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The Porto Marghera case study

Prof. Antonio Marcomini


Dept. Environmental Sciences Informatics and Statistics
University Ca Foscari of Venice

Ca Foscari, 7th October 2013

Introduzione
Porto Marghera:
dallo sviluppo economico al declino e al
risanamento ambientale
Sviluppo economico: reso possibile dalla disponibilit di
capitali, energia a basso prezzo, terreni gratuiti, forte volont
politica
Declino di Porto Marghera: mareggiata del 1966 (sotto
accusa emungimento acque sotterranee ed escavo del
canale Malamocco-Marghera); graduale dismissione delle
produzioni di base; delocalizzazione/accorpamento di
produzioni e centri ricerca industriali
Risanamento ambientale di Porto Marghera: prende avvio a
fine anni 90, tuttora in corso.

Environmental quality issues in the lagoon of Venice

Years

Issues

70-80

Eutrophication (nutrients load and algae


blooms)

90

Chemical contamination (toxicant and


sediment redistribution)

2000

Sustainable management

Historical development

Progress of the indusrtrial area - Area Pili, period 50s 60s. Source: CVN

Historical development

Progress of the indusrtrial area in the 60s. Source: www.ucl.ac.uk

Historical development

View of the indusrtrial area in 1990.

Introduzione: il SIN di Porto Marghera


Il sito di Porto Marghera
Il Sito di Interesse Nazionale di Porto Marghera, incluso nei siti di bonifica di interesse nazionale
elencati allart. 1, comma 4, della legge 9 dicembre 1998, n. 426, si estende su 3.200 ha di terra
emersa, 350 ha di canali portuali e 2.200 ha di area lagunare. L'area perimetrata comprende:

larea industriale;
altre aree inquinate nel Comune di Venezia, anche di tipo residenziale e
agricolo;
larea lagunare prospiciente larea industriale di Porto Marghera;
i siti interessati da smaltimento abusivo dei rifiuti industriali (discariche).
L'area industriale caratterizzata dalla presenza di
un sistema acquifero multistrato, sono individuabili
tre corpi acquiferi sotterranei distinti: superficiale,
primario, secondario (profondo e confinato).
La loro contaminazione e la diffusione degli
inquinanti in laguna ha fatto si che sia il primo sito di
interesse nazionale in Italia

Introduzione: il SIN di Porto Marghera


Accordi di Programma e Master Plan
Il Sito di Interesse Nazionale di Porto Marghera, stato oggetto di uno dei primi Accordi di
Programma con indicazioni in merito alla bonifica:

Accordo di Programma per la chimica di Porto Marghera del 21/10/1998 e successivo


DPCM del 12/2/1998 tra Ministero Ambiente Enti Territoriali e Aziende.

Atto Integrativo allAccordo del 15/12/2000 e successivo DPCM del 15/11/2001


Sviluppati al fine di costituire e mantenere nel tempo a Porto Marghera condizioni ottimali
di coesistenza tra tutela dellambiente e sviluppo produttivo nel settore chimico, in un
quadro di certezze gestionali.

Lo strumento indicato per raggiungere gli obiettivi dell'Accordo cos siglato il Master Plan
per la bonifica dei siti inquinati di Porto Marghera.
Il Master Plan stato approvato con modifiche ed integrazioni dalla Conferenza di Servizi
dellAccordo il 22/4/2004

SIN di Porto Marghera e progetti in fase di sviluppo


Accordi di Programma e Master Plan
Gli obiettivi principali del Master Plan :
- ricostruzione di un preciso quadro conoscitivo circa il grado e la qualit della
contaminazione;
- definizione degli obiettivi di risanamento a cui corrisponde una serie di
strategie di intervento;
- cronoprogramma degli interventi;
- valutazione di massima dei costi;
- recupero delle aree inquinate.

Il Master Plan ha stimato un costo di bonifica pari a


1,5-1.8 miliardi di euro

SIN di Porto Marghera e progetti in fase di sviluppo


Accordi di Programma e Master Plan
Il Master Plan analizza anche la funzionalit la realizzazione del
marginamento della Laguna e del PIF ovvero il Progetto Integrato
Fusina
Il CONFINAMENTO di Porto Marghera
mediante una barriera tra le sponde e
la laguna un intervento inserito fin
dal 1993 nel Progetto generale degli
interventi per larresto e linversione
del degrado lagunare, sviluppato dal
Magistrato alle Acque.
Il Progetto stato approvato con
Decreto del Presidente del Magistrato
alle Acque il 25 luglio 1995 ed
operativo dal 29 marzo 1996.

