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Mini project

on
automatic traffic
signal controller

With hard efforts from:


Ritesh kumar Vinay kumar
Santosh kumar Rakesh kumar
Vikramaditya kumar
INTRODUCTION :
 Now a days due to ever increasing vehicles on the
road, it require a efficient control on the four way
junction of road. In order to find a solution to this
problem the concept of an automatic traffic
controller is conceived. Apart from providing
efficient control of traffic, it also eliminate chance of
human errors since it function automatically.
 The automatic traffic controller automatically switches on the four
way junction for 8 seconds for direction control.
 The main circuit components used are 555-Timer and 4-bit binary
synchronous counter (74160). The 555-Timer generates a clock
signal for 8 seconds. This signal is used to clock counter circuit.
Binary counter is converted to 3 bit–counter to achieve 8 possible
cases. The traffic light control is done by different Boolean
function of logic gate.

 This project basically consist of three stages viz :


 Astable multivibrator
 3 - bit synchronous counter
 Logic gates based on boolean function
History:

On 10 December 1868, the first traffic lights


were installed outside the
British Houses of Parliament in London, by
the railway engineer J. P. Knight.
The modern electric traffic light is an American
invention.
The first interconnected traffic signal system was
installed in Salt Lake City in 1917.
Automatic control of interconnected traffic lights
was introduced March 1922 in Houston, Texas.
The first automatic experimental traffic lights in
England were deployed in Wolverhampton in
1927.
Optics and lighting:-

 In 1990s, cost-effective traffic light lamps using


light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were developed; prior to this date
traffic lights were designed using incandescent or halogen light
bulbs.
 Advantages of LED based lamps
v Much greater energy efficiency (can be solar-powered).
v Much longer lifetime between replacement.
v Much faster switching.
v The ability to display multiple colors and patterns from the same
lamp. Individual LED elements can be enabled or disabled, and
different color LEDs can be mixed in the same lamp
v No sudden burn –out like incandescent –based light
v Gradual dim out process during wear & tear.
v Another new LED technology is the use of CLS (Central Light
Source) optics. These comprise around 7 high-output LEDs
(sometimes 1 watt) at the rear of the lens, with a diffuser to
even out and enlarge the light. This gives a uniform
appearance, more like traditional halogen or incandescent
luminaries.
BASIC FEATURES:-
 This automated traffic signal controller can be made by
suitably programming GAL device. Its main features are:-
v The controller assumes equal traffic density on all the roads.
v This controller allows the pedestrians to safely cross the road
during certain periods as free left-turn condition is provided
throughout the entire signal period, which poses difficulties
to the pedestrians in crossing the road
v The controller uses digital logic, which can be easily
implemented by using logic gates.
v The controller is a generalized one and can be used for
different roads with slight modifications.
 . The control can also be exercised manually when desired.
The time period for which green, yellow and red traffic
signals remain ‘on’ (and then repeat) for the straight
moving traffic is divided into eight units of 8Seconds (or
multiples thereof) each.
GENERIC ARRAY LOGIC (GAL
DEVICES)
vThe An innovation of the PAL was generic array
logic device .
vGALs are programmed and reprogrammed using a
PAL programmer, or by using the
in-circuit programming technique on supporting
chips..
vLattice GALs combine CMOS and electrically
erasable (E^2) floating gate technology for a
high-speed, low-power logic device.

Astable
BLOCK DIAGRAM
MVR

3 - bit
synchrono
us
Counter

LOGIC FUNCTION OF
GATE
Description of Major
Components
IC 555 TIMER
IC 74160 (4 bit synchronous counter)
IC 7408(2 input AND gate)
IC 7411(3 input AND gate)
IC 7432(2 input OR gate)
IC 7404(inverter)
Capacitor(10uF,0.0.01uF)
Resistor(270 K ,240K,470 ohm)
LED(green,yellow,red)

IC 555 timer
It generate clock signal for 8 second.


74160 (4 bit synchronous
counter)

4 bit synchronous counter is converted into 3


bit counter by connected Q3 signal to the
reset via inverter.

Ic 7408(2 INPUT AND GATE)
IC 7404(hex inverter)

This device contains six independent gates


each of which performs the logic NOT
function.

FUNCTION TABLE:
Y = ABC

Ic 7411(3 input and gate) inputs output  

A B C Y

L L L L

L L H L

L H L L

L H H L

H L L L

H L H L

H H L L

H H H H
Ic 7432(2-input or gate)
working
Working(contd.)
Working(contd.)


Working(contd.)


REALISATION OF BOOLIAN
FUNCTIONS
FOR EXAMPLE:-
RED - BE (ST.)
X’Y’Z’+XY’Z’+XY’Z+XYZ’+XYZ=
X’Y’Z’+XY’+XY
X’Y’Z’+X
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
PCB(design)
555
TIMER
 It operate in two modes: 1. monostable 2.astable
 8 pin DIP (dual in line package)
 Temp range -55 to 125 (SE555)
 Supply voltage (+5 to 18 V)
 It has adjustable duty cycle
 PIN DESCRIPTION
 1. Gnd - all voltage are measured with respect to this
terminal.
 2. Trigger
 3. Output- 2 way a load can be connected to the output
terminal
 4. Reset pin- reset or disabled by applying negative pulse
 5. Control voltage –add a capacitor .01uf to avoid noise
problem
 6. threshold –when comparator 1 input=>2/3 Vcc high
 7. Discharge
ASTABLE
OPERATION
APPLICATION
Free-running ramp generator
Pulse generation
Square wave oscillator
Time delay generation
Pulse width modulation


Light Emitting Diodes
(LEDs)

Example:        Circuit symbol:   


Function
LEDs emit light when an electric current pass
Never connect an LED directly to a battery or
power supply! es through them
Tri-colour LEDs
Bi-colour LEDs
A bi-colour led has two LEDs wired in inverse
parallel {one forward, one backward)

Resistor

RESISTOR: resistors restrict the flow of electric
current.
4 band resistor
5 band resistor
6 band resistor

REAL VALUE RESISTOR 1.E6 2.E12
E12. 10,12,15,18,22,27,33,39,4756,68,82

ADVANTAGES:

1. Simple and efficient circuit


2. Working requirement is easily met.
3. No instant and direct manual operation is
needed.
4. Consumes very small amount of power for
operation.
5. It also saves a considerable amount of
power.
6. A very practical and low cost device.
7. It can make to work by using solar cell/wind
cell for power requirements
REFRENCES
  
1.www.electronics.com
2.www.electronicsforu.com
3.www.google.com
4.www.kpsec.freeuk.com
5. www.wikipedia.org
6.software:-a) pROTEL
 b)ORCAD



 Any Questions
THANK
YOU !! THANK
YOU !!