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Starting Out with C++: Early Objects

5th Edition
Chapter 2
Introduction to C++
(Part III)

Starting Out with C++: Early Objects 5/e

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Topics
2.12 Determining the Size of a Data Type
2.13 More on Variable Assignments and
Initialization
2.14 Scope
2.15 Arithmetic Operators
2.16 Comments
2.17 Focus on Software Engineering:
Programming Style
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Readings
Sections 2.12 to 2.17

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2.12 Determining the Size of a


Data Type
The sizeof operator gives the size of any
data type OR variable (in no. of bytes)
double amount;
cout << "A float is stored in "
<< sizeof(float) << "bytes\n";
cout << "Variable amount is stored in "
<< sizeof(amount) << "bytes\n";
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2.13 More on Variable


Assignments and Initialization
Assigning a value to a variable
Assigns a value to a previously created variable
A single variable name must appear on left side
of the = symbol
int size;
size = 5;
// legal
5 = size;
// not legal
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Variable Assignment vs.


Initialization
Initializing a variable
Gives an initial value to a variable at the time
it is created
Can initialize some or all variables
int length = 12;
int width = 7, height = 5, area;
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2.14 Scope
The scope of a variable
That part of the program where the variable
can be used
A variable cannot be used before it is defined
int
cin
cin
int

a;
>> a;
>> b;
b;

// legal
// illegal

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2.15 Arithmetic Operators


Used for performing numeric calculations
C++ has unary, binary, and ternary
operators
unary (1 operand)

-5

binary (2 operands)

13 - 7

ternary (3 operands) exp1 ? exp2 : exp3


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Binary Arithmetic Operators


SYMBOL

OPERATION

EXAMPLE

ans

addition

ans = 7 + 3;

10

subtraction

ans = 7 - 3;

multiplication ans = 7 * 3;

21

division

ans = 7 / 3;

modulus

ans = 7 % 3;

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/ Operator
C++ division operator (/)performs integer
division if both operands are integers
cout << 13 / 5;
cout << 2 / 4;

// displays 2
// displays 0

If either operand is floating-point, the result


is floating-point
cout << 13 / 5.0;
cout << 2.0 / 4;
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// displays 2.6
// displays 0.5
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% Operator
C++ modulus operator (%) computes the
remainder resulting from integer division
cout << 9 % 2;

// displays 1

% requires integers for both operands


cout << 9 % 2.0; // error

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2.16 Comments
Are used to document parts of a program
Are intended for persons reading the
source code of the program
Indicate the purpose of the program
Describe the use of variables
Explain complex sections of code

Are ignored by the compiler


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C++ Style Comments


Begin with // through to the end of line
int length = 12; // length in inches
int width = 15; // width in inches
int area;
// calculated area
// Calculate rectangle area
area = length * width;
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C-Style Comments
Begin with /* and end with */
Can span multiple lines
/*---------------------------Multi-line C-style comment
----------------------------*/

Can be used like C++ style comments


int area;

/* Calculated area */

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2.17 Programming Style


Refers to the way source code is
visually arranged
Features of Good Programming Styles
Consistency (e.g. two space indented for
the if statement)
Adhering to common practices (e.g. indent
all the lines inside a pair of braces)
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Example: Poor Style


#include <iostream>
Using namespace std;int main(){int x=1.011;double y=12.343;cout
<<X = <<x<<Y = <<y<<.\n;return 0;}

What is this program all about

????
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Example: Good Style


#include <iostream>
Using namespace std;
int main()
{
int x=1.011;
double y=12.343;
cout << X = << x << Y = << y << .\n;
return 0;
}

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