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# Converter Control of

DC Drives

Learning
Objectives
At the end of this Chapter, you should be able to :
Analyze the operation and control of phase controlled
SCR converters for DC Motor Drive
Analyze the operation and control of DC-DC
converters for DC Motor Drive
Model and analyze the closed-loop control system for
DC motor drive system

Power Electronic
Controllers for
DC ofDrives
There are two types
power electronic
controllers for DC motor control. They are:
(A) Phase Controlled SCR Converter
DC Drives
(B) DC-DC Converter Controlled DC
Drives

DC Drives
DC Motor
Drives
Single-phase
Drives
Separately
Exited

Series

Self
Excited

Shunt

Threephase
Drives
Separately
Excited

Series

Compound

Self
Excited

Shunt
4

## Average motor armature current:

ia instantaneous armature current

1
Ia
T

t1 T

t1

i a (t ) dt

## In a separately-excited machine, the developed torque is proportional

to average armature current. This current Ia is known as the torque
producing component of the motor current.

1 t1 T ( t ) 2
I ar i a dt
T t1

1
2

## This is the heat producing component of the motor current.

Similar definitions for Average and RMS voltage exists.
6

## mean input power

PF
r.m.s. input voltamperes

## If supply current is a distorted sinusoid, only the fundamental

component of input current will contribute to the mean input power.
Vrms supply phase voltage
VI1 cos 1
PF
VI
Irms supply phase current
I1 rms fundamental component of the supply current
1 angle between supply voltage and fundamental component of
supply
current
Input Power
Factor (PF) is an important parameter as it decides the
volt-ampere requirement of the drive system. For the same power
demand, if the power factor is poor, more volt-amperes (and hence
more current) are drawn from the supply.

## Input Displacement Factor (DF)

This may be called fundamental power factor and is defined as:

## DF cos 1 where 1 is known as the input displacement angle.

For the same power demand, if the displacement factor is low,
more fundamental current is drawn from the supply.

I I1
HF
I1

1
2

## The input current being non-sinusoidal contains currents of

harmonic frequencies. The harmonic factor is defined as:

HF

n2

I1

1
2

Ih
I1

## In = rms value of the nth

harmonic current
Ih = rms value of the net
harmonic current

## The harmonic factor indicates harmonic content of input supply

current and thus measures the distortion of the input current.
The input supply current, i, can be expressed in terms of a
Fourier series as follows:
i I 0 an cos n t bn sin(n t )
n 1

I 0 2I n sin(n t n )
n 1

The d.c. component, I0, and Fourier coefficients an, bn are obtained as:

1 T
I0
i dt
T 0
2 T
an i cos(n t ) dt
T 0
2 T
bn
i sin(n t ) dt
T 0

an2 b
I n
2

1
2

an

bn

n tan 1

## Variable speed DC drives that will give

a good approximation to the steadystate motoring operation are grouped

## D.C. machine systems fed from an

A.C. supply
[Phase Controlled (SCR)
converters]

## D.C. machine systems fed from a D.C.

supply
[ DC-DC converters - Pulse-width-

10

erformance Parameters

Vac
Voltage ratio: , where Vd 0 maximum dc voltage( 0)
Vd0

I rms
Input rms current

Current ratio:I
output dc current
d
Power ratio:

## Vac I rms VA rating of the supply

Pd
DC output power

Harmonic contents:
voltage,

a. ac components in output
11

SCR devices:

I SCR

Id

SCR current

I SCR
peak SCR current

Id

VPIV
Peak Inverse Voltage of SCR

Vd0
maximum dc voltage( 0)

## SCR phase-angle controlled drive:

By changing the firing angle, variable DC
output voltage can be obtained.
Single phase (low power) and three phase
(high and very high power) supply can be used.
The load current is unidirectional, but the
output voltage can reverse polarity. Hence 2quadrant operation is inherently possible.
4-quadrant operation is also possible using
two sets of controlled rectifiers (Dual
converters).

13

Single-Phase Converter
Controlled SeparatelyConverter
SCR Full-Bridge
Converter
(2-pulse converter)
Excited
DC Motor
Drive
Input supply to converter 1-phase AC, 50 Hz.
Switches are marked in clockwise direction.

