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Engineering Circuit Analysis

Ch3 Basic RL and RC Circuits


3.1 First-Order RC Circuits
3.2 First-Order RL Circuits
3.3 Examples

References:
References Hayt-Ch5, 6; Gao-Ch5;

Ch3 Basic RL and RC Circuits


3.1 First-Order RC Circuits

Key Words:
Words
Transient Response of RC Circuits, Time constant

Ch3 Basic RL and RC Circuits


3.1 First-Order RC Circuits

Used for filtering signal by blocking certain frequencies and passing


others. e.g. low-pass filter
Any circuit with a single energy storage element, an arbitrary number of
sources and an arbitrary number of resistors is a circuit of order 1.
Any voltage or current in such a circuit is the solution to a 1st order
differential equation.

Ideal Linear Capacitor


i (t ) =

dq
dv
c
dt
dt

vc (t +) =v C (t )

Energy stored w pdt cvdv

1 2
cv
2

A capacitor is an energy storage device memory device.

Ch3 Basic RL and RC Circuits


3.1 First-Order RC Circuits
+

vs(t)

+
-

vr(t)

+
vc(t)

C
-

One capacitor and one resistor


The source and resistor may be equivalent to a circuit with many
resistors and sources.

Ch3 Basic RL and RC Circuits


3.1 First-Order RC Circuits
Transient Response of RC Circuits

ic

Switch is thrown to 1

KVL around the loop: ic R vC E

E vc
R

dvc
R vc E
dt

vC Ae

t
RC

Initial condition vC (0 ) v C (0) 0

vC E (1 e

t
RC

) E (1 e

dvc E
e
ic C
dt R

A E

RC
Called time constant

Ch3 Basic RL and RC Circuits


3.1 First-Order RC Circuits
Time Constant RC
R

10V
E

vC E (1 e

dvc
dt

t 0

dvc E t /
e
dt

E
E

dvc

t 0
dt

R=2k

5V

C=0.1F
SEL>>
0V
0s RC
V(2)

1ms

2ms

3ms

4ms

Ch3 Basic RL and RC Circuits


3.1 First-Order RC Circuits
Transient Response of RC Circuits
vc ic R 0

Switch to 2
R

dvc
dt
dv
vc RC c 0
dt
ic C

vc Ae

t
RC

Initial condition vC (0 ) v C (0) E

vc Ee t / RC Ee t /

ic

E t /
e
R

Ch3 Basic RL and RC Circuits


3.1 First-Order RC Circuits
Time Constant RC
R

10V

vC (t ) Ee
dvC
dt

t 0

t
RC

Ee

E
dvC
dt

t 0

R=2k

5V

C=0.1F
SEL>>
0V
0s

1.0ms

2.0ms

3.0ms

4.0ms

V(2)
Time

Ch3 Basic RL and RC Circuits


3.1 First-Order RC Circuits

Ch3 Basic RL and RC Circuits


3.2 First-Order RL Circuits

Key Words:
Words
Transient Response of RL Circuits, Time constant

Ch3 Basic RL and RC Circuits


3.2 First-Order RL Circuits
Ideal Linear Inductor
The
rest
of
the
circuit

i(t)

+
L

v(t)

d
di (t )
v(t )
L
dt
dt
di
P iv Li
dt

1
i (t ) v( x)dx
L
i L (t ) i L (t )
1
2

Energy stored: wL (t ) pdt Lidi Li 2 (t )

One inductor and one resistor


The source and resistor may be equivalent to a circuit with many
resistors and sources.

Ch3 Basic RL and RC Circuits


3.2 First-Order RL Circuits
Transient Response of RL Circuits

vL L

Switch to 1
R

KVL around the loop: iR vL E

EL

di
dt

di
iR
dt

Initial condition t 0, i (0 ) i (0 ) 0

R
t
E
E
L
i (1 e ) (1 e t / )
R
R
vR iR E (1 e t / )
R
t
di
d E
vL L L 1 e L
dt
dt R

L/ R
Called time constant

E R RL t
t /
L e Ee
R L

Ch3 Basic RL and RC Circuits


3.2 First-Order RL Circuits
Time constant

. i (t)

Indicate how fast i (t) will drop to zero.