Application of DPSIR to the lagoon

PRESSURES

DRIVING
FORCES

Tide

Meteorology
Subsidence
eustacy

STATE

Industry
energy prod.

Fishing
fish farming

Lagoon levels
current
waves

Sea-lagoon
exchange Drainage basin
water input

Urban settlements
Sewage systems
and
treatment plants

Transport

Atmospheric emissions
and
depositions

Vegetation of islands
and salt marshes

IMPACTS

Agricolture
animal farming

Tourism

Sea levels
current
waves

ACTIONS

ANTHROPIC
ANTHROPIC

NATURAL

Contaminated areas

Pollutant
loads
Fish, mussel
and shellfish
harvesting

Drainage basin
sediment load

Fishing activity
regulation
Canals and rii
excavation

Salt marshes
reconstruction
Aquatic
fauna

Sediment
composition

Water
composition

Phanerogams
transplantation
Macroalgae
harvesting

Micro-macroalgae
and phanerogams
stocks

Water
biology

Morphologic deterioration
of emerged
intertidal and
submerged areas

Agricoltural
practices
improvement
Emission and
discharges
Reduction/prohibition

Contaminated sites
remediation

Man-induced sediment
resuspension

Sediment
morphology
and texture

Hygienic and
sanitary condition
deterioration

Sewerage systems
and
treatment plants
improvement

Eutrophication
and related
aspects

Micropollutants
in biota

Terrestrial
fauna

Ecological and human health


risks

Landscape
deterioration

Population
and
biodiversity
reduction

Sediment
capping

From Barbanti et.


Al, 2002

Recent monitoring and assessment studies

DRAINAGE
BASIN

Atmospheric deposition of heavy


metals and organic
micropollutants in the Venice

Pollution effects on the Venice lagoon

lagoon

ecosystem and on human health

AIR

HUMAN
S
BIOTA

WATER
Pollution inflow
from the
drainage basin
(DRAIN)

Radiochemical
survey of recent
sediments from the
Venice lagoon

PREVIOUS
RESULTS

SEDIMENT

Characterization of the solid


material exchanged with the sea

SEA

Mapping the bottom


sediments pollution
(MAP)

Eutrophication and
chemical pollution in
the central part of the
Venice lagoon

DATA and
KNOWLEDGE

2023, MAP,
AND DRAIN
PROJECTS

Updated assessment of the


enviromental conditions of
the lagoon ecosystem by
DPSIR approach

DATABASE

Driving forces, Pressures and State


Annual loads of pollutants from point and non-point sources
2023 Project

Overview of major non-point (riverine and atmospheric loads) annual loads


(kg/y) of POPs in the lagoon of Venice

POPs
Total PAHs
PCDD/Fs
PCDD/Fs (TEQ)
PCB dioxin-like
HCB

Riverine
loads
<100
0,01
1.4*10
0,41
0,92

-4

Atmospheric
depositions
10040
1*10-24*10-3
2.8*10
1
1,0
1,07

-4

0.

4.4

n
n

Driving forces, Pressures and State


Spatial distribution of sediment contamination
5050000

Total PCBs
Porto Marghera
Industrial area

5045000

MAP Project

5040000
5035000

n gg/kg
/ g D Wd.w.

5030000

SE

100

IC

5025000

AT

10

RI

5020000

5015000

AD

Example:
spatial distribution of total
PCBs in surface
sediment

5010000
5005000

2295000

2300000

2305000

2310000

2315000

2320000

2325000

2330000

2335000

Kriging interpolation map of total PCB concentration in surface


sediment (i.e. sediment exposure map)

Driving forces, Pressures and State


POLLUTANTS LOADS IN THE SURFACE SEDIMENT
NORTH CENTRAL SOUTH TOTAL
Lagoon
Lagoon
Lagoon Lagoon
Mercury

