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METODE ETNOGRAFI

Sistematika:
A. Tujuan
B. Sejarah
C. Metode

What is an Ethnography?

Ethno: people or folk; Graphy: describe


something
It documents routine daily lives of people
(Fetterman,1998)
Explores a cultural group
Lives with people, or spends a lot of time with
them
Has a guiding question that evolves during the
study (Hall, 2003)
Describing and understanding another way of
life from the native point of view (Neuman,
2007)

Where is it Used?
Cultural Anthropology
Sociology
Business
Organizational Psychology

Tujuan
Menjelaskan (fenomena yang menarik), pada suatu
waktu dan tempat
Memberikan gambaran yang lebih nyata, yang
biasanya tidak teramati (Williams, 2000)
Mencoba menjelaskan perilaku/fenomena dari sudut
pandang populasi (Viller, 2004, McCleverty, 1997,
Fetterman, 1998)
Memahami konteks, komprehensifitas dan proses
sosial (Warren, 2004)

History of
Anthropology/Ethnography (USA)
Lewis Henry
Morgan
Lawyer and
anthropologist
In 1851 he published
an ethnography about
Indians in the USA. He
didn't gather the
information himselfwas a sofa
anthropologist
(usually called arm
chair anthropologist)

History of Anthropology (United


Kingdom)
The first ethnographies in
Britain were published in
1898-1899. They were
built on field research like
we know it today
Bronislaw Malinowski
Considered the father of
modern anthropology
Wrote numerous
ethnographies that are
well known still today

Sir James George Frazer about Malinowskis


Methods in Argonauts of the Western
Pacific.
Malinowskis work was done
under the best conditions and
provided the best possible
results at that time
Good theoretical training
Stayed with the Trobriands
island for a great time
Lived as a native among
natives
Watched them daily at work
and at play
Had conversations with them
in their own language
Derived information from
personal observation
Statements directly by the
natives
Characteristics of
Malinowskis method
(Malinowski, 1922)

Malinowskis Methods
I consider that only such ethnographic sources are of
unquestionable scientific value, in which we can clearly draw
the line between, on the one hand, the results of direct
observations and of native statements and interpretations,
and on the other hand, the inferences of the author, based
on his common sense and psychological insight
(Malinowski, 1922, p. 3)

Malinowski - Important for


Ethnographic Work:
Accurate information
Complex information
Observation
Speaking the native language is important
No contact with white people
Seek information naturally, instead of having informants
Should have a strong theoretical background
Join yourself with the natives
Typical ways of thinking and feeling
Use the native language as an instrument (Malinowski,
1922)

Evans-Pritchards
Methodology
Malinowskis student
Did research among the
Azande 1926-1930
1930 published his
ethnography Witchcraft,
oracles, and magic among the
Azande
Used informants
Native language
Length of stay 1-2 years
Get to know natives through
the children
Live like the natives (EvansPritchard, 1988)

1950s-1980s: Ethnography as thick


Culture based
description (Clifford Geertz
)
Meaning oriented. Meaning is

a set of culturally
constructed and historically
specific guides, frames, or
models of and for human
feeling, intention, and action
(Ortner 1999: 137)
Specific to time and place (i.e.
cultural relativism)
Opposed to power and
politics. [C]ulture is not
power, something to which
social events, behaviours,
institutions, or processes can
be causally attributed; it is a
context, something within
which they can be intelligiblythat is, thicklydescribed( Geertz 1973:14)
Opposed to the thin
description of post-positivism

Methodology
Outline of Process
Identifying problem or topic of interest
Fieldwork Data collection and analysis
Participant Observation Individuals and
groups
Analysis Holistic
Report (Fetterman, 1998)

Methodology
Ethnographers Jargon

Emic inside (Hall, 2003)


Etic outside (Hall, 2003)
Key informant / key
actor individual of group
who closely interacts with
ethnographer (Fetterman,
1998)
Culture - beliefs, values,
behaviors of a cohesive
people (Morse and
Richards, 2002)

Edward T Hall

TYPES OF KNOWLEDGE
Emic local knowledge: how people
think, perceive, categorize the world; what
has meaning in their world-the natives point
of view
Etic -- shift focus from the native's point of
view to that of the anthropologist

Methodology
Characteristics of Ethnographies
Holistic
Data collection and analysis occur
together
Data collection oscillates between
individuals and groups (Fetterman, 1998)

Methodology
Fieldwork (Morse and
Richards, 2002),
(Fetterman, 1998)
Stages
Negotiating entry the
Gatekeeper, Key
Actors, Key Informants
Introductory period
routines, roles,
relationships
Participatory
observation
important! (Hall, 2003)

Fieldwork
living with people for an extended time to gather data
using a variety of field techniques for collecting that
data
fieldwork & field techniques developed in the study of
smaller scale societies with greater cultural uniformity
compared to large-scale industrial societies

the concept of holism

Before Fieldwork

schooling & training


language acquisition (at school & in the field)
research proposal
visa, government bureaucracies & permissions to
do fieldwork
changing nature of the rules of fieldwork

Field Equipment

Medicine, money, and as field


equipment

Methodology
Fieldwork Methods
Selection and sampling
Participant observation
Interviewing
Autobiographical interviewing
Questionnaires
Projective techniques
Participants classification
Outcropping
Existing documented information
Proxemics and kinesics
Folktales
Notes, notes, notes!!! (Fetterman, 1998)

Methodolog
y

Analysis
Evaluating relevance
Looking for patterns
Considering phenomena through the cultural
perspective
Thick description (Morse and Richards, 2002)
Classifications, parameters, etic observations
Maps, drawings, charts (Fetterman, 1998)

Methodology
A few words on writing
Writing must be good from the field notes
to the final product
Write for your audience
Write for the objective to make the etic
perspective see the emic perspective

Disadvantages of
Ethnographic
Research

Time

Fieldwork often time consuming (and therefore can be


expensive)
Data collecting can last months or even years.

For example,
Margaret Meads spent a year in Samoa conducting
research for her famous work, Coming of Age in Samoa

(Rosenthal 124)
http://www.answers.com/topic/margaret-mead

Financial
Some ethnographic methods can be costly
The Focus Group
a group discussion that concentrates on particular issues
or a basic question or problem
Discussion guided by a moderator who is compensated
Participants may be compensated

(Rosenthal 167)

Hawthorne Effect
Human subjects behave in special ways because they know they
are subjects of an investigation

Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Co. Cicero, Illinois

Different conditions (dimmed lights, increased rest periods) did not


decrease production, actually increased it

Motivated to increase their output because of their special status as


research participants
(Rosenthal 218)

Interpreter Bias

refers to the systematic errors that occur during the


interpretation-of-data phase of the research process
Racial Differences in IQ Research - Sherwood/Nataupsky (1968)
Studied the effect of investigators personal background with
regard to their evaluation of IQ tests given to blacks and whites
Conclusion: it was possible, statistically to discriminate particular
conclusions reached by the investigators studied.

(Rosenthal 128)

Observer Bias

refers

to systematic errors in the observation or recording


phase of research
Our assumptions define and limit what we see, i.e. we
tend to see things in such a way that they will fit in with our
assumptions even if this involves distortions or omissions.
M.L. Johnson, biologist (1953)

(Rosenthal 129)

Confidentiality

As anonymity is usually not possible with qualitative


research methods, P.O.s must seek to protect informants by
adhering to strict confidentiality standards.

Use of pseudonyms, removing identifying details (SSN etc.)


and employing careful record keeping

(Powell 181)