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Feb 05, 2015

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DC Drives 2

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DC Drives 2

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DC Drives

Learning

Objectives

At the end of this Chapter, you should be able to :

Analyze the operation and control of phase controlled

SCR converters for DC Motor Drive

Analyze the operation and control of DC-DC

converters for DC Motor Drive

Model and analyze the closed-loop control system for

DC motor drive system

Power Electronic

Controllers for

DC ofDrives

There are two types

power electronic

controllers for DC motor control. They are:

(A) Phase Controlled SCR Converter

DC Drives

(B) DC-DC Converter Controlled DC

Drives

DC Drives

DC Motor

Drives

Single-phase

Drives

Separately

Exited

Series

Self

Excited

Shunt

Threephase

Drives

Separately

Excited

Series

Compound

Self

Excited

Shunt

4

ia instantaneous armature current

1

Ia

T

t1 T

t1

i a (t ) dt

to average armature current. This current Ia is known as the torque

producing component of the motor current.

1 t1 T ( t ) 2

I ar i a dt

T t1

1

2

Similar definitions for Average and RMS voltage exists.

6

PF

r.m.s. input voltamperes

component of input current will contribute to the mean input power.

Vrms supply phase voltage

VI1 cos 1

PF

VI

Irms supply phase current

I1 rms fundamental component of the supply current

1 angle between supply voltage and fundamental component of

supply

current

Input Power

Factor (PF) is an important parameter as it decides the

volt-ampere requirement of the drive system. For the same power

demand, if the power factor is poor, more volt-amperes (and hence

more current) are drawn from the supply.

This may be called fundamental power factor and is defined as:

For the same power demand, if the displacement factor is low,

more fundamental current is drawn from the supply.

I I1

HF

I1

1

2

harmonic frequencies. The harmonic factor is defined as:

HF

n2

I1

1

2

Ih

I1

harmonic current

Ih = rms value of the net

harmonic current

current and thus measures the distortion of the input current.

The input supply current, i, can be expressed in terms of a

Fourier series as follows:

i I 0 an cos n t bn sin(n t )

n 1

I 0 2I n sin(n t n )

n 1

The d.c. component, I0, and Fourier coefficients an, bn are obtained as:

1 T

I0

i dt

T 0

2 T

an i cos(n t ) dt

T 0

2 T

bn

i sin(n t ) dt

T 0

an2 b

I n

2

1

2

an

bn

n tan 1

a good approximation to the steadystate motoring operation are grouped

under the broad classification:

A.C. supply

[Phase Controlled (SCR)

converters]

supply

[ DC-DC converters - Pulse-width-

10

erformance Parameters

Vac

Voltage ratio: , where Vd 0 maximum dc voltage( 0)

Vd0

I rms

Input rms current

Current ratio:I

output dc current

d

Power ratio:

Pd

DC output power

Harmonic contents:

voltage,

a. ac components in output

11

SCR devices:

I SCR

Id

SCR current

dc load current

I SCR

peak SCR current

Id

dc load current

VPIV

Peak Inverse Voltage of SCR

Vd0

maximum dc voltage( 0)

By changing the firing angle, variable DC

output voltage can be obtained.

Single phase (low power) and three phase

(high and very high power) supply can be used.

The load current is unidirectional, but the

output voltage can reverse polarity. Hence 2quadrant operation is inherently possible.

4-quadrant operation is also possible using

two sets of controlled rectifiers (Dual

converters).

13

Single-Phase Converter

Controlled SeparatelyConverter

SCR Full-Bridge

Converter

(2-pulse converter)

Excited

DC Motor

Drive

Input supply to converter 1-phase AC, 50 Hz.

Switches are marked in clockwise direction.

AC

DC

the positive half- cycles. S2 and S4 are

simultaneously triggered at + etc. in the negative

and S3 conduct during < t < (+).

half-S1

cycles.

S2 and S4 are conduct during (+) < t < (2

14

Input

ac

volta

ge

Armatur

e

current

Armatur

e

voltage

Va = Ea

Input line

current

= 60

Input

line

current

15

Mathematical Derivations

The armature circuit equation from KV Law

dia

va ea Ra ia La

eg

dt

Let v 2 Vac sin where V ac rms input voltage to the converter

The avearge motor terminal voltage, Ea (from waveform)

1

Va Vdc

2 Vac sin d

2 Vac

[ cos ]

2 Vac

[ cos( ) cos ]

2 2 Vac

Va

cos

16

Mathematical Derivations

2 2 Vac

Average motor terminal voltage, Va

cos

Performance

parameters

2 2Vac

2 2Vac

Max Va( = 0) = Vdc( = 0 ) = Vd 0 =

.1 =

Vac

=

= 1.11

Vd 0 2 2

and, Vdc = Vd 0 cos

Peak Inverse Voltage , VPIV =

2Vac

VPIV

2 Vac

=

= / 2 = 1.57

Vd 0

Vd 0

17

Mathematical Derivations

For a normal motor, Average speed, if flux is constant

Va I a R a

rad sec 1

Kv

Va

Ra

K v K vKT

2 2 Vac

Average motor terminal voltage, Va

cos

Va =

voltage

applied

to

armatur

e.

