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EPRI PSE

Civil/Structural, Module 6-Jet Impingement and Pressure


Loading Analysis

EPRI 1010809
CIVIL/STRUCTURAL SERIES
MODULE 6
JET IMPINGEMENT AND PRESSURE
LOADING ANALYSIS

Slide 1

EPRI PSE
Civil/Structural, Module 6-Jet Impingement and Pressure
Loading Analysis

MODULE OBJECTIVES
The objectives of this module are as follows:
Describe the nature of the pressure/impulsive
loads.
Summarize aspects of structural response.
Describe the design methods.
Apply the above principles to solve example jet
impingement problems.
Discuss Computer Methods.
Slide 2

EPRI PSE
Civil/Structural, Module 6-Jet Impingement and Pressure
Loading Analysis

DEFINITIONS
Impulsive loads
Transient (time varying) loads that are determined by an external
source and are relatively insensitive to structural response.
Independent of the target inertial and stiffness properties.
Generally force, but not energy, limited.
May result from jet impingement, accidental sub-compartment
pressure, etc.

Impactive loads
Caused by one body striking another.
The load is limited by the kinetic energy of the colliding bodies.
Affected by the inertial and stiffness properties of the striking
bodies.

Slide 3

EPRI PSE
Civil/Structural, Module 6-Jet Impingement and Pressure
Loading Analysis

PARAMETERS DEFINING PRESSURE


DESIGN RANGES

Pressure
Resistance

L
O
A
D

L
O
A
D

L
O
A
D

Pressure
Resistance

Resistance
Pressure

TIME
to

Pressure - Design Range

TIME

tm

TIME

to tm

tm

TIME

to

HIGH

LOW

VERY LOW

Impulse

Pressure-Time

Pressure

Incident Pressure

100 psi

100 psi

10 psi

Pressure Duration

short

intermediate

long

Response Time

long

intermediate

short

tm/to 3

3 tm/to 0.1

tm/to 0.1

Design Load

Relationship of tm/to

Slide 4

EPRI PSE
Civil/Structural, Module 6-Jet Impingement and Pressure
Loading Analysis

TYPICAL HIGH ENERGY LINE BREAK


PRESSURE-TIME

P ressu re

Peak Load

Steady State
Pressure

Rise

Decay Time

Time

Time

Slide 5

EPRI PSE
Civil/Structural, Module 6-Jet Impingement and Pressure
Loading Analysis

FLUID JET MODELS

Jet Boundary

Core
Region

Break (Exit)
Plane

Asymptotic
Plane

Break (Exit)
Plane

Downstream
Plane

Velocity, Pressure & Temperature Profiles

Non-expanding jet

Velocity, Pressure & Temperature Profiles

Expanding jet

Slide 6

EPRI PSE
Civil/Structural, Module 6-Jet Impingement and Pressure
Loading Analysis

YIELD STRESS of A-7 and REINFORCING


STEEL (1 ksi = 6.9 Mpa)

Y ie ld s tre ss , (k si)

60
Intermediate grade
50

40

A-7 and structural


grade-average curve

A-7 and structural


grade- 90% curve
10-2

10-1

Time to yield, (sec)


Slide 7

EPRI PSE
Civil/Structural, Module 6-Jet Impingement and Pressure
Loading Analysis

EFFECT OF RATE OF STRAIN ON


COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF STEEL

P e rc e n t o f sta tic stre n g th o b ta in e d

190
170

150

Rate of 6.95x10-3 in./in./sec.


is used as base
Watstein-weak concrete
Watstein-strong concrete
Abrams
Bureau of reclamation

130
110
90
10-6

10-5

10-4

10-3

10-2

10-1

10

100

Rate of straining, in inches per inch per second


Slide 8

EPRI PSE
Civil/Structural, Module 6-Jet Impingement and Pressure
Loading Analysis

