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CHEMICAL PROCESS DIAGRAM

Chemical Process Diagram

SCOPE:
Students will be able to know:

Type of chemical process diagram


- Block Flow Diagram (BFD)
- Process Flow Diagram (PFD)
- Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID)

How to read and draw BFD, PFD and P&ID

Process equipments symbol and numbering

Chemical Process Diagram

3 Levels of Diagram
-Block Flow Diagram (BFD)
-Process Flow Diagram (PFD)
-Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID)

The Block Flow Diagram (BFD)

BLOCK FLOW DIAGRAM (BFD)

The Block Flow Diagram (BFD)

Block Flow Diagram (BFD)


BFD shows overall processing picture of a chemical
complex:
-Flow of raw materials and products may be included
on a BFD
-BFD is a superficial view of facility ChE information is
missing

The Block Flow Diagram (BFD)

Example 1:
Mixed Gas
2610 kg/hr

Toluene, C7H8
10,000 kg/hr
Reactor
Hydrogen H2
820 kg/hr

C6H6

Gas Separator

CH4
C7H8

Benzene, C6H6
8,210 kg/hr

Mixed Liquid

75% Conversion of
Toluene

Reaction : C7H8 + H2

C6H6 + CH4

Figure 1.1: Block Flow Diagram for the Production of Benzene

Example 2
Production of Ethane from Ethanol
Ethanol is feed to continuous reactor with presence of Acid Sulphuric
catalyzer to produce ethylene. Distillation process then will be applied to
separate ethylene-H2O mixture. Ethylene as a top product is then
condensate with condenser to perform liquid ethylene. Hydrogenation of
ethylene applies in another reactor with presence of Nickel catalyzer to
produce ethane as a final product. Develop BFD for these processes.
CH3CH2OH

H2SO4

CH2=CH2 + H2

Ni

CH2=CH2 + H2O
CH3CH3
Hot water out
Ethylene liq. CH2CH2 (l)

Ethylene, CH2CH2 (g)

Ethanol,
C2H5OH
H2SO4

Cold water in

Reactor 1

Ethane, CH3CH3

CH2CH2
H2O

Distillation
column
H2O

Hydrogen, H2
Ni

Reactor 2

The Block Flow Diagram (BFD)

Exercise 1:
Ammonia-air mixture is feed to the bottom stream of an absorber
with flow rate of 10L/min. Water then feed to the upper stream of
the same absorber with desired flow rate of 5L/min. There are two
outputs from the absorber where upper stream is insoluble NH 3 and
bottom stream is NH3-Water mixture. This NH3-water mixture then
feed up to a batch distillation column. The column produces
ammonia gas as a top product which this product then will be
condensate with a condenser to produce liquid ammonia. Develop
Block Flow Diagram (BFD) for this process.

The Block Flow Diagram (BFD)

Answer 1
Hot water
out

Insoluble
ammonia

Ammonia
liquid

Water 5 L/min

Absorber

Ammonia gas

Condenser

Batch
Distillation
Cold water
in

Ammonia-air mixture
10 L/min

Ammonia-water
mixture

The Block Flow Diagram (BFD)

Exercise 2:
Ethanol-water mixture is feed to a batch distillation column.
This distillation process will produce ethanol vapour at the top
product which then condensate to produce liquid ethanol which
then collected into a distillate product tank. This liquid ethanol
and an acetic acid liquid from a acid feed tank are then feed to
a reactor. An exothermic chemical reaction will producing ethyl
acetate (a type of ester). Draw BFD for this chemical process.

The Block Flow Diagram (BFD)

Answer 2
Hot water
out

Condenser

Ethanol
liq.

Ethyl
acetate
Reactor

Batch
distillation
Cold
water in

Distillate
product tank

Ethanol-water
mixture
Acid feed
tank

The Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM

The Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

SCOPE:
Students will be able to know:

Process Unit symbology

How to read and draw PFD

Process equipments symbol and numbering

The Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

Process Flow Diagram (PFD)


PFD shows all process engineering information:
-The topology of the process showing the connectivity of
all the streams and the equipment.
-Use appropriate conventions consistency is important in
communication of process information.

The Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

PFD will contains the following information:- All major pieces of equipment (descriptive name,
unique equipment no.), pumps and valves.
- All the utility streams supplied to major equipments
such as steam lines, compressed air lines, electricity,
etc.
- All process flow streams: identification by a number,
process condition, chemical composition.
- Basic control loops: showing the control strategy used
to operate the process under normal operations.

The Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

The Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

PFD will contains the following information:- All major pieces of equipment (descriptive
name, unique equipment no.), pumps and
valves.
- All the utility streams supplied to major
equipments such as steam lines, compressed
air lines, electricity, etc.

The Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

Process Unit Symbology


Symbol

Description
Heat exchanger

H2O

Water cooler

Steam heater

Cooling coil

The Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

Process Unit Symbology


Symbol

Description
Heater coil

Centrifugal pump

Turbine type compressor

Pressure gauge

The Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

Process Unit Symbology


Symbol

Name

Description

Stripper

A separator unit used


commonly to liquid mixture
into gas phase

Absorber

A separator unit used


commonly to extract mixture
gas into liquid phase

The Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

Process Unit Symbology


Symbol

Name

Description

Distillation

A separator unit used


commonly to crack liquid
contains
miscellaneous
component fractions.

column

or

Liquid mixer

A process unit that used to


mix several components of
liquid.

The Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

Process Unit Symbology


Symbol

Name

Description

Reaction
chamber

A process unit where


chemical process reaction
occurs

Horizontal tank

A unit to store liquid or gas.

or cylinder

The Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

Process Unit Symbology


Symbol

Name

Description

Boiler

A unit for heating.

Centrifuge

A separator unit that to


physically separated liquid
mixture. (exp: oil-liquid)

The Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

Valve Symbology
Symbol

Name
Gate Valve
Globe Valve
Ball Valve

Check Valve
Butterfly Valve

The Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

Valve Symbology
Symbol

Name
Relief Valve
Needle Valve
3-Way Valve

Angle Valve

Butterfly Valve

Example 3
Production of Ethane from Ethanol
Ethanol is feed to continuous reactor with presence of Acid Sulphuric
catalyzer to produce ethylene. Distillation process then will be applied to
separate ethylene-H2O mixture. Ethylene as a top product is then
condensate with condenser to perform liquid ethylene. Hydrogenation of
ethylene applies in another reactor with presence of Nickel catalyzer to
produce ethane as a final product. Develop PFD for these processes.
H2SO4

CH3CH2OH
CH2=CH2 + H2

CH2=CH2 + H2O
CH3CH3

Ni

R-100

P-100

T-100

E-100

P-101

R-101

Reactor

Pump

Distillation Column

Condenser

Pump

Reactor

Hot water out

Ethylene

Ethylene liq.

E-100

V-104
CV-100

Ethanol
H2SO4

V-100

V-101
V-103

R-100

T-100

Cold water
in
CV-101
V-105

V-102
V-107

V-106

Hydrogen
Ni
R-101

P-100

H2O

P-101

Ethane

The Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

Exercise 3:
Ammonia-air mixture is feed to the bottom stream of an absorber
with flow rate of 10L/min. Water then feed to the upper stream of
the same absorber with desired flow rate of 5L/min. There are two
outputs from the absorber where upper stream is insoluble NH 3 and
bottom stream is NH3-Water mixture. This NH3-water mixture then
feed up to a batch distillation column. The column produces
ammonia gas as a top product which this product then will be
condensate with a condenser to produce liquid ammonia. Develop
Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for this process.

The Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

Answer 3
T-100

T-101

E-100

Absorber Column

Batch Distillation Column

Condenser

Insoluble ammonia
gas

Hot water out


Ammonia gas

Water 5 L/min
Cold water in

Ammonia-air
mixture 10 L/min
Ammonia-water mixture

Ammonia liquid

The Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

Process Unit Tagging and Numbering


Process Equipment

General Format XX-YZZ A/B


XX are the identification letters for the equipment classification

C - Compressor or Turbine

E - Heat Exchanger

H - Fired Heater

P - Pump

R - Reactor

T - Tower

TK - Storage Tank

V - Vessel

Y - designates an area within the plant

Supplemental Information

ZZ - are the number designation for each item in an equipment class


A/B - identifies parallel units or backup units not shown on a PFD
Additional description of equipment given on top of PFD

The Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

Y Letter
Area No. 1
Area No. 2

Area No. 3

The Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

A/B Letter
Example
Ethylene

Hot water
out
Ethylene liq.

Ethylene

Cold
water in

Hot water
out
Ethylene liq.
Cold
water in

Ethanol
H2SO4

Hydrogen

Ethane

Hydrogen

Ni

Ethane

Ni

H2O

H2O
P-100 A

P-100 A/B

P-100 B

In PFD

In real plant, it means like above

The Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

PFD will contains the following information:- All process flow streams: identification by a
number, process condition, chemical
composition.

The Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

Stream Numbering and Drawing


- Number streams from left to right as much as possible.
- Horizontal lines are dominant.

Yes

No

No

Example 4
R-100

P-100

T-100

E-100

P-101

R-101

Reactor

Pump

Distillation Column

Condenser

Pump

Reactor

Hot water out

Ethylene

Ethylene liq.

E-100

6
V-104

Cold water in
V-106

CV-101

T-100

CV-100

V-105

Ethanol
1
H2SO4

V-101
V-100

5
V-102

4
V-103

R-100

V-107

R-101

8
7

P-100

Hydrogen
9
Ni
Ethane
10

H2O
P-101

The Process Flow Diagram (PFD) (cont..)


Stream Information
-Since diagrams are small not much stream information
can be included.
-Include important data around reactors and towers, etc.
Flags are used
Full stream data,

The Process Flow Diagram (PFD) (cont..)


Stream Information - Flag
600 Temperature
300
3

24

Pressure

10.3

Mass
Flowrate

108

Molar
Flowrate

9
6

10

600
24
2

12

11

24

13

Gas
Flowrate
Liquid
Flowrate

Example 5
R-100

P-100

T-100

E-100

P-101

R-101

Reactor

Pump

Distillation Column

Condenser

Pump

Reactor

Hot water out

Ethylene

Ethylene liq.

E-100

6
V-104

Cold water in
25
28

V-106

CV-101

T-100

CV-100

V-105

Ethanol
1
H2SO4

V-101
V-100

20

38

V-102

4
V-103

R-100

V-107

35
31.0

35
32.2
P-100

Hydrogen
9
Ni
R-101

8
7

Ethane
10

H2O
P-101

Stream Information - Full stream data,

Stream
Number

10

Temperature
(oC)

25.0

35.0

35.0

35.0

35.0

60.3

41

38

54.0

45.1

Pressure (psi)

28

32.2

31.0

31.0

30.2

45.1

31.3

24.0

39.0

2.6

Mass flow
(tonne/hr)

10.3

13.3

0.82

20.5

6.41

20.5

0.36

9.2

20.9

11.6

Mole flow
(kmol/hr)

108

114.2

301.0

1204.0

758.8

1204.4

42.6

1100.8

142.2

244.0

Vapor fraction

Example 6
R-100

P-100

T-100

E-100

P-101

R-101

Reactor

Pump

Distillation Column

Condenser

Pump

Reactor

Hot water out


Ethylene

Ethylene liq.

E-100

6
V-104

Cold water in
25
28

V-106

T-100

CV-100

CV-101
V-105

Ethanol
1
H2SO4
V-100

V-101

35
32.2

38

V-103

R-100

20

V-102

Hydrogen
9
Ni

V-107

R-101

35
31.0

H2O

Ethane
10

P-101

P-100

Stream Number

10

Temperature (oC)

25.0

35.0

35.0

35.0

35.0

60.3

41

38

54

45.1

28

32.2

31.0

31.0

30.2

45.1

31.3

24.0

39

2.6

Mass flow (tonne/hr)

10.3

13.3

0.82

20.5

6.41

20.5

0.36

9.2

20.9

11.6

Mole flow (kmol/hr)

108

114.2

301.0

1204.0

758.8

1204.4

42.6

1100.8

142.2

244.0

Pressure (psi)
Vapor fraction

The Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

PFD will contains the following information:- Basic control loops: showing the control
strategy used to operate the process under
normal operations.

Example 7
R-100

P-100

T-100

E-100

P-101

R-101

Reactor

Pump

Distillation Column

Condenser

Pump

Reactor

Hot water out


Ethylene

Ethylene liq.

E-100

6
V-104

Cold water in

LIC
25
28

V-106

T-100

CV-100

CV-101
V-105

Ethanol
1
H2SO4

V-101

V-103

R-100

35
32.2

Hydrogen
9
Ni

38

V-100

20

V-102
V-107

35
31.0

Ethane
10

R-101

8
H2O

LIC

P-101

P-100

Stream Number

10

Temperature (oC)

25.0

35.0

35.0

35.0

35.0

60.3

41

38

54

45.1

28

32.2

31.0

31.0

30.2

45.1

31.3

24.0

39

2.6

Mass flow (tonne/hr)

10.3

13.3

0.82

20.5

6.41

20.5

0.36

9.2

20.9

11.6

Mole flow (kmol/hr)

108

114.2

301.0

1204.0

758.8

1204.4

42.6

1100.8

142.2

244.0

Pressure (psi)
Vapor fraction

QUESTIONS?