AC
DC

## S1 and S3 are simultaneously triggered at etc. in

the positive half- cycles. S2 and S4 are
simultaneously triggered at + etc. in the negative
and S3 conduct during < t < (+).
half-S1
cycles.
S2 and S4 are conduct during (+) < t < (2
14

## Voltage and current waveforms

Input
ac
volta
ge
Armatur
e
current
Armatur
e
voltage
Va = Ea
Input line
current
= 60
Input
line
current

15

Mathematical Derivations
The armature circuit equation from KV Law
dia
va ea Ra ia La
eg

dt
Let v 2 Vac sin where V ac rms input voltage to the converter
The avearge motor terminal voltage, Ea (from waveform)
1
Va Vdc
2 Vac sin d

2 Vac

[ cos ]

2 Vac

[ cos( ) cos ]

2 2 Vac
Va
cos

16

Mathematical Derivations
2 2 Vac
Average motor terminal voltage, Va
cos

Performance
parameters
2 2Vac
2 2Vac
Max Va( = 0) = Vdc( = 0 ) = Vd 0 =
.1 =

Vac

=
= 1.11
Vd 0 2 2
and, Vdc = Vd 0 cos
Peak Inverse Voltage , VPIV =

2Vac

VPIV
2 Vac
=
= / 2 = 1.57
Vd 0
Vd 0
17

Mathematical Derivations
For a normal motor, Average speed, if flux is constant
Va I a R a

Kv
Va
Ra

K v K vKT

2 2 Vac
Average motor terminal voltage, Va
cos

Va =
voltage
applied
to
armatur
e.

2 2 Vac
cos I a R a

Kv

2 2 Vac
cos
Ra

Kv
K vKT

18

## Example: The following data gives details of a

separately excited d.c. motor used for propulsion in an
electric train.
Armature resistance

= 0.04 ohm

Torque constant
excitation)

## Voltage applied to armature is regulated by a single

phase full-controlled (i.e., two quadrant) bridge using
SCRs. The field has a separate controller to give full

19

## The equipment is rated for continuous operation

at full speed, at which motor speed is 2000 r.p.m.
and power output is 500 kW and the field has been
weakened to 50% of maximum.
a) Determine the secondary voltage and VA rating of
a transformer to supply the bridge.
b) Determine the firing delay angle when starting
from standstill with a torque of 6 kN-m. Sketch the
output voltage waveforms and the conduction
patterns in the power semiconductors. [Neglect the
effects of saturation in the motor, supply
regulation, voltage drops across the S.C.Rs and
Output
Input
Voltage
Current
commutation
delays.]
TYPE
V /V
I /I
VA/P
I /I
V /V
/I
Harmonic
Harmonic
ac

1- phase, full-controlled
bridge converter

do

1.11

rms d

do

1.11

SCR d

0.5

SCR

PIV

Factor
1

1.57

1.11
(=90o)

Factor
0.484

20

Solution: (a)

## Regulated by a single phase full controlled (two quadrant) bridge .

Full field excitation at low speeds,
1
field weakening above
full speed .
2

2 2000
==

60
1

209
.
4

1
Base speed = b = B = = 104.7 rad /s
2

1
1

104
.
7
sec
B

V
Back emf , Ea = k v = 0.5
(1000 rpm ) = 500 V 2
rpm
Pout
Ia =
= 1000 A.
Ea

If

## A t full speed, Va = IaR a + k v

= 1000 0.04 + 0.5
If 0

2000
= 540 V
2
21

Speed

Field
weakening

Torque

## Secondary voltage and VA rating of transformer :

From Table : Performance factors for thyristors converters,
Vac
VA
1.11, and
1.11, and Vd 0 540 V
Pd 0
Vd 0
Pd 0 Vd 0 I d 540(1000) 540 kW.
V A 1.11 P d 0 599.4 kVA (Transformer V A rating)
Vac 1.11 Vd 0 1.11(540) 599.4 V (Secondary voltage)

(b)
Firing delay angle, when starting from stand still with T 6 kN . m .

