Sei sulla pagina 1di 53

4

Automotive
Systems and
Preventative
Maintenance
Prepared by

Martin Restoule
Algonquin College
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-1

Objectives
Explain the major events that have
influenced the development of the
automobile during the past 35 years.
Explain the difference between unitized
and body-over-frame vehicles.
Describe the manufacturing process
used in a modern automobile assembly
plant.
continued
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-2

Objectives
List the basic systems that make up an
automobile and name their major
components and functions.
Explain the importance of preventative
maintenance.
List at least six examples of services
included in a preventative maintenance
program.
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-3

Types of Vehicle Construction


Body-Over-Frame
The body and all major parts are bolted to the
frame.
The frame must be strong enough to maintain
correct body and driveline alignment.
Design is used on many pickups and SUVs.
Due to weight concerns (average vehicle
weight 2040 kg), most modern cars use
unibody construction.
continued
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-4

Types of Vehicle Construction


Body-Over-Frame
Construction
A typical truck
frame with subframe components.

continued
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-5

Types of Vehicle Construction


Unitized body (Unibody)
A unibody has no separate frame.
It is a stressed hull structure where each body
part provides structural support and strength
to the entire vehicle.
Tends to be more tightly structured because
the major parts are all welded together.
Is designed to transmit impact energy
throughout the vehicle.
continued
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-6

Types of Vehicle Construction


A Typical
Unibody
Design.
Typical one
piece body
and frame
assembly
with bolt-on
components.

Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-7

Body Shapes
Sedan
A vehicle
with front
and back
seats for
four to six
persons
Can be
either two or
four door
continued
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-8

Body Shapes
Convertible
Offers the same seating as a sedan with
the ability to remove or retract the roof.

continued
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-9

Body Shapes
Sports Car
Two passenger convertibles are typically
called sports cars.
These vehicles
usually offer
improved
horsepower
and handling.
continued
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-10

Body Shapes
Liftback or hatchback
Features a rear luggage compartment that
is an extension of the passenger area.
An upwards
opening hatchtype door allows
access to the
luggage
compartment.
continued
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-11

Body Shapes
Station wagon
A station wagon has a roof that extends
straight back allowing for a spacious interior
luggage
compartment.
Can be a two or
four door model
with seating for
up to nine
passengers.
continued
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-12

Body Shapes
Pickup
Offers a separate passenger cab for up to five
passengers (2 or 4 door and extended cab).
Has an open
cargo box.
Available in
two and four
wheel drive
models.
continued
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-13

Body Shapes
Van
The van body design has a tall roof and an
enclosed large cargo or passenger area.
Can seat
from 2 to 12
passengers.
Available in
mini and fullsize models.
continued
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-14

Body Shapes
Sport utility vehicle
An SUV can have a range of body styles.
These are multipurpose on and off road
vehicles.
Usually fourwheel-drive.
The number of
passengers will
depend on size
and model.
continued
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-15

Body Shapes
Crossover Vehicles
A new trend in vehicles that are a cross
between a station wagon and an SUV.
These are usually smaller and more fuel
efficient than
a regular SUV.
These may be
two, four or allwheel- drive
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-16

Basic Engine Components


Cylinder block
The cylinder block is a large iron or
aluminum casting the houses or holds the
cylinders and most of the major mechanical
engine parts.
The block also contains
passageways for
coolant and lubricant.
continued
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-17

Basic Engine Components


Cylinder head
The cylinder head mounts on the top of the
cylinder block and forms the top to the
cylinders.
The head contains
the combustion
chamber, valves
and ports to allow
the entry and exit
of the air/fuel mixture.
continued
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-18

Basic Engine Components


Pistons, rods, and
crankshaft
The piston receives
force from the burning
of the air/fuel mixture
in the cylinder.
This force pushes the
piston and connecting
rod downward which
rotates the crankshaft
generating engine
power.
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

continued
4-19

Basic Engine Components


Valve train
A series of
components used to
open and close the
intake and exhaust
valves including; the
camshaft, valves,
followers/lifters,
rocker arms and push
rods.
continued
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-20

