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# Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1
CE-313

Flexural Analysis
and Design of
Beams
Plain & Reinforced
Concrete-1
Minimum Reinforcement of Flexural Members
(ACI – 10.5.1)

## Asmin = √fc’ / (4fy) x bwd ≥ 1.4/fy x bwd

Critical if fc’ < 28 Mpa
The minimum steel is always provided in structural members
because when concrete is cracked then all load comes on steel, so
there should be a minimum amount of steel to resist that load to
avoid sudden failure.
For a design to be safe M < Mr
For an economical design M = Mr

M = Asfs x jd
As = M / (fs x jd)
Plain & Reinforced
Concrete-1
Minimum Depth of Section
To satisfy a cross section against concrete failure

M = Mr

M = Cc x jd

M = (fc/2 x kd x b) x jd

dmin = √ (2M / fc k j b)
Plain & Reinforced
Concrete-1
Determination of “k” value

## Value of k can not be determined as ρ is not know. There are

two different approaches to establish the value of k.

## 1. Simultaneous Occurrence of Maximum Permissible Steel

and Concrete Stresses

## 2. Assuming some suitable steel ratio

Plain & Reinforced
Concrete-1
Determination of “k” value (contd…)
1- Simultaneous Occurrence of Maximum
Permissible Steel and Concrete Stresses
Consider Δ ABC & Δ ADE
B εc C
kd
εs/(d-kd) = εc/(kd) N.A
A .
(fs / Es) / (d-kd) = (fc/Ec) / (kd) d
d- kd
fs x kd = (Es/Ec) x fc x (d-kd) E D
fs x k = n x fc x (1-k) εs
Strain Diagram
fs x k + nfck = nfc

## k = nfc / (fs + nfc)

Plain & Reinforced
Concrete-1
Determination of “k” value (contd…)

## 2- Assuming some suitable steel ratio

In this approach, some suitable value of steel ratio (less than ρ
max ) is selected at the start of calculations and used for the
determination of “k”

## ρ max=0.75 [0.85 x β1 x (3/8) x (fc’/fy)]

ρ max = 0.75[0.85 x β1 x (fc’/fy) x (600/(600
+ fy)]

## Calculate ρ max and select some value less than this.

Plain & Reinforced
Concrete-1
Reduced Moment of Inertia Due to Cracking
Elastic Deflection can be expressed in general form

## Deflection of a cracked section can be expressed as

Δ = f (loads, spans, supports) /( EIe)

## As the number of cracks and their width increases the M.O.I of

cross section reduces and deflection increases.

## Ie = Effective moment of inertia of cracked section

Plain & Reinforced
Concrete-1
Reduced Moment of Inertia Due to Cracking
(contd…)

## Ie = [ Mcr /Ma ]3 Ig + [ 1 – {Mcr /Ma}3 ]Icr < Ig

Where
Mcr = Cracking moment Mcr = fr Ig/yt
Ma = Maximum moment in the member at a load level where we want
to calculate deflection
Ig = Gross moment of inertia of un-cracked transformed section
Icr = Moment of inertia of cracked transformed section
fr = Modulus of rupture
yt = Extreme tension fiber distance from N.A.
Effective moment of inertia calculated by the above expression can be
used to calculate the deflection of beams after cracking
Plain & Reinforced
Concrete-1
Long Term Deflection
Long term deflection is caused by creep and shrinkage

Δt = λ Δi
where
Δt =Long term deflection
Δi = Instantaneous Deflection
λ = Multiplier for additional deflection due to long term effect
Total Deflection = Δi + Δt

Total Deflection = Δi + λ Δi

Total Deflection = (1 + λ) Δi
Plain & Reinforced
Concrete-1
Long Term Deflection (contd…)

λ = ξ / (1 + 50 ρ’)
ρ’ = compression steel ratio
= Area of compression steel / (b x d)
= As’ / (b x d)
ξ = Time dependent factor for sustained loads