T
6 kN . m
Ia

## 1250 A (starting current)

KT
4.8
At starting E a is equal to zero.
I
f
Armature voltage, Va I a R a k v ( ) 1250(0.04) 0 50 V
If0
From eqn . Vdc E a Vd 0 cos , solve for ,

## cos 1 (50/540) 84.7 0

Waveforms are shown in previous slides
on mathematical derivations
23

## Example: The following data gives details of a separately excited

d.c. motor controlled by a single-phase full converter.
Armature resistance 0.03 ohm
Back e.m.f. constant 0.182 V/rpm
Torque constant
1.74 Nm/A (at max field excitation)
The ac supply voltage to the converter is 260 V . Assume that
sufficient inductance is present in armature circuit to make the
motor current continuous and ripple free.
For a firing angle = 30, and rated motor current of 38A,
calculate:
(i) motor torque.
(ii) speed of the motor.
(iii)supply power factor.

24

Solution:

2 2 Vac
cos

## Average induced voltage, Ea = K a N

Average Torque developed, TAV = K a1 Ia = K TIa
Average speed, if flux is constant
Va - IaR a
Va = IaR a + Ea = IaR a + K a N , N =
K a

rpm

## Motor torque, TAV = K TIa = 1.74 x 38 = 66.12 N.m

2 2 Vac
2 2 x 260
Armature voltage, Va =
cos =
cos 30

= 202.82 V
Va - IaR a
202.82 - 38 x 0.3
Speed, N =
=
rpm
K a
0.182
= 1051.8 rpm

25

## Supply power factor:

If the motor current is constant and ripple free, the input supply
current is a square wave of amplitude 38 A.
Thus the rms supply current, I = 38 A
Supply volt-amps = VA = 260 x 38 = 9880 VA
Power used by the motor,
Pa = Va X Ia = 202.82 x 38 = 7707.2 W
Neglecting losses in the converter,
Power input to the converter, Ps = 7707.2 W
Supply power factor, pf = Ps/VA = 7707.2/9880 = 0.78
26

Conduction pattern:

## Each SCR conducts for 2/3

Triggering sequence = 1, 2, 3, 1

27

## Analysis for 3-Pulse 1-Quadrant Operation

The avearge motor terminal voltage, Va ( from waveform )

1
Va = Vd =
Vmax sin d

2 / 3
+

for

30

3 3 Vmax
=
(1 + 0.866 cos - 0.5 sin )
2 5

+
3
1
6
Va =
Vmax sin d =

2 / 3
+

3 Vmax
cos for < 30
2

## The armature circuit equation from KV Law

dia
va = ea = Ra ia + La
+ eg
dt
Let the phase voltage, v = Vmax sin
where V max = rms input maximum phase voltage to the converter

## Each SCR conducts for 2/3

Triggering sequence = 1, 2, 3, 1

Conduction pattern:

29

## Detailed Analysis for 3-Pulse 2-Quadrant Operation

The armature circuit equation from KV Law
di a
va = ea = R a ia + La
+ eg
< < +
dt
Let the phase voltage, v = Vmax sin
where V max = rms input maximum phase voltage to the converter
The avearge motor terminal voltage, Va ( from waveform )
5
1
+
6
Va = Vd =
Vmax sin d
2 / 3 +
6

5
+
1
6
Va = Vd =
Vmax

2 / 3
+
6
5
+
3 Vmax
6
=
[- cos ]
2
+
6

sin d

30

## Detailed Analysis for 3-Pulse 2-Quadrant Operation

3 Vmax
5

=
[- cos( + ) + cos( + )]
2
6
6
3 Vmax
5
5

=
[- cos cos + sin sin + cos cos - sin sin ]
2
6
6
6
6
3 Vmax
=
[0.866 cos + 0.5 sin + 0.866 cos - 0.5 sin ]
2
3 Vmax
Va =
( 3 cos )
2
3 3 Vmax
Va =
cos
2
If Vac = rms phase voltage, then Vmax = 2 Vac

## Let the line voltage,VLL Line - to - line voltage

For star connection of the transformer,
VLL
Then maximum phase voltage, Vmax
x 2
3
3 3 Vmax
As the avearge motor terminal voltage, Va
cos
2
3 3 VLL
Va
x 2 cos
2
3
3 2 VLL
Va
cos
2
32

## Each SCR conducts for 2/3 radians

Triggering sequence =1, 6, 2, 4,3,5,1
33

dc

3-phase input
voltage

Armature
voltage
Armature
current
Input line
current
35

## Analysis for 6-Pulse 2-Quadrant Operation

The armature circuit equation from KV Law
di a

va = ea = R a i a + La
+ eg
+ < < ++
dt
6
6
3
Let the voltage between the lines be VLL
The waveform for calculation of averagevol tage,
define as a cosine wave : 2 VLL cos
The avearge motor terminal voltage, Va ( from waveform )

