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Wood Composites

Engineered wood, man-made wood, or manufactured board; includes a

range of derivative wood products which are manufactured by binding or


fixing the strands, particles, fibres, or veneers or boards of wood,
together with adhesives, or other methods of fixation to form composite
materials.

With reconstituted wood materials, changes in properties are studied at the

fibre, particle, flake, or veneer level. Properties of such materials can be


changed by combining, reorganizing, or stratifying these elements.

The basic wood elements that can be used in the production of wood-based panels

Three general categories: plywood, particle and fiber composites, and

woodnon wood composites.

The third category, woodnon-wood composites, includes products made

from combining wood fibers with agricultural fibers, with thermoplastics,


and with inorganic materials.

Conventional wood composite materials fall into five main categories based

on the physical configuration of the wood used to make the products:


plywood, oriented strand board, particleboard, hardboard, and cellulosic
fiber board.

Can be tailored to the end-use application of the product.


Varying the physical configuration of the wood.
Adjusting the density of the composites.

Other ways include varying the resin type and amount and incorporating

additives to increase water or fire resistance or to resist specific environmental


conditions.

Classification of wood-based
composites
Veneer-based material
Plywood
Laminated veneer lumber (LVL)
Parallel-laminated veneer (PLV)

Laminates
Laminated beams
Over laid materials
Wood non-wood composites

Composite material
Cellulosic fibreboard
Hardboard
Particleboard
Wafer board
Flake board
Oriented strand board (OSB)

Larger particles - higher strength properties


Wood particle geometry is important typically, the anatomical longitudinal

direction should parallel the long axis of the particle.

Parallel alignment of particles gives strength properties more similar to solid

wood

Higher in longitudinal direction.


Asymmetric.

Smaller particles - smoother surface


More adhesive - higher strength properties and water resistance
Composites swell more than solid wood upon exposure to water (except

veneer-based products)

Plywood

PLYWOOD
Plywood is a flat panel built up of sheets of veneer called plies, united under

pressure by a bonding agent to create a panel with an adhesive bond between plies.

The properties of plywood depend on the quality of the different layers of veneer,

order of layer placement, adhesive used, and control of bonding conditions.

It is always constructed with an odd number of layers with the grain direction of

adjacent layers oriented perpendicular to one another.

Since layers can consist of a single ply or of two or more plies


laminated such that their grain is parallel, a panel can contain an
odd or even number of plies but always an odd number of layers.
The outside plies are called faces or face and back plies; the inner
plies are called cores or centres; and the plies with grain
perpendicular to that of the face and back are called cross bands.

SPECIFICATIONS
The top selling and most commonly manufactured plywood size in

India is 8 feet by 4 feet. Other sizes such as 8x3, 7x4, 7x3, 6x4 and
6x3 sq.feet are also manufactured.

Brand

The core may be veneer, lumber, or particleboard, with the total Duro

panel thickness typically not less than 1.6 mm (1/16 in.) or more Commercial
than 76 mm (3 in.).
Greenply

Plywood can be glued, screwed, cut and sawed, and fasteners can be CenturyPly

used too, much like solid wood.

Price/per sq.
ft.
(Rs.)
32.54
34.52
35.84

USES
SOFTWOOD: Floors, walls and roofs in houses; wind bracing panels, vehicle internal body
work packages and boxes, and fencing.
HARDWOOD: Panels in concrete form work systems, floors, walls and roofs in transport
vehicles, container floors,scaffolding.

Advantages
Improved utilization of wood.
Greater resistance to splitting
High strength-to-weight and strength-

to-thickness ratios, and its stiffness


and strength are more equal in width
and length than are stiffness and
strength of solid wood

The form permits many applications

where large sheets are desirable.

Excellent dimensional stability along

its length and across its width.

Minimal edge-swelling makes plywood

perhaps the best choice for adhesivebonded tongue-and groove joints, even
where some wetting is expected.

Disadvantages
Size:Plywood is available "off the shelf" almost
exclusively in unwieldy 4-foot-by-8-foot sheets.
Plywood cannot be made thinner by surfacing,
as can be done with lumber. Attempting to do so
will severely damage the plywood.
Can be custom-ordered in the same size and
shape as other lumber if desired, but the
expense is prohibitive.
More susceptible to moisture
damage than regular lumber.

and

weather

Capillary action, draw the water deep into the


wood. This compromises the integrity of both
the wood and the adhesive used to hold the
layers together.
Failure effects are catastrophic. Plywood, used
for sheathing, in shingle roofing, when fails,
comes to notice much later, when the failure is
pronounced that there is no alternative but to
remove and replace the entire sheet.

Oriented Strand
Board

Oriented Strand board


Oriented strand board is an engineered structural-use panel

manufactured from thin wood strands bonded together with waterproof


resin under heat and pressure.

