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# BOUNDARY LAYER

Ref: Frank M. White, Fluid Mechanics, McGraw-
Hill, Inc, 4th edition

Momentum
boundary
layer of flow
in pipes

.

# Separation point of boundary layer

3. Thermal boundary layer in Heat
Transfer
Region III: Solid –
Cold Liquid
Convection
NEWTON’S LAW
OF COOLING
dq
h
.
T
T dA
.
x
c
ow
c
T h
T i,wall
T o,wall
T c
Region I : Hot Liquid-
Solid Convection
NEWTON’S LAW OF
CCOLING
Q hot
Q cold
dq
h
.
T
T
.
dA
x
h
h
iw
Region II : Conduction
Across Copper Wall
FOURIER’S LAW
dT
dq
 
k
.
x
dr

cp
Pr 
=

k

.

#  Momentum thickness is defined as the loss of momentum per unit width b divided by U 2up to x concerned.

(von Kármán, 1921).

#  By comparing this with Eq. (7.4) Kármán arrived at what is now called the momentum integral relation for flat-plate boundary-layer flow ( w )

Vertical variable
horisontal variable

#  As shown in Fig. 7.4, outer streamlines must deflect outward a distance *(x) to satisfy conservation of mass between the inlet and outlet as a result of fluid entrainment from fluid flow to boundary layer

.
 The quantity * is called the displacement thickness of
the boundary layer.

1

Local, vertical
variable
δ
*
 ρ
U u dy w
0

dp/dx < 0
dU/dx > 0
dp/dx = 0
dU/dx = 0
dp/dx > 0
dU/dx < 0
As if all curves
were pushed
upward
dp/dx > 0
dU/dx < 0

Part b.