1
+
6
Va = Vdc =
/ 3 - +
6

2 VLL cos d

+
2 VLL
[sin ] 6

- +
6

36

## Analysis for 6-Pulse 2-Quadrant Operation

3 2 VLL

=
[sin( + ) - sin(- + )]

6
6
3 2 VLL

Va =
[sin cos + cos sin - sin(- ) cos + cos(- ) sin ]

6
6
6
6
Va =
Va =

2 VLL

2 sin cos

2 VLL
cos

## Vac=input ac voltage, Vdo=dc voltage at =0, Irms=input ac current, Id= dc load

current, ISCR=SCR current, scr=peak SCR current, VA = Volt-amp rating of
transformer, VPIV= peak inverse voltage of input
TYPE

Vac/Vdo

Irms/Id

VA/Pdo

ISCR/Id

^
ISCR/Id

VPIV/Vd

Output
Voltage
Harmonic
Factor

Input
Current
Harmonic
Factor

2.22

0.707

1.57

0.5

3.14

1.21
(=0o)

1.21

1.11

1.11

0.5

1.57

0.626
(=45o)

0.484

1.11

0.707

1.57

0.5

3.14

1.11
(=90o)

0.484

1.11

1.11

0.5

1.57

1.11
(=90o)

0.484

0.855

0.577

1.48

0.333

2.09

0.464
(=60o)

1.09

0.855

0.577

1.48

0.333

2.09

0.66
(=90o)

0.425

## Three phase, fullycontrolled bridge

0.427

0.816

1.047

0.333

1.045

0.3
(=90o)

0.306

AC-DC SCR CONVERTER
RMS ripple current in the load must not exceed
Ia A
Fundamental ripple frequency, fr = n f
The maximum ripple occurs at some .
Compute VHF and Iripple
VHF x Vdo = 2 fr L Iripple
L = VHF x Vdo /(2 fr Iripple)

Example:

Vdo

3 Vmax
2

## Vac rms phase voltage,

then Vmax 2 Vac
Number of ripples (in one cycle) = n = 3
Fundamental supply frequency = f = 50
Hz
Average dc voltage at = 0, Vdo
RMS ripple current in the load must not
exceed Ia A
Fundamental ripple frequency, fr = n f
The maximum ripple occurs at = 90

## DC-DC Converter Controlled

DC Drives

Switched-mode drives
Using switched mode DC-DC converter, DC voltage is
varied by duty cycle.
Mainly used for low to medium power range

## PWM technique is a method of controlling the

voltage within a dc-dc converter. With this
technique, the converter output voltage
involves a pulse width modulated wave, and
the voltage is controlled by varying the
duration of the output voltage pulses.
The previous slides show the voltage control
achieved by varying the phase of the conduction
intervals of SCRs, TH1 and TH2 with respect to TH3
and TH4.
The pulse width control is achieved by phaseadvancing or retarding the control signals for
one or pair of switches (Transistors, MOSFETs or
IGBTs), and in this way the converter output
voltage can be adjusted smoothly from

42

PWM Operation

## A control signal is compared with a repetitive

switching-frequency triangular waveform in
order to generate the switching signals.
Controlling the switching duty ratios allows the
43
averaged D.C. voltage output to be controlled.

Conduction pattern:

45

Vs = dc source voltage,
Vd = output voltage of the converter
k T = on - time of the converter ,
(1 - k)T = off - time of the converter
1
T = time period of the converter = , where f s = switching frequency
fs
k = duty ratio
Vsk T
'
Vd = V =
= kVs
T
Is = I' = k Id
e . g., Vs = 100 V, Vd = 10 V, Id = 50 A, k = 0.1
Is = 5 A (assuming no losses)

Example:

## Consider transistor and diode voltage drops ( VT and v d )

Vs = 100 V, Vd = 60 V, Id = 10 A, VT = 5 V, v d = 0.7 V
(100 5) kT 0.7(1 k) T
'
Vd = V =
= 60 V
T
Duty ratio, k = 0.634
Source current, Is = k Id = 6.34 A
Power input, Pin = Vs Is = 634 W
Power output, Pout = Vd Id = 600 W
Efficiency of the converter, = 94.6 %
( excluding drive electric power loss)

47

## Individual device losses :

1. Transistor :
VT I d kT
Average power
31.7 Watt
T
2. Diode :
0.7I d (1 k) T
Average power
2.6 Watt
T
Total losses 31.7 2.6 34.3 Watt

ID

1A

10A

.634ms

.366ms

Time

## PWM frequency = 1 kHz (T = 1 ms),

assumed for this design example
approx. triangular or sawtooth waveform.

