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Personality & Theories of Personality Presenter M.Shahid Khan M.Phil Education shahidbarki@yahoo.com 03/19/15 Personality and its Theories

Personality & Theories of Personality

Presenter M.Shahid Khan M.Phil Education shahidbarki@yahoo.com

Personality & Theories of Personality Presenter M.Shahid Khan M.Phil Education shahidbarki@yahoo.com 03/19/15 Personality and its Theories
Study of Personality  Study of Personality is an attempt to describe and explain how people

Study of Personality

Study of Personality is an attempt to describe and explain how people are similar, how they are different, and why every individual is unique. It tries to explain the whole person.

The branch of psychology which study personality is called Personality Psychology or Personology.

Introduction Etymology of the term Personality  The term Personality has been derived from the Latin

Introduction Etymology of the term Personality

The term Personality has been derived from the Latin word “ Persona” which means Mask, was associated with Greek theater in ancient times.

The Greek actors commonly used to wear masks on their faces during their performances on the stage. The mask worn by the actors was called “Persona”.

Personality was thought to be the effect and influence which the individual wearing a mask left on the audience.

Introduction

The psychologists have defined the term personality in various ways but they were not completely successful in explaining it, in clear and definite terms, because human behavior is very complex and personality is not a fixed state but a dynamic totality, which is continuously changing due to interaction with the environment.

Definition

Personality can be defined as a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences his or her behaviors in various situations.

According to Lundberg Kolb

“each individual’s characteristically recurring patters of behaviour are known as personality”.

Definition

Burger, suggests that personality can be defined as consistent behavioral patterns and intrapersonal processes originating within the individual.

Note elements of this definition: Personality is consistent, along time and across situations. Personality is our intrapersonal processes, our emotional, motivational, and cognitive processes that affect how we feel and how we act.

Definition

The pioneering American psychologist, Gordon Allport (1937) who devoted most of his time for research on personality, defines Personality as:

“It is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychological systems that determine his unique adjustment to the environment”.

Theories of Personality  The concept of personality seems like a simple one, hundreds of years

Theories of Personality

The concept of personality seems like a simple one, hundreds of years have gone into studying it and we still don't agree how it develops.

Personality theories are attempts at understanding both the characteristics of our personality and the way these characteristics develops and impact our life.

Theories of Personality  Four Theories of Personality are: 1. Trait Theories 2. Learning Theories 3.

Theories of Personality

Four Theories of Personality are:

  • 1. Trait Theories

  • 2. Learning Theories

  • 3. Psychoanalytical Theories

  • 4. Phenomenological Theories

1.Trait Theory The trait theories suggests that individual personalities are composed of traits. What is Trait?

1.Trait Theory

The trait theories suggests that individual personalities are composed of traits.

What is Trait?

Any characteristic in which one person differs from another in a relatively permanent and consistent way. E.g. friendly, anxious, excitable, intelligent, we are using trait terms.

Trait theory is focused on identifying and measuring these individual personality characteristics.

Trait Theory

In 1940 William Sheldon an American Psychologist, classified human personalities based on body build.

Endomorph (A short, plump person) Socialable, relaxed and even-tempered

Ectomorph (A tall, thin Person) Restrained, self conscious and found of solitude

Mesomorph (A Heavy, Muscular Person) Noisy, callous and fond of physical activity.

Jung’s Theory of Two Types Carl Jung (Swiss Psychologist) divided personalities into: 1. Introvert Type. Shy,

Jung’s Theory of Two Types

Carl Jung (Swiss Psychologist) divided personalities into:

  • 1. Introvert Type. Shy, self-centered person whose attention is focused inward.

  • 2. Extrovert Type. Bold, outgoing person whose attention is directed outward.

Gordon Allport’s Trait Theory  In 1936, Gordon Allport found that one English- language dictionary alone

Gordon Allport’s Trait Theory

In 1936, Gordon Allport found that one English- language dictionary alone contained more than 4,000 words describing different personality traits. He categorized these traits into three levels:

Cardinal traits: govern the direction of one's life. e.g Freudian, Behaviorist.