Cadmium

Arsenic

Chromium

Copper

Lead

Nickel

Zinc

mg/Kg DW
ton
mg/Kg DW
ton
mg/Kg DW
ton
mg/Kg DW
ton
mg/Kg DW
ton
mg/Kg DW
ton
mg/Kg DW
ton
mg/Kg DW
ton
mg/Kg DW
ton
mg/Kg DW
ton
mg/Kg DW
ton
mg/Kg DW
ton
mg/Kg DW
ton
mg/Kg DW
ton
mg/Kg DW
ton
mg/Kg DW
ton

Conc. A
Load A
Conc. B
Load B
Conc. A
Load A
Conc. B
Load B
Conc. A
Load A
Conc. B
Load B
Conc. A
Load A
Conc. B
Load B
Conc. A
Load A
Conc. B
Load B
Conc. A
Load A
Conc. B
Load B
Conc. A
Load A
Conc. B
Load B
Conc. A
Load A
Conc. B
Load B

1.05
18
0.8
14
0.61
10
0.5
9
10.2
170
10
170
40.8
700
37
630
19.9
340
18
310
31.3
540
29
500
25.4
440
25
430
63.2
1100
58
1000

1.13
23
1.0
21
1.05
22
0.9
19
14.1
290
11
230
41.8
870
34
710
26.3
550
23
480
45.2
940
38
790
22.4
470
19
400
145
3000
130
2700

0.44
10
0.3
7
0.77
18
0.6
14
15.9
360
12
270
54.7
1300
41
930
21.9
500
16
360
40.2
920
34
780
28.1
640
21
480
96
2200
71
1600

0.81
50

0.79
48

13.1
800

44.4
2700

22.0
1400

37.9
2300

24.4
1500

100
6100

NORTH CENTRAL SOUTH TOTAL


Lagoon
Lagoon
Lagoon Lagoon
Hydrocarbons mg/Kg DW
ton
mg/Kg DW
ton
Total PCB
g/kg DW
ton
g/kg DW
ton
Pesticide
g/kg DW
ton
g/kg DW
ton
Total PAH
g/kg DW
ton
g/kg DW
ton
PCDD/F
ng/kg DW
Kg
ng/kg DW
Kg
Sum
ng/kg DW
dioxin
like Kg
PCB
ng/kg DW
Kg
Esacloro
g/kg DW
benzene
Kg
(HCB)
g/kg DW
Kg

Conc. A
Load A
Conc. B
Load B
Conc. A
Load A
Conc. B
Load B
Conc. A
Load A
Conc. B
Load B
Conc. A
Load A
Conc. B
Load B
Conc. A
Load A
Conc. B
Load B
Conc. A
Load A
Conc. B
Load B
Conc. A
Load A
Conc. B
Load B

10.1
170
9
150
6.6
0.11
5
0.09
1.2
0.02
1.4
0.02
570
10
220
4
115
2.0
87
1.5
1600
28
1100
19
0.86
15
0.6
10

25.4
530
13
270
11.4
0.24
8.5
0.18
2.6
0.05
1.0
0.02
3200
66
400
8
340
7.1
300
6.2
3300
70
2000
42
1.11
23
0.9
19

21.9
500
17
390
7.4
0.17
5
0.11
1.4
0.03
1.0
0.02
1100
25
600
14
100
2.3
68
1.5
1200
27
760
17
0.99
22
1
23

19.0
1200

8.2
0.50

1.7
0.10

1600
97

180
11.1

2000
120

0.95
58

Driving forces, Pressures and State


Occurrence of pollutants in biotic and abiotic matrices:
Hg and As
Compound

Unit

Concentration
a

Min

Max

Mean

Mercury in sediments (n=64)

mg/kg, dw

0.1

2.9

0.7

Mercury in filter feeders (Tapes ph., n=23, Mytilus


galloprovincialis, n=7)

mg/kg, ww

0.02

0.11

0.05

Mercury in fish (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus, n=8,


Chelon labrosus, n=4)

mg/kg, ww

0.05

0.24

0.11

Arsenic in sediments (n=64)

mg/kg, dw

38

11

Arsenic in filter feeders (Tapes ph., n=23, Mytilus


galloprovincialis, n=7)

mg/kg, ww

1.5

10.7

3.3

Arsenic in fish (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus, n=8,


Chelon labrosus, n=4)

mg/kg, ww

1.2

13.5

3.4

dw: dry weight; ww: wet weight

Driving forces, Pressures and State


Occurrence of pollutants in biotic and abiotic matrices:
PCBs, PCDD/Fs, PAHs, EDCs
Compound