Elapsed Time ξ
5 years or more 2.0
12 months 1.4
6 months 1.2
3 months 1.0
Plain & Reinforced
Concrete-1
Example (un-cracked transformed section)
A rectangular beam of size 250mm x 650mm with effective
depth of 590mm and is reinforced with 3 # 25 US customary
bars. Concrete has specified compressive strength 28MPa.
Yield strength of steel is 420 MPa. Modulus of rupture (tensile
strength) is 3.5 MPa. Determine the stresses caused by the
bending moment of 50kN-m.
b=
Data
250mm
fc’ = 28 MPa
fy = 420 MPa
fr = 3.5 MPa d=
M = 50 kN-m 590mm
(positive moment)

ftop = ? fbottom = ?
f r = 0.5 f c' If not given directly

As = 3 × 510 = 1530mm2
Es = 200, 000 MPa, Ec ≅ 4700 f c' = 24870 MPa
Es
n= =8
Ec

## Assume: stresses are within elastic range; (n-1)As/2

(n-1)As/2
No cracking at the given moment level
Transformed
Section
( n − 1) s
A = 10710 mm 2

650
250 × 650 × + 10710 × 590
y= 2 ≅ 341mm
250 × 650 + 10710
250 × ( 650 )
3 2
 650 
+ ( 250 ) ( 650 )  y − ( )
2
I=  + 10710 590 − y ≅ 642700 × 104
mm4

12  2 
My 50 ×106 × 341
f top = = = 2.65 MPa (compression ) < 0.45 f c
'

I 642700 ×10 4

My 50 × 10 6
× ( 650 − y )
f bottom = = = 2.40MPa (tension ) < f r
I 642700 ×10 4

Steel stress

## f s = n × concrete stress at effective depth

50 × 106 × ( d − y )
= 8× ≅ 15.5MPa < f y
642700 × 10 4
Plain & Reinforced
Concrete-1
Example (Cracked transformed section)
A rectangular beam of size 250mm x 650mm with effective
depth of 590mm and is reinforced with 3 # 25 US customary
bars. Concrete has specified compressive strength 28MPa.
Yield strength of steel is 420 MPa. Modulus of rupture (tensile
strength) is 3.5 MPa. Determine the stresses caused by the
bending moment of 120kN-m.
b=
Data
250mm
fc’ = 28 MPa
fy = 420 MPa
fr = 3.25 MPa d=
M = 120 kN-m 590mm
(positive moment)

ftop = ? fbottom = ?
Ec = 4700 f c' = 24870 MPa
Es As 1530
n= = 8, ρ = = = 0.01037
Ec b x d 250 × 590
nρ = 0.08298

## ( nρ ) ( 0.08298) − 2 ( 0.08298) − 0.08298

2 2
k= + 2n ρ − n ρ =
b
= 0.333
kd
k d
j = 1 − ≅ 0.889
3 nAs
Cracked
Suppose section is cracked and material is within Transformed
elastic range Section

250 × ( 196.5 )
3 2
 196.5 
( )
2
I N .A = + 250 ×196.5 ×   + 12240 × 590 − 196.5
12  2 
= 252, 750 × 104 mm 4
M 120 ×106
M = As f s jd , f s = = = 149.5MPa
As jd 1530 × 0.889 × 590
f s ( permissible) = 0.4 f y = 168MPa

## Steel is within elastic range

2M 2 × 120 × 106
fc = = = 9.32 MPa
0.333 × 0.889 × 250 × ( 590)
2 2
kjbd

## f c ( permissible) = 0.45 f c, = 12.6 MPa

My 120 × 10 6
× ( 650 − 196.5 )
f ct (bottom ) = = = 21.5MPa >> f r
I 252750 ×10 4
Example
Design a rectangular section for a simply
supported beam of 5 m span subjected to
uniformly distributed load of 50kN/m, using
ASD. f’c=30MPa, and fy=420 MPa
fc(permissible)=0.45f’c,
fy(permissible)=0.4fy
Concluded