Orientation of wood strands with a typical aspect ratio (that is, strand

length divided by width) of at least 3 can produce a panel product with


greater bending strength and stiffness in the oriented or aligned
direction.
OSB with aligned face
and random core

OSB with aligned face


and aligned core

Brand

Price/per piece
(8 x 4) Thick
7/16

LP Cumberland

Rs. 470.25

Tech Shield

Rs. 660.80

USES:
It is used extensively for roof, wall, and floor sheathing in

residential and commercial construction.

Performance OSB panels are specifically engineered for floor,

roof, and wall sheathing purposes in wood frame construction.

SIZES:
Panels are available in nominal 4'x8' sheets (1220x2440 mm)

or cut to size dimensions.

For industrial applications sizes up to 8'x24' (2440x7320 mm)

and larger are available by special order. Some new mills


manufacture master panels up to 12' (3660 mm) wide or other
custom sizes from continuous presses.

The most common thicknesses are 1/4 ", 3/8", 7/16", 15/32",

19/32", 23/32". Other panel thicknesses including 7/8", 11/8" and 1-1/4" are available on special order. Panels 19/32"
and thicker are manufactured either square-edged or tongue
and grooved on the long edge.

WORKABILITY
OSB is easy to saw, drill, nail, plane, file or sand. It contains wood, fully cured waterproof

and boil proof resin adhesive and a small amount of wax.

Normal carpentry tools can be used, but carbide tipped blades are recommended for

prolonged use.

NAILABILITY
The many interleaved layers create panels with good nail holding properties. Nails can be

driven as close as 1/4" from the panel edges without risk of splitting or breaking out.
However, an edge distance of 3/8" for structural applications is recommended.

Often power driven nails are used to fasten sheathing.

GLUABILITY
OSB may be glued with any adhesive recommended for wood. For

strong bonds, lightly sand the surfaces in the areas to be glued.

PAINT ABILITY
OSB may be finished with any good quality paint system

recommended for wood. For best results, the surface must be


primed or sealed before painting.

Advantages
Available in large sizes. OSB can be

manufactured into larger panels than


plywood and offer more cost saving
options for todays builders

Consistent. Panels are dense and solid

throughout the product. OSB panels do


not have core voides like plywood panels
do

Good shear strength.


Resource-efficient.OSB panels are

considered greener by some as they are


manufactured from smaller, sustainablygrown trees rather than old-growth forests

Affordable.

Disadvanages
Heavy. OSBs relative density could be

seen as a bad thing. a 23/32 plywood


panel weighs 2.2 pounds per square
foot compared to 2.4 pounds for an
OSB panel of the samethickness.
Lower moisture tolerance. When

plywood is exposed to moisture it


swells evenly throughout the panel and
returns to its nominal thickness as the
wood dries.
Prone to swelling edges and

telegraphing.
Lower perceived value.Despite the

fact that plywood and OSB meet the


same performance requirements, the
average consumer assumes OSB is an
inferior product based on its look.

Particle Board

Particle Board
Need to dispose of large quantities of sawdust, planer shavings, and to a

lesser extent, the use of mill residues and other relatively homogeneous waste
materials produced by other wood industries.

Simply put, particleboard is produced by mechanically reducing the material

into small particles, applying adhesive to the particles, and consolidating a


loose mat of the particles with heat and pressure into a panel product.

Particleboard is typically made in three layers. The faces of the board consists

of fine wood particles, and the core is made of the coarser material.

However, particleboard is generally not as strong as fibreboard because the

fibrous nature of lignocelluloses is not exploited as well.

USES
Packaging materials, furniture and non-structural building components.
Particleboard is used for furniture cores, where it is typically overlaid with

other materials for decorative purposes. Particleboard can be used in flooring


systems, in manufactured houses, for stair treads, and as underlayment.

Thin panels can be used as a panelling substrate.

ADVANTAGES
Particleboard is cheaper,denserand more

uniform than conventional wood &plywoodand


is substituted for them when appearance and
strength are less important than cost.

For constructing, cabinet box and shelves, it is

well suited for attaching cabinet door hinges to


the sides of frameless cabinets. Plywood has can
feather off in sheaves when extreme weight is
placed on the hinges. In contrast, particle board
holds the screws in place under similar weight.

SIZE AVAILABILITY

Thickn Length x Width


ess
(mm)
12mm 1800 x
450/600/900/1200
2400 x
450/600/900/1200
3600 x
450/600/1200/1800
16mm 1800 x
450/600/900/1200

Applications
Shelving
Furniture
Table
lamination
substrate
Storage
containers

Though it is denser than conventional

DISADVANTAGES
wood,
it is the lightest and weakest
type of fibreboard, except for
insulation board.