Unit

Concentration
Min

Max

Mean

Polyciclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in


sediments (n=64)

g/kg, dw

50

27300

418

Sum of dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs)


b
1
congeners in sediments (n=64)

ng/kg, dw

0.005

0.15

0.024

Sum of dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs)


b
1
congeners in filter feeders (Tapes ph., n=23,
Mytilus galloprovincialis, n=6)

ng/kg, ww

0.00028

2.77

0.178

Sum of dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs)


b
1
congeners in fish (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus,
n=8, Chelon labrosus, n=6)

ng/kg, ww

0.53

5.07

1.78

Polychlorodibenzodioxins/furans (2,3,7,8
1
PCDD/Fs) in sediments (n=64)

ng/kg, dw

0.3

27

3.8

Polychlorodibenzodioxins/furans (2,3,7,8
1
PCDD/Fs) in filter feeders (Tapes ph., n=23,
Mytilus galloprovincialis, n=6)

ng/kg ww

0.04

1.44

0.26

Polychlorodibenzodioxins/furans (2,3,7,8
1
PCDD/Fs) in fish (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus,
n=8, Chelon labrosus, n=6)

ng/kg ww

0.21

1.00

0.49

ng/L

4.3

47

20

Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs)

Sum of PCBs # 77, 81, 105, 114, 118, 123,


126, 156, 157, 167, 169, 189
b

As TEQ (Toxic Equivalent)

As EEQ (Estradiol Equivalent) of estradiol, estrone,


ethynilestradiol, mestranol, benzophenone, bisphenolA, diethylstilbestrol, octylphenol, nonylphenol,
nonylphenol monoethoxylate carboxylate
2

Driving forces, Pressures and State


Bio-assessment: bioassays, biomarkers, biodiversity
Experimental activities
Bioassay
1.

Biomarkers

Spermiotoxicity and embryotoxicity tests


1.
Paracentrotus lividus
2.
Mytilus galloprovincialis
3.
Crassostrea gigas

1.

(Volpi Ghirardini and Arizzi Novelli, 2001; Arizzi Novelli et al., 2001)

3.

2.

4.

Benthic Community Profiles


Identification of a limited set of macrobenthos taxa
suitable to characterize various habitat and
environmental quality classes in the lagoon of Venice
(Tagliapietra D & Cornello M., 2001 ;Tagliapietra et al., in press)

5.

biochemical
I.
Catalysis
II.
Aldehyde dehydrogenase
cellular
I.
Neutral red
genetic
I.
DNA adducts
II.
Micronuceli
physiological
I.
Condition index
II.
Resistance to aerial exposure
behavioural
I.
Reburial time

(Da Ros et al., 2000; Venier and Zampieron, in press)

Impact assessment by Environmental Risk Assessment


1) Risk Assessment for benthic community: risk estimation
Risk = Pollutants sediment concentration / Screening sediment benchmark

Risk Estimation:
Visualisation of
individual
contribution of each
pollutant to the total
risk by PIE CHART

Critto et al., 2003

Impact assessment by Environmental Risk Assessment


2) Site-specific Risk Assessment for clam: risk estimation
Predicted Environmental Concentration (PEC)
Hazard Quotient (HQ) =
Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC)
Cadmium

PEC: bioaccumulation in clam tissues


Regression bioaccumulation model

PNEC: Tissue Srceening Concentrations


Sediment Quality Criteria (TEL) x
Bioaccumulation Factor

H a z a r d Q u o tie n t

2 .6 0

2 .4 0

2 .0 0

1 .6 0

Micheletti et al., 2003

1 .3 0

Impact assessment by Environmental Risk Assessment


3) Site-specific Risk Assessment for food web: food web model1

Nekton

Filter
feeders

Detritivorous

Phytoplankton
1

Libralato et al., 2003

Omnivorous-predators
Zooplankton

Impact assessment by Environmental Risk Assessment


3) Site-specific Risk Assessment for food web:
Risk estimation: Quotient Method
Predicted Environmental Concentration (PEC)
Hazard Quotient (HQ) =
Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC)
PEC: bioaccumulation in organisms tissues
Partitioning bioaccumulation model

Trophic group
phytoplankton
zooplankton
Benthos filter feeders
Benthos detritivorous
Benthos omnivorous-predators
Mugilidae juveniles
Mugilidae adults
Atherina boyeri
Zosterisessor ophiocephalus
Necton
Sparus aurata juveniles
Sparus aurata adults
Dicentrarchus labrax juveniles
Dicentrarchus labrax adults