Basic Engine Components


Intake and exhaust manifolds
Manifolds are ductwork assemblies.
The intake manifold
delivers the air/fuel
mixture to the
cylinders while the
exhaust manifold
carries exhaust
gases from the
cylinders.
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-21

Engine Systems
Lubrication system
The lubrication
system provides
constant lubrication
to the moving parts
of the engine.
Engine oil is sent
by the oil pump
through an oil filter
to the many engine
components.
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

continued
4-22

Engine Systems
Cooling system
A water pump is used to circulate coolant
through the system.
The coolant is
pushed through
water jackets in the
block and head.
Heat is removed
from the coolant
at the radiator.
continued
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-23

Engine Systems
Fuel and air system
The fuel and air system supplies the correct
amount of fuel mixed with the correct amount
of air to the cylinders.
The system also: stores
fuel, cleans outside air,
delivers fuel to the
engine, atomizes fuel
and adjusts the fuel/air
ratios during operation.
continued
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-24

Engine Systems
Emission control system
Systems have been developed and added to
engines to reduce the pollutants they emit.
Some of these systems
are:
positive crankcase
ventilation,
evaporative
emission control
system,
exhaust gas
recirculation
system (EGR),
catalytic
converter and air
injection system.
continued
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-25

Engine Systems
Exhaust system
The exhaust system
is designed to carry
toxic exhaust fumes
away from the
passenger
compartment, to
quiet the exhaust
pulses and burn or
catalyze pollutants.
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

continued
4-26

Engine Systems
Ignition system
The ignition system must generate a spark to
ignite the air/fuel mixture at the correct time.
The coil transforms battery voltage into a
spike of 30 000 to 100 000 volts to ignite the
mixture.
Ignition must occur
before the piston
completes its
compression stroke.
continued
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-27

Engine Systems
Starting and charging
system
The purpose of the
starting system is to rotate
or crank the engine to
allow the ignition system
to fire and start the engine.
The charging system is
designed to recharge and
maintain the batterys state
of charge.
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

continued
4-28

Engine Systems
Electronic control system
This system is
comprised of many
electronic and
electromechanical
parts.
The system monitors
engine operation and
makes adjustments to
make it run efficiently.
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-29

Drivetrain Components
Clutch
Used with manual
transmissions
and
transaxles.
Mechanically connects
the engine flywheel to
the transmissions input
shaft.
continued
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-30

Drivetrain Components
Transmission
The driver manually selects the gear in a
manual or standard transmission.
An automatic transmission does not require
a clutch and
automatically shifts
forward gears.
Transmissions allow
for several gear ratios
for
maximum engine
performance.
continued
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-31

Drivetrain Components
Driveline
Connects the output shaft of the transmission
to the rear axle of a rear wheel drive vehicle
and both front and rear axles of a four-wheeldrive vehicle.
A hollow drive shaft
with universal joints
is commonly used
to connect the
transmission to the
drive axle.
continued
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-32

Drivetrain Components
Final Drive Assembly
Changes the direction
of driveline rotation and
provides the final gear
ratio.
Contains a differential
assembly to allow each
drive wheel to rotate at
different speeds during
cornering.
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

continued
4-33

Drivetrain Components
Drive axles
Transmit power to the wheels.
In rear wheel drive axles, solid axle shafts
are used.
Front wheel drive vehicles use axles with
constant velocity joints at each end to allow
the axle to
drive through
angles.
continued
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-34

Drivetrain Components
Transaxle
Combines the
transmission and final
drive assembly in one
unit.
Transaxles are used in
front wheel vehicles and
are available in both
standard and automatic
models.
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-35

Running Gear Components


Suspension system
Supports the body, frame,
engine, and drivetrain.
The suspension system
includes springs, shock
absorbers, MacPherson
struts, torsion bars, antisway bars and links, radius
and strut rods and links.
continued
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-36

Running Gear Components


Steering system
Allows the driver to control the direction of
the vehicle.
The steering system includes the steering
wheel, steering gear, steering shaft, and
linkage.
Rack and pinion
steering gears are
commonly used in
passenger cars.
continued
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-37