A major disadvantage of particleboard

is that it is very prone to expansion


and discoloration due to moisture,
particularly when it is not covered
withpaintor another sealer.
Therefore, it is rarely used outdoors or

in places where there are high levels


of moisture, with the exception of
some bathrooms, kitchens and
laundries, where it is commonly used
as an underlayment - in its 'moisture
resistant variant - beneath a
PRODUCT
continuousBRANDS
sheet ofvinylflooring.

Fiber Boards
MDF HDF-Insulation Board

Fiberboard
The term fibreboard includes hardboard, medium-density fibreboard

(MDF), and insulation board.

Because wood is fibrous by nature, fibreboard exploits the inherent

strength of wood to a greater extent than does particleboard.

To make fibres for composites, bonds between the wood fibers must

be broken. In its simplest form, this is accomplished by attrition


milling. Attrition milling is an age-old concept whereby material is
fed between two disks, one rotating and the other stationary.

Fibreboard is normally classified by density and can be made by

either dry or wet processes. Dry processes are applicable to boards


with high density (hardboard) and medium density (MDF). Wet
processes are applicable to both high-density hardboard and lowdensity insulation board

They are derived from renewable resources and are biodegradable.

Medium
Density
Fiber Board
Decorative Wall cladding in routed
wave form or Jalis
Wooden Handicraft items/ Toys and
puzzles
Educational Tools/ Aids & casing
for scientific instruments/ Model
making
Exhibition Stalls & Display/ POP
Automotive interior cladding &
paneling
Photo lamination substrate

Medium- density fibreboard is frequently used in place of


solid wood, plywood, and particleboard in many furniture
applications. It is also used for interior door skins,
mouldings, and interior trim components

Routing & carving of trophies/ Gift


items
Routed Shutters for Kitchens &
wardrobes with membrane or
polished surface

Workability

STAPLING
Staples can be used effectively for joint fitting. For best results it is

helpful to add adhesive to the joint prior to assembly.

SCREWS
The position of screws inserted into the faces and edges of MDF

should be decided in relation to board thickness and screw size.


Screws inserted into the edges should be not less than 25mm from
the corners. The screw must not be over tightened as further turning
will reduce the holding strength

NAILING

MDF Panels can be fixed by nailing with good holding power and no split out when the
following conditions are met:
Using either annular grooved or helical nails
Nails must be at least 25mm from the corner of the MDF panel.
Nailing is not recommended to edges of 9mm and 12mm, screwing is recommended.
Edge nailing is not recommended for MDF of 12mm thick or less.

SANDING AND FINISHING


Special attention to sanding edges gives excellent results

PAINTING
For best results application of three coats is recommended.

First coat primer/undercoat is critical to the final finish.

PRODUCT BRANDS

SIZE AVAILABILITY

MDF with veneer overlay. Edges can


be shaped and finished as required
by end product.

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES
If one does not place nails at

It is inexpensive.
It can be painted or stained to look

just like wood.

No Grain or Knots- it easy to saw

MDF in any direction

Strong and Stiff.


Stable dimensions (won't expand

or contract like wood)

Shape well.

close intervals, the board can


droop in the middle.
Urea-formaldehyde Resin and

Dust - Working with MDF is


hazardous to your health.
Not very durable
The wood may split and the

fasteners do not hold well.


Holes have to be pre-drilled
for nails and screws.
Dulls blades more quickly

than many woods


May warp or expand if not

sealed.

Perforated Hardboard

High
Density
Fibre
Shoe Heel & lasts
Laminate flooring
Substrates
Embossed Panels for wall
cladding
Kitchen shutters
Flat & molded door skins
Decorative display panels

The uses for hardboard can generally be grouped as


construction, furniture and furnishings, cabinet and store
work, appliances, and automotive and rolling stock. Typical
hardboard products are prefinished panelling, house siding
floor underlayment, and concrete form board.

Railway cushion base


Automotive internal panels

ADVANTAGES
HDF comes with a smooth surface.
HDF is High density board has more

strength compared to MDF and Particle


board

Great solution for indoor and outdoor

furniture, wall panelling, furniture,


room partitions, and doors.

Has more durability and warp-resistant

characteristics as compared to wood


laminate flooring.

PRODUCT BRANDS

Shouguang Hongyu Board


Industry Co., Ltd.

DISADVANTAGES
A lot of carpenters prefer wood

block board compared to HDF as


they are more confident about the
nail holding capabilities of natural
wood whose blocks are used to
build the block board

SIZE AVAILABILITY
Pine Panels

2460mm
2620mm
2460mm
2460mm
2440mm
2440mm

x
x
x
x
x
x

2076mm
1455mm
2076mm
2076mm
2133mm
2133mm

x
x
x
x
x
x

6.4mm
7.3mm
7.6mm
9.4mm
11.4mm
11.6mm