DISPLACEMENT-RESPONSE SPECTRA
FOR THREE TYPES OF IMPULSE

D y n a m ic M a g n ific a tio n F a c to r

2.4

Rectangular

2.0

Triangular

Half sine wave

1.6
1.2
0.8
0.4
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

Impulse length ratio,

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

t1
T
Slide 9

EPRI PSE
Civil/Structural, Module 6-Jet Impingement and Pressure
Loading Analysis

EFFECT OF DAMPING ON THE RESPONSE


TO IMPULSE LOADING
100

E la stic R e sp o n se F o rc e (k ip s )

80

Blast load

60
40
20
0

= 5%

-20
-40
-60
-80

Undamped

-100
0

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

Time (sec.)
Slide 10

EPRI PSE
Civil/Structural, Module 6-Jet Impingement and Pressure
Loading Analysis

SINGLE-DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEM


Force f(t)
X(t)
F1

f(t)
Mass M

Stiffness K
td

System Schematic

Time t

Triangular Impulse Load Time History

R e s ista n c e R

R
RM
K-Stiffness

Displacement X

Linearly Elastic Resistance Function

Xe

Xm

Elasto-Plastic Resistance Function


Slide 11

EPRI PSE
Civil/Structural, Module 6-Jet Impingement and Pressure
Loading Analysis

XM / XE CURVES FOR ELASTIC-PLASTIC


SYSTEM, RECTANGULAR IMPULS LOAD
100
0.2

0.6

0.4

1.0

0.9

1.02

1.05

10

1.1

X m /X e

1.2
1.3
1.4
1.6
1.8
0
CR=2.0

1.0
Elastic
R

F(t)

Rm

Xm
tm

F1

CR
0.1
0.1

Rm
F1

td

Rectangular load

X
Xe
Resistance function

1.0

Displacement
function

10

40

t
Value of CT d
T

Slide 12

EPRI PSE
Civil/Structural, Module 6-Jet Impingement and Pressure
Loading Analysis

ASSUMED STATIC DEFORMED SHAPES FOR


DETERMINATION OF TRANSFORMATION FACTORS

Elastic hinges

Plastic hinges

Plastic hinges

Slide 13

EPRI PSE
Civil/Structural, Module 6-Jet Impingement and Pressure
Loading Analysis

STRUCTURES WITH DISTRIBUTED MASS


AND STIFFNESS

Equivalent Mass The equivalent mass of the singledegree-of-freedom system is derived to maintain equality of
kinetic energy with the real system.
Equivalent Load Time History The equivalent load is derived by equating
work done by the actual load in deflecting the real structure to the assumed
deflected shape, to the work done by the equivalent load on the equivalent
system.
Equivalent Resistance-Displacement Function The equivalent resistancedisplacement function is obtained by first determining the resistancedisplacement function for the real structure, then converting to the
equivalent system using the transformation factor KR.

Slide 14

EPRI PSE
Civil/Structural, Module 6-Jet Impingement and Pressure
Loading Analysis

COEFFICIENT FOR MOMENT OF


CRACKED SECTIONS
1.0
'

Ier= Fbd3

Value of

1.0

C
o
e
f
f
e
c
i
e
n
t
,
F

0.75
0.50
0.25
0

10-1

10-2
10-2

10-1
Ratio n

1.0
Slide 15

EPRI PSE
Civil/Structural, Module 6-Jet Impingement and Pressure
Loading Analysis

JET EXPANSION MODEL

X = 5Djet(exit)

Djet(exit)

Break Plane

= 10

Djet(asym)

Asymptotic Plane

Slide 16

EPRI PSE
Civil/Structural, Module 6-Jet Impingement and Pressure
Loading Analysis

DETERMINATION OF SHAPE FACTORS


FOR JET IMPINGEMENT

r sin

K = cos

A1

D0

rj

K 1

Plane Surface

.424 D j
D0

Impingement less than pipe diameter

Dj = 2rj

K = 0.576
D0

Impingement greater than pipe/conduit diameter


Slide 17