It is the amount of time for i (t) to drop to zero if it is dropping
at the initial ratedit
.
dt

t 0

Ch3 Basic RL and RC Circuits


3.2 First-Order RL Circuits
Transient Response of RL Circuits
Switch to 2
R

di
L iR 0
dt
di
R
dt
i
L

i Ae

R
t
L

i (t )
R
ln
t
I0
L
Initial condition

t : 0 t
i : I 0 i t
t
1
R
I0 idi 0 L dt
R
i t

ln i I0 t t0
L
i t

i (t ) I 0
t 0, I 0

E
R

E RL t E t /
i e e
R
R

R
t
e L

Ch3 Basic RL and RC Circuits


3.2 First-Order RL Circuits
SEL>>

Transient Response of RL Circuits

Input energy to L

4.0mA

2.0mA

0A
0s

1ms

2ms

3ms

4ms

I(L1)

L export its energy , dissipated by R


4.0mA

2.0mA

SEL>>
0A
0s

1ms

2ms

3ms

4ms

Ch3 Basic RL and RC Circuits


Summary
Initial Value
t=0
RL
Circuits

RC
Circuits

Steady Value
(t )

time
constant

Source
(0 state)

i0 0

Sourcefree
(0 input)

i0

Source
(0 state)

v0 0

vE

RC

Sourcefree
(0 input)

v0 E

v0

RC

E
R

E
R

L/R

i0

L/R

iL

Ch3 Basic RL and RC Circuits


Summary
The Time Constant

For an RC circuit, = RC
For an RL circuit, = L/R
-1/ is the initial slope of an exponential with an initial value of 1
Also, is the amount of time necessary for an exponential to decay
to 36.7% of its initial value

Ch3 Basic RL and RC Circuits


Summary
How to determine initial conditions for a transient circuit.
When a sudden change occurs, only two types of quantities
will remain the same as before the change.
IL(t), inductor current
Vc(t), capacitor voltage
Find these two types of the values before the change and
use them as the initial conditions of the circuit after change.

Ch3 Basic RL and RC Circuits


3.3 Examples
About Calculation for The Initial Value
i

iC

vC 0 vC 0

iL

t=0

R1 / / R3

2
2
vC 0 8V
4V
2 2
i(0+)
iC(0+)

iL(0+)

iL 0 iL 0

i 0
+
_

vC(0+)=4V

vL(0+)
-

1A

8V
2A
2 2

iL 0 2A

4
1A
4 4

Ch3 Basic RL and RC Circuits


3.3 Examples (Analyzing an RC circuit or RL circuit)
Method 1
1) Thvenin Equivalent.(Draw out C or L)

Simplify the circuit


Veq , Req
2) Find Leq(Ceq), and = Leq/Req ( = CeqReq)
3) Substituting Leq(Ceq) and to the previous solution of differential
equation for RC (RL) circuit .

Ch3 Basic RL and RC Circuits


3.3 Examples (Analyzing an RC circuit or RL circuit)
Method 2
1) KVL around the loop the differential equation
2) Find the homogeneous solution.
3) Find the particular solution.
4) The total solution is the sum of the particular and homogeneous solutions.

Ch3 Basic RL and RC Circuits


3.3 Examples (Analyzing an RC circuit or RL circuit)
Method 3 (step-by-step)
In general,

f (t ) f () Ae

Given f(0+) thus A = f(0+) f()

f (t ) f () [ f (0 ) f ()]e
Initial

Steady

1) Draw the circuit for t = 0- and find v(0-) or i(0-)


2) Use the continuity of the capacitor voltage, or inductor current, draw
the circuit for t = 0+ to find v(0+) or i(0+)
3) Find v(), or i() at steady state
4) Find the time constant

For an RC circuit, = RC

For an RL circuit, = L/R


5) The solution is:
f (t ) f () [ f (0) f ()]e t /

Ch3 Basic RL and RC Circuits


3.3 Examples
P3.1 vC (0)= 0, Find vC (t) for t 0.
Method 3:

6k
R1

t=0
+

vc t vc vc 0 vc e
vc 0 0, vc 9V

i1

i3

R2 3k

9V

i2

C=1000PF
pf

3K
3V
6K 3K

Apply Thevenin theorem :

1
1

RTh

2K

6K 3K
RTh C 2K 1000pF 2 10 6 s
vc t 3 3e

t
2106

Ch3 Basic RL and RC Circuits


3.3 Examples
C=1000PF

P3.2 vC (0)= 0, Find vC (t) for t 0.

+ vC

t=0

vc 0 0

R1=10k

10K
vc 6V
4.615V
10K 3K

6V

R2 3k
R1=20k

Apply Thevenins theorem :


1

1
1
30

RTh

K
13
10K 3K
30
RThC K 1000pF 2.31 106 s
13
vc t 4.615 4.615e

t
2.31106