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LO: To understand how to

write the EPQ

All reports will be different one size

does not fit all

Where to start
With the person next to you
How can you overcome the blank page


Just get something down, it is a start

Flow chart
Sort notes into piles to give structure
Look at examples
Start with the bit you feel with most
comfortable writing
Dont write the abstract or summary
until your project has evolved

How to write a powerful


Identify the point

Justify the point
Elaborate upon it
Further elaboration (e.g. a

Deconstruct the following paragraph

There is a significant argument that suggests that the
Communications Act of 2003 goes too far in limiting free
speech. This is an opinion shared by Kier Starmer, QC,
Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP) and head of the Crown
Prosecution Service. Starmer suggested, in an interview for
BBC News on 11/10/12, that we should divide
communications that are grossly offensive for those which
are a campaign for harassment. However, it is also true that
teenagers need to be protected from malicious
communications that cause serious harm, as demonstrated
by the number of teenagers who have committed suicide as
a result of cyber bullying campaigns. So we can see that
there are certain issues relating to social media that need to
be addressed.

Write a powerful paragraph linked to

your EPQ
How can this be improved?

Useful phrases for creating critical


This suggests that

So we can see that
This would imply
One consequence would be
One advantage of this is
An alternative explanation
This is challenged by..
In comparison
In contrast

Use the phrases to make the

following paragraph more critical
In 2010 there were 160,181
prescription items for drugs for the
treatment of alcohol dependency.
This is an increase of 6% on the 2009
figure of 150,445 and a 56% increase
on the 2003 figure of 102,741.
Alcohol misuse, in the form of of
binge drinking, is common among
young people and seems to be a
characteristics of British drinking

The abstract
150 250 words. One or two
At the beginning
A summary at the start giving a
quick summary of the report. It
should provide the reader with a
clear understanding of the aim,
background, research, conclusions
and the implications of the findings.

A planner for your abstract (p.78)

Read abstracts 4.4 and 4.5 highlight
the aim and/ or hypothesis,
background research, method,
results, conclusions with different
Also, on 4.5 what is missing?

The introduction
Word length no hard and fast rule
Example 1000 words
Key element in your EPQ. Present
your background research/ reading
and your analysis of that material
You could subdivide your introduction
into an overview and a literature

Pages 80 and 81
Exercise 4.6 highlight the starting
point, brief outline, research territory,
niche, background, statement of the
scope of the work

Needed if your project involves
primary data, not if it involves
secondary data
500 to 600 words
Structure p.82
Read the methods (exercise 4.7) how
can they be improved?

The findings
Where you present the outcomes of your
primary data collection in a logical sequence.
You should not discuss or provide an
interpretation of the findings at this stage.
500 to 600 words
How to structure the findings section (p.84
and 85)
Exercise 4.9 write paragraphs to interpret
this data and feedback to the class

The discussion
The longest part of the report
Can be 3000 to 4000 words
Interprets the meaning of your
Structure of this section (p. 86 and
Exercise 4.9 Highlight the sections
You will gain marks for identifying
limitations (see exemplar from p. 87)

The conclusion
About 300 words
The aim of the conclusion is to leave the
moderator satisfied that you have realized what
you set out to do
It is not just a summary but an analysis of what
has been reported provided some generalizations
that can be made
What is a take home message?
Structure p. 88 and 89
Exercise 4.10 highlight the conclusion words
and what is the take home message?

Structure of conclusion
Brief recap of what you have covered
in relation to the essay title
Reference to the larger issue
Highlight the most important aspects
Evaluate the main arguments
Take home message

Conclusion words

As a result of
In effect
All in all
For these reasons

Dont just sum up what you have
written so far
Focus merely on a minor point in
your argument
End with a lengthy quotation
Introducing a new idea
Make sentimental appeals
Include evidence

Take home messages

Page 88
Page 89 what is the take home

Put in the appendix items that the
reader will want to see but will take
up too much space and disrupt the
flow if placed within the main text.
What can be found in the appendix?

Raw data
Consent forms
Debriefing of scripts
Copies of questionnaires
Figures, graphs and tables

Exercise 4.11 spot the mistake

Editing the draft EPQ

Checklist am I done?