PNEC: Tissue Srceening Concentrations


Ambient Quality Criteria x
Bioaccumulation Factor (Shephard, 1998)

Northern lag. Central lag. Porto Marghera Malamocco


0.8
1.9
2.0
1.5
0.8
1.9
2.0
1.5
3.2
7.9
8.1
6.1
3.2
7.9
8.1
6.1
3.2
7.9
8.1
6.1
0.6
1.4
1.5
1.3
0.6
1.3
1.4
1.2
0.6
1.3
1.4
1.2
0.6
1.2
1.3
1.2
0.6
1.3
1.4
1.2
0.6
1.3
1.4
1.2
0.6
1.2
1.3
1.2
0.6
1.2
1.3
1.2
0.5
1.0
1.1
1.1

Chioggia
0.8
0.8
3.3
3.3
3.3
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.6
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.6
0.6

Western lag.
0.8
0.8
3.1
3.1
3.1
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.5

Changes of environmental quality


Temporal trends of Persistent Organic
Pollutants (POPs) loads in sediments
Organic pollutants: significant reduction of concentrations after
the peak recorded in years 60-70
HCB (g/kg)

0.0

0.2

0.4

PCB Aroclor (g/kg)

0.6

20

PCDDs+PCDFs (ng/kg)

PCB Somma (g/kg)

40

200

PCDD/Fs I-TE (ng/kg)

400

IPA Somma (g/kg)

2000

2000

2000

2000

2000

1980

1980

1980

1980

1980

1980

1960

1960

1960

1960

1960

1960

1940

1940

1940

1940

1940

1940

1920

1920

1920

1920

1920

1920

1900

1900

1900

1900

1900

1900

anni

anni

2000

Vertical profiles of some POPs in


northern Lagoon marsh

500

1000

INTRODUCTION TO THE
PROBLEM OF
CONTAMINATED SOIL IN
EUROPE AND ITALY

The problem: in Europe


Soil contamination requiring clean up is present at
approximately 250.000 sites in the EEA member
countries. Most cases of contamination are a legacy from
the past.
This number is expected to grow. Potentially polluting
activities are estimated to have occurred at nearly
3
million sites (including the 250000 sites already
mentioned). If current investigation trends continue, the
number of sites needing remediation will increase by 50%
by 2025
Preliminary investigations are far advanced, whereas
detailed investigation and remediation are progressing
slowly

Source: EEA core indicator


CSI015, 2007

More than 80.000 sites have been cleaned up in the


last 30 years in the countries where data on remediation
is available
At the EU level, the rehabilitation of industrial sites has
been funded through the framework of the Structural
Funds using a total budget of 2.250 billion EUR for the
EU25 in the period 2005-2013

Contamination Sources

Losses of contaminants during industrial and commercial operations, municipal and


industrial waste treatment, oil extraction and production and inadequate storage are
the main sources of soil contamination in Europe

Source: EEA core indicator, 2007

Main Contaminants

Heavy metals and mineral oil are the main soil contaminants in Europe
Mineral oil and heavy metals are the most relevant contaminants for groundwater

Source: EEA core indicator, 2007

Remediation Costs

Costs vary from country to country,


with an average of 0.7 per mille of
GDP
Remediation measures are nearly 60%
of total expenditures, site
investigations about 40%
Degree and extent of the
contamination, environmental
standards, local site conditions and
applied technologies are the main cost
components

Source: EEA core indicator, 2007

Remediation Costs

Although most of the countries in Europe apply the "polluter-pays" principle, large
sums of public money are provided to fund remediation activities (approximately
35% of total expenditure in the surveyed countries)

EEA core indicator, 2007

Remediation Technologies
Balanced application of
innovative in situ and ex
situ techniques
High percentage of the
most-frequently applied
techniques can be defined
as traditional (dig&dump)

Contaminated soil is
frequently treated as
waste to be disposed of
rather than a valuable
resource to be cleaned
and reused

EEA core indicator, 2007

and in Italy
The remediation activities at the
regional level involve around
16.000 sites, according to the
Ministry of Environment (2002)
The overall nationwide intervention
in around 50 sites (as in Law
471/99) will require an estimated
cost of about 2800 millions Euro,
covering over 100.000 hectares of
territory
The current technical activities
regard mostly the site
characterization.

