative

Costs:

Direct and

Indirect Costs:

Controllable and

Uncontrollable

Costs:

Product/Period

Cost:

be incurred.

Direct material (DM), direct labor (DL), and

manufacturing overhead (MOH).

All costs associated with running the

business, excluding production costs.

Costs that can either be traced (direct) or

not traced (indirect) to a specific

department in the organization.

Costs used to describe the extent of a

managers influence on cost.

expenses.

Economic Terms

Opportunity

Cost:

action precludes another action.

Sunk Cost:

and can not be altered by current or

future decisions.

Differential

and

Incremental

Cost:

two alternative actions.

Marginal

Cost:

additional unit.

Average

Cost per

Unit:

divided by the number of units

produced.

Cost Classifications

Object

Determining the costs that should attach to a cost object is

Cost Assignment

cost tracing

Direct

Costs

Cost

Object

Indirect

Costs

easily traced to the

cost object.

Indirect costs are

not easily traced to

the cost object, and

must be allocated.

cost allocation

Examples: a Candy

Manufacturer

Cost

Behavior

Fixed Costs: costs that

remain constant regardless of

the quantity of product

produced.

Output

increase linearly and

proportionately as production

volume increases.

Output

Total Contribution

Costs

$

Total Costs

If costs are linear, then total costs graphically

look like this.

Cost Driver

$

driver increases.

axis.

Cost Driver

Costs

$

Total Costs

If costs are linear, then total costs graphically

look like this.

Cost Driver

$

increases.

costs per unit of the cost driver.

Cost Driver

Cost Behavior

$

slope = $m/unit

look like this . . .

Cost Driver

$/unit

Cost Driver

unit look like this.

Cost Behavior

$

like this . . .

Cost Driver

$/unit

Cost Driver

unit look like this.

Variable

Cost

Mixed costs are costs that have both a fixed and a

variable component. For example, overhead for a

company may consist of a fixed supervisor salary plus

the cost of supplies that vary with the quantity of output

produced. The formula and graph depiction for a mixed

Totaliscost

= Total fixed cost + Total variable cost

cost

as follows:

Volume

Mixed Costs

into its fixed and variable components are

commonly used:

the high-low method

the scattergraph method

the method of least squares

Each method requires the simplifying

assumption of a linear cost relationship.

line is:

rate x Output)

depends on the value of another variable. In the previous

equation, total cost is the dependent variable; it is the cost

we are trying to predict.

The independent variable is a variable that measures

output and explains changes in the cost or other dependent

variable.

A good independent variable is one that causes or is

closely associated with the dependent variable.

Therefore, many managers refer to an independent

variable as a cost driver.

determined.

The high-low method is method of separating mixed costs

into fixed and variable components by using just the high

and low data points.

Four steps must be taken in the high-low method:

Step 1: Find the high point and the low point for a

given data set.

Step 2: Using the high and low point, calculate the

variable rate.

Variable rate = (High point cost - Low point

cost) (High point output - Low point

output)

Step 3: Calculate the fixed cost using the variable

rate (from Step 2) and either the high point or low

point.

Fixed cost = Total cost at high point (Variable rate x Output at high point)

Step 4: Form the cost formula for materials

handling based on the high-low method.

Solution:

Step 1Find the high and low points: The high number of machine hours is in March, and the low number of

machine hours is in June. (Hint: Did you notice that the high cost of $4,200 was for August? Yet August is not the high point because its

number of machine hours is not the highest activity level. Remember, the high point is associated with the highest activity

level; the low point is associated with the lowest activity level.)

Scattergraph Method

The scattergraph method is a way to see the cost

relationship by plotting the data points on a

graph.

The first step in applying the scattergraph

method is to plot the data points so that the

relationship can be seen.

$2,000) and (0, $800). Next, use these two

points to compute the variable rate (the

slope):

$100 - 0

= $1,200/100

= $12

Thus the variable rate is $12 per material

move.

Fixed rate= $2,000 ($12 * 100) = $800

The fixed cost and variable rate for materials

handling cost have now been identified.

The cost formula for the materials handling

activity can be expressed as:

Total cost = $800 + ($12 x Number of moves)

The method of least squares (regression) is a

statistical way to find the best-fitting line through

a set of data points.

Basically, the best-fitting line is the one in which

the data points are closer to the line than to any

other line.

Shows linear relationship between

dependent & explanatory variables

Y-intercept

Slope

^

Yi = a + b X i

Dependent

(response) variable

Independent

(explanatory) variable

Equation:

i a bx i

Y

n

x i y i nx y

Slope:

b i n

x i n x

i

Y-Intercept:

a y bx

Comparison of Methods

Knowing how costs change in relation

to changes in output is essential to

planning, controlling, and decision

making.

Each of the methods for separating

mixed costs into fixed and variable

components help managers

understand cost behavior and

consequently make good business

decisions.

below:

Maintenance cost

Month

Januari

Februari

Maret

April

Mei

Juni

Juli

Agustus

September

Oktober

November

Desember

(Y)

6.900.000

7.500.000

6.400.000

7.200.000

8.100.000

8.800.000

6.800.000

7.090.000

6.500.000

6.900.000

8.500.000

6.700.000

Number of

activity

(X)

46

61

40

55

63

70

52

46

42

47

65

43

ANSWER

- Var rate= (Rp 8.800.000-6.400.000)/

(70-40)

- Fixed cost= Rp 8.800.000 (Rp

80.000 x 70)

= Rp. 3.200.000

Cost formula =

Total maintenance cost = Rp.

3.200.000 + (Rp 80.000 X activity)

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