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Heat Transfer

Intoduction

HEAT is a form of energy


transfer/change

Internal Energy
is the total stored energy
of a body or a substance.

First Law of
Thermodynamics
The change in the internal energy (U)
of a body or a system is equal to the
work (W) done on a system plus the
heat (Q) added to it.

Work vs Heat
To compare the molecular level
of heat transfer to work as forms
of energy change

WORK
Energy transfer involving organized
motion
When work is done on an object, the
objects energy is increased as its
molecules or atoms are stimulated to
move in an orderly manner.
Energy in transition

Heat
Energy transfer involving the random
disorderly motion of molecules,
specifically called thermal motion.
Heat is associated with the vibrational
motion of particles.
Energy in transit or on the move

ordered motion of molecules


towards a particular direction

disordered and random


movement of particles in
heat transfer.

NOTE: The arrows represent the motion of molecules

Why does heat transfer occur from


higher to lower temperature?
Second Law of Thermodynamics
The level of disorder in the universe
is steadily and constantly increasing.
Tendency is for objects having an
ordered behavior to move in a more
random disordered behavior.

Temperature
is the measure of the
internal energy an
object contains.
is the average
kinetic energy of
particles

odes of Heat Transfer


Conduction, Convection and
Radiation

is the heat transfer within liquids


and gases through currents
within the fluid.

heat transfer by
electromagnetic waves
involving the absorption or
giving off electromagnetic
waves.

is heat transfer between two


bodies which are in contact with

Examples of
Heat Transfer

Greenhouse Effect (Global Warming)


HOW?

Through

radiation

Atmosphere
Air
conductive and convective heat transfer

Sun
Around the core there is the
radiative zone. In this region,
energy is transported by
radiation
Interface layer is the
transition between the
radiative and convection
zones.
The convection zone is the
outer-most layer of the
interior where energy is
transported by convection in
http://www.cora.nwra.com/~werne/eos/text/convection_zone.html
this region.

Earth Surface
Conduction
Surface ocean, soil

Convection
Surface atmosphere

volcanoes are direct


evidence
of heat flowing out of
Earth.

Soil
Conduction occurs from heated gas
and liquid molecules which come in
contact with soil.
It also happens
among oil particles
themselves.

Sea/Ocean

Heat is transferred
Radiation
Convection
Evaporation of water and condensation

Heat is transferred within an ocean


or sea through turbulent and
convective mixing and by vertical
and horizontal currents.

Hurricanes

Hurricanes
However, the trade-wind system is
also extremely important.
The trade winds are air flow from east to
west and toward the equator.
If they weaken, perhaps
tropical storms will be
more dispersed and less
fearsome, or they may
change their paths in
ways that are difficult to
tell.

Hurricanes
Al Gore, an American politician, advocate
and philanthropist and is currently an
author and environmental activist.
In his documentary An Inconvenient
Truth, Al Gore said that when the oceans
get warmer due to global warming,
stronger storms form.
He even mentioned Hurricane Katrina
(2005).

References

http://physics.bu.edu/~duffy/py105/Secondlaw.html
http://physics.tutorvista.com/heat.html
Atkins Physical Chemistry by Atkins & De Paula, Eighth Edition, 2006
http://www.biocab.org/Heat_Transfer.html
http://www.clavius.org/heatxfer.html
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/thermo/heatra.html
http://www.school-for-champions.com/science/heat_transfer_earth.htm
http://www.bluffton.edu/~bergerd/nsc_111/thermo1.html
https://www.boundless.com/physics/heat-and-heat-transfer/globalwarming/greenhouse-gases-and-global-warming/
http://library.thinkquest.org/03oct/01424/How%20do%20hurrricanes
%20form.htm
http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/virtualmuseum/climatechange1/09_2.shtml
http://www.skepticalscience.com/Did-global-warming-cause-HurricaneKatrina.html