Running Gear Components


Brakes
Allow the vehicle to slow down and stop.
Brake assemblies located at each wheel
use friction to slow and stop the vehicle.
Two types of brakes
are used disc brakes
and drum brakes.
Many vehicles use a
combination of both
types.
continued
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-38

Running Gear Components


Wheels and tires
Provide vehicle contact to the road.
Tires are made of different types of rubber
along with other materials
for strength.
Tire tread designs vary
depending on their
application.
Wheels are made of metal
and vary in size and design.
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-39

VIN Characters

Chapter 4

First Country of origin


Second Manufacturer
Third Vehicle type or manufacturing division
Fourth through eighth Vehicle features
Ninth Check digit
Tenth Model year
Eleventh Manufacturing plant
Twelfth through seventeenth Production
sequence

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-40

Typical Preventative
Maintenance Checks
Engine oil
Changing the engine oil and filter is the
most recognized
preventative
maintenance item.
It is critical that the
engine oil be changed
on a regular basis.
Always use the correct
oil rating and viscosity.
continued
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-41

Typical Preventative
Maintenance Checks
Cooling system
Check the coolant level in the recovery
tank and add coolant if the
level is low.
A mixture of antifreeze
and water should be added.
Inspect all components for
signs of leakage and/or
damage and replace any
cracked or swollen hoses.
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

continued
4-42

Typical Preventative
Maintenance Checks
Drive belts
Check the condition and tension of all drive
belts on the engine.
Carefully inspect them for
cracks, oil contamination,
glazing, and tears and
splits.
Replace all belts that are
damaged in any way.
continued
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-43

Typical Preventative
Maintenance Checks
Battery
Visually inspect the
battery for damage
and corrosion.
Corrosion can be
cleaned off with a
mixture of baking
soda and water.
The battery should be
removed and cleaned
when heavily
corroded.
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

continued
4-44

Typical Preventative
Maintenance Checks
Transmission fluid
Automatic transmission fluid is a special
fluid that is dyed red to prevent confusion.
The fluid level is generally checked with
the vehicle running and in park or neutral.
Manual transaxles,
transmissions and
drive axles use
specific lubricants.
continued
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-45

Typical Preventative
Maintenance Checks
Power steering fluid
The power steering fluid level is checked
with the engine off.
A dipstick is normally
part of the filler cap.
The fluid level should be
checked when warm.
Use only the
recommended fluid.
continued
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-46

Typical Preventative
Maintenance Checks
Brake fluid
The brake fluid level and condition should
be checked at every oil change interval.
Brake fluid should be
flushed every two
years because it tends
to absorb moisture
Ensure the diaphragm
under the cap is not
damaged.
continued
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-47

Typical Preventative
Maintenance Checks
Windshield washer fluid
Visually check the windshield washer fluid
level and add fluid as necessary.
Do not add straight water
or summer grade fluid in
spring or fall as these
can freeze damaging the
tank and pump and clog
the washer hoses and
nozzles.
continued
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-48

Typical Preventative
Maintenance Checks
Wiper blades
Wiper blades should be replaced when
they become dull, torn or brittle.
Failure to replace wiper blades before
they fail can result in
windshield damage.
When changing the
blades also inspect
the wiper arms and
springs.
continued
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-49

Typical Preventative
Maintenance Checks
Tires
Tires should be checked for damage (nails,
cuts, bulges and weather checks) and
wear (At least 1.6 mm of tread depth).
Tire inflation pressure
should be checked
when refueling.
Follow the inflation
specifications on the
drivers doorjamb decal.
Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-50

Summary
Dramatic changes to the automobile
have occurred over the last 40 years.
Unibodies offer better occupant
protection than body-on-frame designs.
Many systems on todays vehicles are
controlled by computers.

Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-51

Summary
All automobile engines used today are
classified as internal combustion.
The cooling system maintains proper
engine temperatures.
The lubrications system distributes
motor oil throughout the engine.

Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-52

Summary
The fuel system is responsible for fuel
storage and delivery.
The electrical system of an
automobile includes the ignition,
starting, charging, and lighting
systems.

Chapter 4

Copyright 2007 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.

4-53