2 2 Vac

cos I a R a

Kv

rad sec 1

2 2 Vac

cos

Ra

Kv

K vKT

18

separately excited d.c. motor used for propulsion in an

electric train.

Armature resistance

= 0.04 ohm

Torque constant

excitation)

phase full-controlled (i.e., two quadrant) bridge using

SCRs. The field has a separate controller to give full

19

at full speed, at which motor speed is 2000 r.p.m.

and power output is 500 kW and the field has been

weakened to 50% of maximum.

a) Determine the secondary voltage and VA rating of

a transformer to supply the bridge.

b) Determine the firing delay angle when starting

from standstill with a torque of 6 kN-m. Sketch the

output voltage waveforms and the conduction

patterns in the power semiconductors. [Neglect the

effects of saturation in the motor, supply

regulation, voltage drops across the S.C.Rs and

Output

Input

Voltage

Current

commutation

delays.]

TYPE

V /V

I /I

VA/P

I /I

V /V

/I

Harmonic

Harmonic

ac

1- phase, full-controlled

bridge converter

do

1.11

rms d

do

1.11

SCR d

0.5

SCR

PIV

Factor

1

1.57

1.11

(=90o)

Factor

0.484

20

Solution: (a)

Full field excitation at low speeds,

1

field weakening above

full speed .

2

2 2000

==

= 209.4 rad/ s

60

1

209

.

4

rads

1

Base speed = b = B = = 104.7 rad /s

2

1

1

104

.

7

rad

sec

B

V

Back emf , Ea = k v = 0.5

(1000 rpm ) = 500 V 2

rpm

Pout

Ia =

= 1000 A.

Ea

If

= 1000 0.04 + 0.5

If 0

2000

= 540 V

2

21

Speed

Field

weakening

Torque

From Table : Performance factors for thyristors converters,

Vac

VA

1.11, and

1.11, and Vd 0 540 V

Pd 0

Vd 0

Pd 0 Vd 0 I d 540(1000) 540 kW.

V A 1.11 P d 0 599.4 kVA (Transformer V A rating)

Vac 1.11 Vd 0 1.11(540) 599.4 V (Secondary voltage)

(b)

Firing delay angle, when starting from stand still with T 6 kN . m .

0 rads 1 (standstill)

T

6 kN . m

Ia

KT

4.8

At starting E a is equal to zero.

I

f

Armature voltage, Va I a R a k v ( ) 1250(0.04) 0 50 V

If0

From eqn . Vdc E a Vd 0 cos , solve for ,

Waveforms are shown in previous slides

on mathematical derivations

23

d.c. motor controlled by a single-phase full converter.

Armature resistance 0.03 ohm

Back e.m.f. constant 0.182 V/rpm

Torque constant

1.74 Nm/A (at max field excitation)

The ac supply voltage to the converter is 260 V . Assume that

sufficient inductance is present in armature circuit to make the

motor current continuous and ripple free.

For a firing angle = 30, and rated motor current of 38A,

calculate:

(i) motor torque.

(ii) speed of the motor.

(iii)supply power factor.

24

Solution:

2 2 Vac

cos

Average Torque developed, TAV = K a1 Ia = K TIa

Average speed, if flux is constant

Va - IaR a

Va = IaR a + Ea = IaR a + K a N , N =

K a

rpm

2 2 Vac

2 2 x 260

Armature voltage, Va =

cos =

cos 30

= 202.82 V

Va - IaR a

202.82 - 38 x 0.3

Speed, N =

=

rpm

K a

0.182

= 1051.8 rpm

25

If the motor current is constant and ripple free, the input supply

current is a square wave of amplitude 38 A.