49

Choke design :
PWM frequency = 1 kHz (T = 1 ms)
Design to achieve 1A peak - to - peak ripple (typical)
ON period : Inductor voltage
di
I
VL = L
L
dt
T
T (Vs VT ) k(1ms)
L = VL
=
= 22.2 mH
I
1
Check by analyzing the OFF period :
VL T
I =
=
L

0.7(1

k) T
= 1.0007 A
22.2 mH

51

52

## On - time of transistor kTs, Off - time of transistor (1 k )Ts

Switching period, Ts Ton Toff
From the waveform of voltage
(Vs 2 VT ) k Ts ( Vs 2 vd )(1 k )Ts
'
Vd V
Ts

## Waveforms with allowances for transistor and diode voltage drops.

54

Waveforms with allowances for transistor and diode voltage drops, and
for transistor switching times.

55

## From the waveform of voltage, the average voltage is computed

Consider transistor and diode voltage drops (VT and vd )
Consider switching times of transistors and diodes (t R and t F )
duty ratio, k
On - time of transistor kTs,
Off - time of transistor (1 k )Ts
Switching period, Ts Ton Toff
56

## From the waveform of voltage, consider the area of trapeziums

[(k Ts t R t F k Ts )](Vs 2 VT )
Vd V

Ts
1
2

'

1
2

## [((1 k )Ts (1 k )Ts t R t F )]( Vs 2 vd )

Ts

[(2 k Ts t R t F )](Vs 2 VT )
Vd V

Ts
'

1
2

1
2

## [(2(1 k )Ts t R t F )]( Vs 2 vd )

Ts

Example:
The mass of an electric vehicle as shown in FIGURE is 500 kg, The vehicle
is going up a slope of 30o at a speed of 30 km/hr. The friction coefficient of the
surface at a given weather condition is 0.4. The acceleration due to gravity, g =
9.8 ms-2. The electric vehicle is being powered by a DC motor mounted on the
front wheels and the wheel diameter is 0.5 m. A reduction gear of 50:1 is used.
The motor takes 72 V with constant excitation, and is controlled by a twoquadrant transistor PWM dc-dc converter. The dc motor on board the vehicle
runs at 800 rpm. The following characteristics apply to the system:

## Armature resistance = 0.2 ohms

Torque constant= 0.4 Nm/A
Back emf constant = 0.4 V/rads-1
Transistor and diode switching times, on and off = 2 sec and 2 sec
Switching frequency of transistors = 5 kHz
Transistor conduction voltage drop = 2 V
Determine:
(a) The torque developed by the motor.
(b) The voltage applied to the motor.
(c) The duty ratio of the PWM converter.
(Ans: 20.736 Nm, 43.908 V, 0.829)

Solution:

Data:
Mass of the bus, m = 500 kg
Wheel diameter, d = 0.5 m
Speed of the bus, v = 30 km/hr
Slope of the hill, = 30o
Friction coefficient, r = 0.4
Acceleration due to gravity, g = 9.8
-2
(a) The weightms
of vehicle is divided into two components:
(i) Perpendicular to the road surface (force F), responsible for friction
force, Fr
(ii) Parallel to the surface, responsible for pulling the vehicle towards
bottom of the slope, Fl
The total force, FL= Fl + Fr
All these forces are dependent on the gravitational force, Fg
Considering the force diagram, the normal force, F and pulling force, Fl are
F = Fg cos
Fl = Fg sin

## The gravitational force, F = m.g = 500 x 9.8 = 4900 N

F = Fg cos = 4900 x cos 30 = 4243 N
Fl = Fg sin = 4900 x sin 30 = 2450 N
The friction force, Fr = r x F = 0.4 x 4243 = 1697.2 N
The total force of the load, FL = Fl + Fr = 2450+ 1697.2 = 4147.2 N
The torque to be developed, TL = FL x radius of wheel
= 4147.2x 0.25 = 1036.8 Nm
Torque developed by the motor = 1036.8/50 = 20.736 Nm
Switching period, Ts= 1/ fs = 1/(5 x 103) = 200 s
(b) Motor torque, T 20.736 Nm

