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PERSONALITY

PERSONALITY
Those inner psychological characteristics that both
determine & reflect how a person responds to his or her
environment.
NATURE OF PERSONALITY:
It reflects individual differences
It is consistent & enduring
It can change

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
FREUDIAN THEORY:
Psychoanalytic theory of personality
It believes that unconscious needs or drives especially
sexual & other biological drives are at the heart of
human motivation & personality
Freud constructed his theory on the basis of patients
recollection of early childhood experiences, analysis of
their dreams & specific nature of their mental & physical
adjustment problems

ID, SUPEREGO & EGO


Human personality consists of 3 interacting systems: Id,
Superego & Ego
Id: warehouse of primitive & impulsive drives-basic
psychological needs like thirst, hunger etc for which
individual seeks immediate satisfaction without concern
for specific means of satisfaction
Superego: individuals internal expression of societys
moral & ethical codes of conduct. This superegos role is
to see that individual satisfies needs in a socially
acceptable
fashion. Superego restrains
impulsive
forces of Id.

Ego: it is the individuals conscious control. It functions


as an internal monitor that attempts to balance the
impulsive demands of the id & socio cultural demands of
superego.

FREUDIAN THEORY & PRODUCT


PERSONALITY
The advocators of this theory believe that human drives
are largely unconscious & consumers are primarily
unaware of their true reasons for buying what they buy.
Researchers tend to see consumer purchases
/consumption situations as a reflection & extension of
consumers own personality.

NEO-FREUDIAN PERSONALITY THEORY


Disagreed that personality is primarily instinctual &
sexual in nature.
Social relationships are fundamental to the formation of
personality.
Some of them emphasized on attainment of rational
goals, some on attempt to establish significant &
rewarding relationship with others etc.

TRAIT THEORY
Orientation of this theory is primarily quantitative or
empirical
It focuses on measurement of personality in terms of
specific psychological characteristics called traits.
Trait is any distinguishing, relatively enduring way in
which one individual differs from another.
Believe in construction of personality tests that enable
them to pinpoint individual differences in terms of
specific traits.
These
tests
measure
traits
like
consumer
innovativeness, consumer materialism, consumer
ethnocentrism etc

It is more realistic to expect personality to be linked to


how consumers make their choices & to the purchase or
consumption of a broad product category rather than a
specific brand.

BRAND PERSONALITY
It is a notion in which consumers attribute various
descriptive personality like traits or characteristics to
different brands in a wide variety of product categories.
PRODUCT PERSONALITY: It is a notion in which
consumers attribute various descriptive personality like
traits or characteristics to different products in a wide
variety of product categories.
BRAND PERSONIFICATION: it tries to recast
consumers perception of the attributes of a product or
service into a human like character.

BRAND PERSONALITY FRAMEWORK

BRAND PERSONALITY

SINCERITY

DOWN TO EARTH
HONEST
WHOLESOME
CHEERFUL

EXCITEMENT

DARING
SPIRITED
IMAGINATIVE
UP TO DATE

COMPETENCE

RELIABLE
INTELLIGENT
SUCCESSFUL

SOPHISTICATION

UPPER CLASS
CHARMING

RUGGEDNESS

OUTDOORSY
TOUGH

PRODUCT PERSONALITY & GENDER: a product


personality or persona frequently endows the product or
brand with a gender. Knowledge of perceived gender of
a product , helps marketers in selecting visuals & text
copy for marketing messages.
PRODUCT PERSONALITY & GEOGRAPHY: certain
products possess a strong geographical association in
the minds of consumers. So by employing geography in
the products name the manufacturer creates a
geographic personality of the product.

PRODUCT PERSONALITY & COLOUR: consumers


associate personality factors with specific colours also.
Eg: coca cola is associated with RED, which indicates
EXCITEMENT.
Blue is associated with commanding respect
Green- secure
Yellow- novelty etc.

SELF CONCEPT & VANITY


Vanity- pride, self importance
Consumers have variety of enduring images of
themselves.
These self images or perceptions of self are very closely
associated with personality in the individuals who tend to
buy products & services .
Consumers tend to patronize retailers whose images or
personalities relate in some meaningful way to their own
self images.
Consumers tend to depict themselves in their brand
choices.
Multiple selves: consumer tends to behave differently in
different situations.

KINDS OF SELF IMAGES


ACTUAL SELF IMAGE: how consumers see themselves
IDEAL SELF IMAGE: how consumers would like to see
themselves
SOCIAL SELF IMAGE: how consumers feel others see
them
IDEAL SOCIAL SELF IMAGE: how consumers would like
others to see them
EXPECTED SELF IMAGE: how consumers expect to
see themselves at some specified future time
OUGHT TO SELF IMAGE: traits that individual believes
it is his or her duty or obligation to possess

EXTENDED SELF: consumers possessions confirm or


extend their self images.
ALTERING THE SELF: sometimes consumers wish to
change themselves to become a different or improved
self.
VIRTUAL PERSONALITY/VIRTUAL SELF: eg: internet
based chat. You may create a different identity for
yourself.