Thus the rms supply current, I = 38 A

Supply volt-amps = VA = 260 x 38 = 9880 VA

Power used by the motor,

Pa = Va X Ia = 202.82 x 38 = 7707.2 W

Neglecting losses in the converter,

Power input to the converter, Ps = 7707.2 W

Supply power factor, pf = Ps/VA = 7707.2/9880 = 0.78

26

Half-wave(Single-quadrant operation)

Conduction pattern:

radians

Triggering sequence = 1, 2, 3, 1

radians

27

The avearge motor terminal voltage, Va ( from waveform )

1

Va = Vd =

Vmax sin d

2 / 3

+

for

30

3 3 Vmax

=

(1 + 0.866 cos - 0.5 sin )

2 5

+

3

1

6

Va =

Vmax sin d =

2 / 3

+

3 Vmax

cos for < 30

2

dia

va = ea = Ra ia + La

+ eg

dt

Let the phase voltage, v = Vmax sin

where V max = rms input maximum phase voltage to the converter

Half-wave(Two-quadrant operation)

radians

Triggering sequence = 1, 2, 3, 1

Conduction pattern:

29

The armature circuit equation from KV Law

di a

va = ea = R a ia + La

+ eg

< < +

dt

Let the phase voltage, v = Vmax sin

where V max = rms input maximum phase voltage to the converter

The avearge motor terminal voltage, Va ( from waveform )

5

1

+

6

Va = Vd =

Vmax sin d

2 / 3 +

6

5

+

1

6

Va = Vd =

Vmax

2 / 3

+

6

5

+

3 Vmax

6

=

[- cos ]

2

+

6

sin d

30

3 Vmax

5

=

[- cos( + ) + cos( + )]

2

6

6

3 Vmax

5

5

=

[- cos cos + sin sin + cos cos - sin sin ]

2

6

6

6

6

3 Vmax

=

[0.866 cos + 0.5 sin + 0.866 cos - 0.5 sin ]

2

3 Vmax

Va =

( 3 cos )

2

3 3 Vmax

Va =

cos

2

If Vac = rms phase voltage, then Vmax = 2 Vac

For star connection of the transformer,

VLL

Then maximum phase voltage, Vmax

x 2

3

3 3 Vmax

As the avearge motor terminal voltage, Va

cos

2

3 3 VLL

Va

x 2 cos

2

3

3 2 VLL

Va

cos

2

32

Triggering sequence =1, 6, 2, 4,3,5,1

Triggering interval =/6 radians

33

dc

3-phase input

voltage

Armature

voltage

Armature

current

Input line

current

35

The armature circuit equation from KV Law

di a

va = ea = R a i a + La

+ eg

+ < < ++

dt

6

6

3

Let the voltage between the lines be VLL

The waveform for calculation of averagevol tage,

define as a cosine wave : 2 VLL cos

The avearge motor terminal voltage, Va ( from waveform )

1

+

6

Va = Vdc =

/ 3 - +

6

2 VLL cos d

+

2 VLL

[sin ] 6

- +

6

36

3 2 VLL

=

[sin( + ) - sin(- + )]

6

6

3 2 VLL

Va =

[sin cos + cos sin - sin(- ) cos + cos(- ) sin ]

6

6

6

6

Va =

Va =

2 VLL

2 sin cos

2 VLL

cos

current, ISCR=SCR current, scr=peak SCR current, VA = Volt-amp rating of

transformer, VPIV= peak inverse voltage of input

TYPE

Vac/Vdo

Irms/Id

VA/Pdo

ISCR/Id

^

ISCR/Id

VPIV/Vd

Output

Voltage

Harmonic

Factor

Input

Current

Harmonic

Factor

2.22

0.707

1.57

0.5

3.14

1.21

(=0o)

1.21

1.11

1.11

0.5

1.57

0.626

(=45o)

0.484

Bi-phase, Two-quadrant

1.11

0.707

1.57

0.5

3.14

1.11

(=90o)

0.484

1.11

1.11

0.5

1.57

1.11

(=90o)

0.484

single quadrant

0.855

0.577

1.48

0.333

2.09

0.464

(=60o)

1.09

two quadrant

0.855

0.577

1.48

0.333

2.09

0.66

(=90o)

0.425

0.427

0.816

1.047

0.333

1.045

0.3

(=90o)

0.306

AC-DC SCR CONVERTER

Load inductance:

RMS ripple current in the load must not exceed

Ia A

Fundamental ripple frequency, fr = n f

The maximum ripple occurs at some .

Compute VHF and Iripple

VHF x Vdo = 2 fr L Iripple

L = VHF x Vdo /(2 fr Iripple)

Example:

Vdo

3 Vmax

2

then Vmax 2 Vac

Load inductance calculation:

Number of ripples (in one cycle) = n = 3

Fundamental supply frequency = f = 50

Hz

Average dc voltage at = 0, Vdo

RMS ripple current in the load must not

exceed Ia A

Fundamental ripple frequency, fr = n f

The maximum ripple occurs at = 90

DC Drives

Switched-mode drives

Using switched mode DC-DC converter, DC voltage is

varied by duty cycle.

