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Behaviour

Modifications in the
Classrooms

Definiti
on
A punishing
technique that is
equivalent to the
losing what pupils
posses or have
earned.
Earned
consequenc
es
are
considered
When earned
reinforcer.
consequence
s are lost, this
become
response
cost.

RESPONSE
COST
Why
use?

To reduce
off-task
behaviour.
To improve
compliance
with
directions

RESPONSE COST

effe
c
with tive

Children with ADHD

Provide maximum numbers of


points or token to be earned
during the school day to retain
the reinforcer.

Pupils are provided with


reinforcement and must work
hard to keep it.

This will motivate


and attract children
to behave in the
classroom.

Guidelines for using response cost


in the classroom :
1. Use the procedures for most, if not all, of the classroom
day of the target behaviour.
2. Make certain the number of students with whom you are
using the program is manageable.
3. Make certain there are more opportunities for success
than for failure.
4. Build in additional incentives, including additional
reinforcers that can be earned at the end of the week, by
retaining a minimum number of reinforcers through the
week.
5. Consider incorporating self-monitoring techniques which
students can administer response cost independently when
they recognise a rule violation.

TIME-OUT

Excludes children from opportunity to participate with others


and receive any kind of positive reinforcement.
One of the most effective disciplinary techniques but most
likely to be overused and misused in the classroom.
The least restrictive form consists of removal of certain
reinforcing activities or objects from the misbehaving child
for short period.
Can be quite effective for noncompliant children. But for
ADHD children, teacher must distinguish between
noncompliant behaviours and behaviours resulting from
ADHD.

The
time
should
be
short.
4-min is
better
than
10-sec
or 1min.

EFFECTIVE
TIME-OUT
Refers to
amount
of time
and
continge
ncies
required
to earn
release.
Example
: sitting

Stude
nt
should
be
separa
ted
from
reinfor
cemen
t
Confro
ntatio
n
should
be
avoide
d.

Verbal
interact
ion
should
be
limited.
A
timecontin
gent
releas
e
should
be
provid
ed.

Seclusionary Time-out Procedures


Should not be used
unless all other
procedures have
been tried and failed.

When student is
placed in a time-out
room, they must be
monitored by a staff
member.

Never be used without


parents written
consent.

Do remain calm when


talking to the student in
time-out room. Do not
argue with, threaten, or
verbally reprimand
student.

Used only if it is listed as


an approved and
agreed-on technique in
students individualized
education plan.

Defined as removing
students from a
reinforcing classroom
setting to less
reinforcing setting.

Should be non-

Entire procedure should

Consequential VS Rule-governed
Behaviour
e to
l
g
g
u
Str
the
p
o
l
e
dev
selfl
a
n
r
il ls
k
s
inte
g
torin
e ir
moni
h
t
n
r
ve
to go our.
vi
beha

Show good
behaviour
under
appropriate
external or
environment
al
consequence
s.

ter
a
e
gr
s
e
uir of
q
s
e
R
er l trial
b
num essfu e
c
h
lft
c
e
u
s
e
s
ak n to
m
to sitio ent.
n
tra agem
n
ma

ADHD
pupils

Become
failure if
childs
behaviour is
regress as
consequence
s are
removed.

Take
longer
time to
learn to
selfmanage
behaviour
.

Prepared by,

Nur Sheila
Nur Aziemah
Nur Iylia
Nurfarah
Wahidah

Qurratu Aini
Safia Aqila