Central traits: operate in daily interactions, as illustrated by a tendency to always try to control a situation. Terms such as intelligent, honest, shy are central traits.

Secondary traits: These are the traits that are sometimes related to attitudes or preferences and often appear only in certain situations or under specific circumstances. Some examples would be getting anxious when speaking to a group or impatient while waiting in line.

Eysenck’s Three Dimensions of Personality

British psychologist Hans Eysenck developed a model of personality based upon three traits:

Extraversion (as opposed to introversion) Neuroticism (as opposed to emotional stability) Psychoticism (as opposed to impulse control)

Raymond Cattell Trait Theory  Trait theorist, Raymond Cattell in 1973, reduced the number of main

Raymond Cattell Trait Theory

Trait theorist, Raymond Cattell in 1973, reduced the number of main personality traits from Allport’s initial list of over 4,000 down to 171.

Next, Cattell rated a large sample of individuals for these 171 different traits. Then, using a statistical technique known as factor analysis, he identified closely related terms and eventually reduced his list to just 16 key personality traits. According to Cattell, these 16 traits are the source of all human personality. He also developed one of the most widely used personality assessments known as the Sixteen Personality Factors (16PF).

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The Big Five  According to The Big Five theory given by by McCrae and Costa

The Big Five

According to The Big Five theory given by by McCrae and Costa in 1980, most human personality traits can be boiled down to five broad dimensions of personality.

The Big Five  Extraversion/Introversion: described in terms such as talkative, sociable, vs. turned inward 

The Big Five

Extraversion/Introversion: described in terms such as talkative, sociable, vs. turned inward

Agreeableness/Antagonism: described in terms such as good natured, cooperative, likable vs. hostile

Conscientiousness/ Undirectedness: described in terms such as responsible, neat, task motivated vs. disorganized

Stability/Instability: described in terms such as calm, composed vs. uncertain, insecure

Openness to experience/Conforming: described in terms such as flexible, original, creative, daring vs. rigid, conventional, conforming, noncreative.

2.Learning Theory  Learning theorists in contrast to Trait theorists emphasize the importance of environmental or

2.Learning Theory

Learning theorists in contrast to Trait theorists emphasize the importance of environmental or situational determinants of behaviour.

For social learning theorists, behaviour is the result of a continuous interaction between person and environment.

The interaction of individual differences and specific situations is crucial for predicting behaviour.

Learning Theory Peoples behaviors are learned responses. Learning Theory has two Branches: A. Behaviorism – John

Learning Theory

Peoples behaviors are learned responses. Learning Theory has two Branches:

A. Behaviorism – John Watson & BF Skinner believed outside influences mold us (parents, society etc.) rewards, punishments

B. Social Learning Theory – (more contemporary view) focuses on the importance of learning by observation.

Learning Theory  Learning Theory —3 Tenets  Consequences influence behavior  Humans can learn by

Learning Theory

Learning Theory —3 Tenets

Consequences influence behavior

Humans can learn by observing others

Individuals are more likely to model behavior observed in people they identify with.

3.Psychoanalytical Theory  Psychoanalytical theory approaches personality from a view point that is quite different either

3.Psychoanalytical Theory

Psychoanalytical theory approaches personality from a view point that is quite different either of the two theories we have discussed so far. Instead of studying traits or individual reactions the psychoanalyst Like Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) looks for the unconscious motives of the behaviour.

The psychoanalytic approach focuses on the role of the unconscious mind in studying personality.

Personality Structure 1. Id = unconscious = pleasure principle - Primary process thinking: wish fulfillment -

Personality Structure

1. Id = unconscious = pleasure principle

  • - Primary process thinking: wish fulfillment

  • - I want it now! Instant gratification

  • - Part of the iceberg that is submerged underwater 2. Ego = conscious = reality principle

    • - What are the real-world consequences of my actions?