Mainly used for low to medium power range

Single-quadrant converter (buck):1-quadrant

Half-bridge: 2-quadrant

Full-bridge: 4-quadrant

voltage within a dc-dc converter. With this

technique, the converter output voltage

involves a pulse width modulated wave, and

the voltage is controlled by varying the

duration of the output voltage pulses.

The previous slides show the voltage control

achieved by varying the phase of the conduction

intervals of SCRs, TH1 and TH2 with respect to TH3

and TH4.

The pulse width control is achieved by phaseadvancing or retarding the control signals for

one or pair of switches (Transistors, MOSFETs or

IGBTs), and in this way the converter output

voltage can be adjusted smoothly from

42

PWM Operation

switching-frequency triangular waveform in

order to generate the switching signals.

Controlling the switching duty ratios allows the

43

averaged D.C. voltage output to be controlled.

Conduction pattern:

45

Vs = dc source voltage,

Vd = output voltage of the converter

k T = on - time of the converter ,

(1 - k)T = off - time of the converter

1

T = time period of the converter = , where f s = switching frequency

fs

k = duty ratio

Vsk T

'

Vd = V =

= kVs

T

Is = I' = k Id

e . g., Vs = 100 V, Vd = 10 V, Id = 50 A, k = 0.1

Is = 5 A (assuming no losses)

Example:

Vs = 100 V, Vd = 60 V, Id = 10 A, VT = 5 V, v d = 0.7 V

(100 5) kT 0.7(1 k) T

'

Vd = V =

= 60 V

T

Duty ratio, k = 0.634

Source current, Is = k Id = 6.34 A

Power input, Pin = Vs Is = 634 W

Power output, Pout = Vd Id = 600 W

Efficiency of the converter, = 94.6 %

( excluding drive electric power loss)

47

1. Transistor :

VT I d kT

Average power

31.7 Watt

T

2. Diode :

0.7I d (1 k) T

Average power

2.6 Watt

T

Total losses 31.7 2.6 34.3 Watt

ID

1A

10A

.634ms

.366ms

Time

assumed for this design example

approx. triangular or sawtooth waveform.

49

Choke design :

PWM frequency = 1 kHz (T = 1 ms)

Design to achieve 1A peak - to - peak ripple (typical)

ON period : Inductor voltage

di

I

VL = L

L

dt

T

T (Vs VT ) k(1ms)

L = VL

=

= 22.2 mH

I

1

Check by analyzing the OFF period :

VL T

I =

=

L

0.7(1

k) T

= 1.0007 A

22.2 mH

51

52

Switching period, Ts Ton Toff

From the waveform of voltage

(Vs 2 VT ) k Ts ( Vs 2 vd )(1 k )Ts

'

Vd V

Ts

54

Waveforms with allowances for transistor and diode voltage drops, and

for transistor switching times.

55

Consider transistor and diode voltage drops (VT and vd )

Consider switching times of transistors and diodes (t R and t F )

duty ratio, k

On - time of transistor kTs,

Off - time of transistor (1 k )Ts

Switching period, Ts Ton Toff

56

[(k Ts t R t F k Ts )](Vs 2 VT )

Vd V

Ts

1

2

'

1

2

Ts

[(2 k Ts t R t F )](Vs 2 VT )

Vd V

Ts

'

1

2

1

2

Ts

Example:

The mass of an electric vehicle as shown in FIGURE is 500 kg, The vehicle

is going up a slope of 30o at a speed of 30 km/hr. The friction coefficient of the

surface at a given weather condition is 0.4. The acceleration due to gravity, g =

9.8 ms-2. The electric vehicle is being powered by a DC motor mounted on the

front wheels and the wheel diameter is 0.5 m. A reduction gear of 50:1 is used.

The motor takes 72 V with constant excitation, and is controlled by a twoquadrant transistor PWM dc-dc converter. The dc motor on board the vehicle

runs at 800 rpm. The following characteristics apply to the system:

Torque constant= 0.4 Nm/A

Back emf constant = 0.4 V/rads-1

Transistor and diode switching times, on and off = 2 sec and 2 sec

Switching frequency of transistors = 5 kHz

Transistor conduction voltage drop = 2 V

Determine:

(a) The torque developed by the motor.

(b) The voltage applied to the motor.

(c) The duty ratio of the PWM converter.