## Motor speed, 83.85 rad s -1

We have Motor torque, T K T I a
20.736
51.84 A
0.4
Motor back emf, E b K v 0.4 x 83.85 33.54 V
Motor armature current, I a

## Va I a R a E b 51.84 x 0.2 33.54 43.908 V

(c)
To find the duty ratio (PWM ratio), k
Input voltage to the converter, Vs 72 V
Output voltage of the converter, Va 43.908 V
Input voltage to the motor
Vd Va
1
2

1
2

43.908 V

[(2 k Ts t R t F )](Vs 2 VT )

Ts

Ts

## [(2 x k x 200x10 -6 4 x10 -6 )](72 4)

43.908

-6
200x10
-6
-6
1
[(
2
(
1

k
)
200x10

4
x10
)](72 1.4)
2
200x10 -6
43.908 x 200x10 -6 (68 x 200x10 -6 k - 68 x 2x10 -6 )
1
2

## (73.4 x 200x10 -6 73.4 x 200x10 -6 k 73.4 x 2x10 -6 )

8781 13600 k - 136 - 14680 14680 k 146.8

k 0.829

## Two Quadrant Operation - Regenerative Braking:

Second quadrant operation: Regenerative braking mode

## Two Quadrant Operation - Regenerative Braking:

When the electric vehicle is going down the hill,
the dc machine is under regenerative braking
mode. In the downward direction, the speed of
the electric vehicle may exceed its no-load
speed, and generate electric power that can be
fed Iback
to thecurrent
source.
during braking
ab armature
I Lb line current during braking
Eab induced emf during braking
Tdb developed braking torque

## b speed during braking

I ab I Lb I f , where I f is the field current, I f

Va
Rf

Va
Rf

## Two Quadrant Operation - Regenerative Braking:

In the normal operation
Tdb kT I ab
Tdb
Va Eab I ab Ra k vb Ra
kT

Va
R
a Tdb
k v k v kT

I ab

Va Eab
Ra

## In the downhill operation, the load torque changes its direction.

Thus the armature current also reverses its direction.
Therefore in the above equations Tdb is negative.

## Two Quadrant Operation - Regenerative Braking:

I ab

Tdb

A
kT

Va
Ra
Va Ra I ab
b

( I ab k T )
k v k v kT
kv
The speed will be greater than the no - load speed.
The generated power, Pb E ab ( I ab ) E ab I ab W

Example:

## A 440 V dc shunt motor has the following characteristics:

Armature resistance
0.377 ohms
Field resistance
110 ohms
Voltage constant
3.93 V sec-1
Torque constant
3.93 Nm/A
Determine the following during regenerative braking when the armature
current is 60 A.
i. Motor speed
ii. Developed torque
iii. Induced emf
iv. Terminal current
v. Generated power

Solution:
During regenerative braking mode, the armature
current is reversed.

## Two Quadrant Operation - Regenerative Braking:

i. The speed of motor
Va
Ra
Va Ra I ab
b

( I ab kT )
kv
k v kT
kv
440 0.377 x 60
b
3.93
ii. Developed torque
Tdb kT I ab 3.93 x 60 - 235.8 Nm
iii. Induced emf
Eab k vb 3.93 x 117.72 462.64 V
iv. Terminal current
I Lb I ab I f I ab

Va
440

60
56 A
Rf
110

v. Generated power
Pb Eab ( I ab ) Eab I ab 462.64 x 60 27760 W

## Forward current uses T1+T2 and then D1 + D2 alternately.

Reverse current uses T3+T4 and then D3 + D4 alternately.
72

## A delay tD is allowed on switch-on of the transistors in order

to ensure that the other transistors have fully ceased
conduction.

74

Revision:
-Characteristic of DC Motor
-Controlled by supply voltage/current and
excited voltage/current ( depend on configuration)
-Single Phase Controller Converter
- Half wave
-Semi converter
-Full converter
-Dual converter
-Freeweeling diode effect
-Determine average voltage and rms voltage
Controlling Techniques
-SCR technique
-Single phase
-3 phase
-3 pulse converter
-6 pulse converter
-PWM