    • - secondary process thinking: reality testing

    • - part of the iceberg that is above water and aware of reality 3. Superego = preconscious = morality principle

  • - What is the proper way to behave? Parents/Society

  • - Conscience: should nots

  • - Part of the iceberg that is just under the water but can sometimes surface

  • Psychosexuality and Unconscious  According to Freud, life includes both pleasurable and painful experiences. Freud believed

    Psychosexuality and Unconscious

    According to Freud, life includes both pleasurable and painful experiences. Freud believed that many of our experiences, particularly the painful episodes of childhood, are buried in our unconscious. Although we may not consciously recall these experiences, they continue to influence our behaviour and thus our personalities.

    4.Phenomenological Theory  Some psychologists did not believe trait, behaviorist and psychoanalytic explanations of personality. They

    4.Phenomenological Theory

    Some psychologists did not believe trait, behaviorist and psychoanalytic explanations of personality.

    They felt that these theories ignored the qualities that make humans unique among animals, such as striving for self- determination and self-realization. In the 1950s, some of these psychologists began a school of psychology called humanism.

    Phenomenological Theories  The Phenomenological approach to the study of personality, emphasis on subjective experiences- the

    Phenomenological Theories

    The Phenomenological approach to the study of personality, emphasis on subjective experiences- the individual private view of the world.

    They are concerns with how the individual perceives and interprets events- the individual’s phenomenology.

    Phenomenological Theories  Humanistic psychologists try to see people’s lives as those people would see them.

    Phenomenological Theories

    Humanistic psychologists try to see people’s lives as those people would see them. They tend to have an optimistic perspective on human nature. In the humanistic view, people are responsible for their lives and actions and have the freedom and will to change their attitudes and behavior.

    Two psychologists, Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers, became well known for their humanistic theories.

    Carl Rogers’s Theory of Self  Rogers assumes that every individual has the motivation and ability

    Carl Rogers’s Theory of Self

    Rogers assumes that every individual has the motivation and ability to change and that we are the best experts on ourselves.

    The most important concept in Rogers’s theory of personality is the self. The self consists of all the ideas, perceptions and values that characterize “I” or “Me”; it includes the awareness of “what I am” and “what can I do”.

    Carl Rogers’s Theory of Self  Roger uses two terms; Congruence and Incongruence. Rogers said that

    Carl Rogers’s Theory of Self

    Roger uses two terms; Congruence and Incongruence.

    Rogers said that people’s self-concepts often do not exactly match reality. For example, a person may consider himself to be very honest but often lies to his boss about why he is late to work. This is Incongruence.

    If the parent shows unconditional love, the child can develop congruence. Children whose parents provided conditional love would continue in adulthood to distort their experiences in order to feel accepted.

    Carl Rogers’s Theory of Self  Results of Incongruence  Rogers thought that people experience anxiety

    Carl Rogers’s Theory of Self

    Results of Incongruence

    Rogers thought that people experience anxiety when their self-concepts are threatened. To protect themselves from anxiety, people distort their experiences so that they can hold on to their self-concept. People who have a high degree of incongruence are likely to feel very anxious because reality continually threatens their self-concepts and thus their personality .

    Maslow’s Theory of Self-Actualization  The highest rung on Abraham Maslow’s ladder of human motives is

    Maslow’s Theory of Self-Actualization

    The highest rung on Abraham Maslow’s ladder of human motives is the need for self-actualization.

    Maslow said that human beings strive for self-actualization, or realization of their full potential, once they have satisfied their more basic needs.

    Maslow’s Theory of Self-Actualization  Maslow described several characteristics that self-actualizing people share:  Awareness and

    Maslow’s Theory of Self-Actualization

    Maslow described several characteristics that self-actualizing people share:

    Awareness and acceptance of themselves Openness and spontaneity

    The ability to enjoy work and see work as a mission to fulfill

    The ability to develop close friendships without being overly dependent on other people

    A good sense of humor

    The tendency to have peak experiences that are spiritually or emotionally satisfying

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