(Ans: 20.736 Nm, 43.908 V, 0.829)

Solution:

Data:

Mass of the bus, m = 500 kg

Wheel diameter, d = 0.5 m

Speed of the bus, v = 30 km/hr

Slope of the hill, = 30o

Friction coefficient, r = 0.4

Acceleration due to gravity, g = 9.8

-2

(a) The weightms

of vehicle is divided into two components:

(i) Perpendicular to the road surface (force F), responsible for friction

force, Fr

(ii) Parallel to the surface, responsible for pulling the vehicle towards

bottom of the slope, Fl

The total force, FL= Fl + Fr

All these forces are dependent on the gravitational force, Fg

Considering the force diagram, the normal force, F and pulling force, Fl are

F = Fg cos

Fl = Fg sin

F = Fg cos = 4900 x cos 30 = 4243 N

Fl = Fg sin = 4900 x sin 30 = 2450 N

The friction force, Fr = r x F = 0.4 x 4243 = 1697.2 N

The total force of the load, FL = Fl + Fr = 2450+ 1697.2 = 4147.2 N

The torque to be developed, TL = FL x radius of wheel

= 4147.2x 0.25 = 1036.8 Nm

Torque developed by the motor = 1036.8/50 = 20.736 Nm

Switching period, Ts= 1/ fs = 1/(5 x 103) = 200 s

(b) Motor torque, T 20.736 Nm

We have Motor torque, T K T I a

20.736

51.84 A

0.4

Motor back emf, E b K v 0.4 x 83.85 33.54 V

Motor armature current, I a

(c)

To find the duty ratio (PWM ratio), k

Input voltage to the converter, Vs 72 V

Output voltage of the converter, Va 43.908 V

Input voltage to the motor

Vd Va

1

2

1

2

43.908 V

[(2 k Ts t R t F )](Vs 2 VT )

Ts

Ts

43.908

-6

200x10

-6

-6

1

[(

2

(

1

k

)

200x10

4

x10

)](72 1.4)

2

200x10 -6

43.908 x 200x10 -6 (68 x 200x10 -6 k - 68 x 2x10 -6 )

1

2

8781 13600 k - 136 - 14680 14680 k 146.8

k 0.829

First quadrant operation: Motoring mode

Second quadrant operation: Regenerative braking mode

When the electric vehicle is going down the hill,

the dc machine is under regenerative braking

mode. In the downward direction, the speed of

the electric vehicle may exceed its no-load

speed, and generate electric power that can be

fed Iback

to thecurrent

source.

during braking

ab armature

I Lb line current during braking

Eab induced emf during braking

Tdb developed braking torque

I ab I Lb I f , where I f is the field current, I f

Va

Rf

Va

Rf

In the normal operation

Tdb kT I ab

Tdb

Va Eab I ab Ra k vb Ra

kT

Va

R

a Tdb

k v k v kT

I ab

Va Eab

Ra

Thus the armature current also reverses its direction.

Therefore in the above equations Tdb is negative.

I ab

Tdb

A

kT

Va

Ra

Va Ra I ab

b

( I ab k T )

rad sec -1

k v k v kT

kv

The speed will be greater than the no - load speed.

The generated power, Pb E ab ( I ab ) E ab I ab W

Example:

Armature resistance

0.377 ohms

Field resistance

110 ohms

Voltage constant

3.93 V sec-1

Torque constant

3.93 Nm/A

Determine the following during regenerative braking when the armature

current is 60 A.

i. Motor speed

ii. Developed torque

iii. Induced emf

iv. Terminal current

v. Generated power

Solution:

During regenerative braking mode, the armature

current is reversed.

i. The speed of motor

Va

Ra

Va Ra I ab

b

( I ab kT )

rad sec -1

kv

k v kT

kv

440 0.377 x 60

b

117.72 rad sec -1

3.93

ii. Developed torque

Tdb kT I ab 3.93 x 60 - 235.8 Nm

iii. Induced emf

Eab k vb 3.93 x 117.72 462.64 V

iv. Terminal current

I Lb I ab I f I ab

Va

440

60

56 A

Rf

110

v. Generated power

Pb Eab ( I ab ) Eab I ab 462.64 x 60 27760 W

Reverse current uses T3+T4 and then D3 + D4 alternately.

72

to ensure that the other transistors have fully ceased

conduction.

74

Revision:

-Characteristic of DC Motor

-Controlled by supply voltage/current and

excited voltage/current ( depend on configuration)

-Single Phase Controller Converter

- Half wave

-Semi converter

-Full converter

-Dual converter

-Freeweeling diode effect

-Determine average voltage and rms voltage

Controlling Techniques

-SCR technique

-Single phase

-3 phase

-3 pulse converter

-6 pulse converter

-PWM

-Single quadrant

-Double/second quadrant

-Fourth quadrant

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