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OHT 8.

Defining leadership

Over 400 definitions of leadership to choose


from
It is a veritable minefield of misunderstanding &
difference through which theorists & practitioners
must tread warily.
Crainer
Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.2

Different definitions
Leadership is a matter of making a difference.
It entails changing an organisation & making choices
among plausible alternatives.
It depends on the development of others & mobilising
them to get the job done Useem
Leadership is a combination of persuasion &
compulsion that results in making people do things they
might not otherwise have done Adair

Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.3

Importance of leadership

Good management leadership helps to develop


team work & the integration of individual &
group goals
It aids intrinsic motivation by emphasising the
importance of the work people do
Tustin

Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.4

Leadership in times of change

Good leaders are sensitive to the impact of


change & uncertainty
Effective change leadership is the key to shifting
peoples perceptions from seeing change as a
threat to seeing it as an exciting challenge
Hooper & Potter

Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.5

Leadership & management


Management getting things done through other people
in order to achieve stated organisational objectives
Leadership emphasis on interpersonal behaviour in a
broader context
Leadership is often associated with the willing &
enthusiastic behaviour of followers & does not necessarily
take place within the hierarchical structure of the
organisation

Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.6

Distinction between management & leadership


Managers
Administer
Maintain
Focus on systems &
structure
Rely on control
Keep an eye on the
bottom line
Do things right

Leaders
Innovate
Develop
Focus on people
Inspire trust
Have an eye on the
horizon
Do the right thing
Hollingsworth

Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.7

The interrelationship between management &


leadership
I have never been fond of distinguishing between
leadership and management, they overlap and you need
both qualities. Fullan
Increasingly management and leadership are seen as
inextricably linked. Dearlove
Leadership and management are closely inter-related;
how to get things done through people and how to make
work an enjoyable experience. Mann
Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.8

Managerial leadership framework

Qualities or traits approach


The functional or group approach
Leadership as a behavioural category
Styles of leadership
The situational approach & contingency models
Transitional or transformational leadership
Inspirational leadership

Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.9

Figure 8.2

Action-centred leadership

Source: Adair, J., Action-Centred Leadership, Gower Press (1979), p.10

Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.10

Action-centred leadership
Task functions
Achieving the objectives of the work group
Defining group tasks
Planning the work
Allocation of resources
Organisation of duties & responsibilities

Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.11

Action-centred leadership
Team functions
Maintaining morale & building team spirit
The cohesiveness of the group as a working unit
Setting standards & maintaining discipline
Systems of communication within the group
Training the group
Appointment of sub-leaders

Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.12

Action-centred leadership
Individual functions
Meeting the needs of the individual members of the
group
Attending to personal problems
Giving praise & status
Reconciling conflicts between group needs & needs of
the individual
Training individuals
Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.13

Results of the Ohio State Leadership Studies


Two major dimensions of leadership behaviour
1. Consideration reflects the extent to which the
leader establishes trust, mutual respect & rapport with
the group & shows concern, warmth, support, &
consideration for subordinates
2. Structure reflects the extent to which the leader
defines & structures group interactions towards the
attainment of formal goals
Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.14

Figure 8.3

Dimensions of managerial leadership

Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.15

Broad classification of leadership style

Authoritarian (autocratic) style

Democratic style

Laissez-faire (genuine) style

Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.16

Main forces in deciding type of leadership

Forces in the manager


Forces in the subordinate
Forces in the situation
Tannenbaum & Schmidt

Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.17

Forces in the manager

Value systems
Confidence in subordinates
Leadership inclinations
Feelings of security in an uncertain situation

Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.18

Forces in the subordinate

Strength of the needs for independence


Readiness to assume responsibility for decision-making
Degree of tolerance for ambiguity
Interest in the problem & feelings as to its importance
Understanding & identification with the goals of the
organisation
Necessary knowledge & experience to deal with the
problem
The extent of learning to expect to share in decisionmaking

Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.19

Forces in the situation

Type of organisation
Group effectiveness
Nature of the problem
Pressure of time

Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.20

Contingency models of leadership

Major contingency models of leadership include


Favourability of leadership situation (Fiedler)
Quality & acceptance of leaders decision
(Vroom & Yetton)
Pathgoal theory (House)
Maturity of followers (Hersey & Blanchard)

Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.21

Vroom & Yetton contingency model

Decision quality the effect that the decision


has on group performance

Decision acceptance the motivation &


commitment of group members in
implementing the decision

Time required to make the decision

Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.22

Vroom & Jago revised decision model


In this model the contingency variables relate to

Quality requirement
Commitment
requirement
Leader information
Problem structure
Commitment probability

Goal congruence
Subordinate information
Time constraints
Geographical dispersion
Motivation time &
development

Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.23

Path goal theory


leadership behaviour

Directive
Supportive
Participative
Achievement-oriented
House
Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.24

Figure 8.6

Path goal theory


of leadership

Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.25

Transactional leadership
Based on legitimate authority within the bureaucratic
structure of an organisation
Emphasis on the clarification of goals & objectives, work
tasks & outcomes, organisational rewards &
punishments
Appeals to the self interest of followers
Based on a relationship of mutual dependence & an
exchange process of I will give you this, if you do that

Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.26

Transformational leadership
A process of engendering higher levels of motivation &
commitment among followers
Emphasis is on generating a vision for the organisation,
the leaders ability to appeal to higher ideals & values of
followers, & creating a feeling of justice, loyalty & trust
Is about transforming the performance or fortunes of a
business

Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.27

Components of transformational leadership

Idealised influence
Inspirational motivation
Intellectual stimulation
Individualised consideration

Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.28

Guidelines for transformational leadership


Articulate a clear &
appealing vision
Explain how the vision
can be attained
Act confident & optimistic
Express confidence in
followers
Provide opportunities for
early success

Celebrate success
Use dramatic symbolic
actions to emphasise key
values
Lead by example
Empower people to
achieve the vision
Yukl

Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.29

Inspirational leadership
A truly inspirational leader:
Understands the spirit within
Connects with the led, appreciates the capabilities of
others, and through trust unlocks the powers in others
Recognises & seizes the brief window of opportunity that
acts as a powerful catalyst, inspiring the leader & the led
Adair

Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.30

Power & leadership influence

Reward power

Referent power

Coercive power

Expert power

Legitimate power
French & Raven

Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.31

The leadership relationship

Whatever the perceived approach to leadership,


the most important point is the nature of the
leadership relationship and the manner in which
the leader influences the behaviour and actions of
other people.

Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.32

Table 8.1

Guidelines for building & using legitimate power

Source: Leadership in Organizations, Fourth edition, by Yukl, Gary. 1998, p.197. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.33

Table 8.1

Guidelines for building & using reward power

Source: Leadership in Organizations, Fourth edition, by Yukl, Gary. 1998, p.197. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.34

Table 8.1

Guidelines for building & using expert power

Source: Leadership in Organizations, Fourth edition, by Yukl, Gary. 1998, p.197. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.35

Table 8.1

Guidelines for building & using referent power

Source: Leadership in Organizations, Fourth edition, by Yukl, Gary. 1998, p.197. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.36

Table 8.1

Guidelines for building & using coercive power

Source: Leadership in Organizations, Fourth edition, by Yukl, Gary. 1998, p.197. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.37

The right leader for the right situation

Organisations that exist in a dynamic environment


generally require three types of leaders
Innovator
Implementor
Pacifier
Rodrigues

Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.38

Expectations for leaders of the future

Dream collectively
Balance the short term with the longer term
Build an organisation that values people
Understand the reality of the organisation
Gratton
Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005

OHT 8.39

New skills & competencies

The new leader understands & practises the


power of appreciation
The new leader keeps reminding people of what
is important
The new leader generates & sustains trust
The new leader & the led are intimate allies
Bennis
Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition Pearson Education Limited 2005