Regulatory Frameworks
The Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection and the Soil
Directive under discussion
Other European Directives:
Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of
the Council establishing a framework for Community action
in the field of water policy;
Directive 2004/35/CE of the European Parliament and of
the Council on environmental liability with regard to the
prevention and remedying of environmental damage;
Council Directive 96/61/EC on integrated pollution
prevention and control

Towards a Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection


RISK-BASED LAND MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK

FITNESS FOR
USE

LONG-TERM
CARE

Ensure safe use


or reuse of the
land, taking risk
acceptable for the
people concerned

Solutions must
remain
appropriate in the
future

PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT


To prevent or reduce negative impact on natural surroundings and to
conserve or enhance quality/quantity of resources

PORTO MARGHERA, VENICE


CASE STUDY

THE PORTO MARGHERA MEGASITE

Lagoon of Venice

Porto Marghera
location
at the border of the Lagoon
of Venice within a
contaminated site of 3.700
ha
1.700 ha of industrial area

Porto Marghera industrial area

The largest contaminated


site of national interest in
Italy
(Law 426/98)

THE PROBLEM AND BOUNDARIES

History of the site


Most of the area was originally
a salt marsh
The first industrialization dates
back to 1920
For
the
subsequent
enlargement, salt marshes
were reclaimed using dredged
sediment and industrial waste
Its major expansion during the
60-70s
Industrial
district:
(petro)chemical,
fertilizers,
energy, steel and aluminum
productions
It is served by a commercial
and industrial port

THE PROBLEM AND BOUNDARIES


Environmental
issues
36% of the site has been characterized
Severe
contamination
of
soil,
groundwater, sediment and surface
water by inorganics (Arsenic, Mercury,
Cadmium,
Zinc)
and
organics
(chlorinated solvents, PAHs, PCBs,
PCDD/PCDFs)
Sources of pollution:
contaminated materials used to
reclaim tidal marshes
effluent discharges
waste dumping

THE PROBLEM AND BOUNDARIES


Environmental issues

Conceptual model: Hydrogeology

m
u.s.l.
3
Filling material
Water in the Filling material

0
-1

First impermeable
level

-5
First semiconfined
aquifer
-9
Second impermeable level

Transition
level

-15
Second aquifer

-20

Filling material

silt-clay (Caranto)

Clay, clay-sand

Silt-sand

Sand

THE PROBLEM AND BOUNDARIES


Environmental issues

Conceptual model: Contamination

Water in the filling


material
First
impermeable
level
First aquifer

Secondo livello
impermeabile

Second aquifer

Dense no aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL)


Light no aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL)

Transitional
level

THE PROBLEM AND BOUNDARIES

Environmental issues

Conceptual model: exposure of human and environmental receptors

EROSION

Water in the filling material

First aquifer

First
impermeable
level

SEDIMENT
RESUSPENSION

Second impermeable level


Transitional
level

Second aquifer

PERCOLATION TO GROUNDWATER

SEDIMENT RESUSPENSION

LATERAL TRANSPORT TROUGHT GROUNDWATER FLOW

WATER RUN OFF

HUMAN EXPOSURE (INALATION, DIRECT CONTACT)


TERRESTIAL ECOLOGICAL ENDPOINTS

EROSION

THE PROBLEM AND BOUNDARIES


Socio-economic and political
issues

Production and employment


trend

Maximum expansion during the 70s (ca. 34.000 employees)


Decline and dismission of some productions in the 80-90
employees (nowadays ca. 14.000 employees)

THE PROBLEM AND BOUNDARIES


Socioeconomic and political
issues

Political agreement and Master


Plan

Public awareness on the risk of industrial accident, environmental


pollution and work safety
Need for concerted actions towards cleaner industrial productions,
environmental recovery and rehabilitation of derelict areas

Program Agreement on Chemical Production


It was signed on 1998 by national Ministries (Industry, Environment, Public
Works, Health), local authorities (Municipality, Province, Region), 17
Industries and the Labor Unions

Master Plan for the remediation


of the Porto Marghera site

STRATEGY AND TOOLS


Master Plan: addressed issues and lesson learned
Master Plan contents

Remediation interventions

Logistics

Time schedule

Costs

Management system
Working group

Local and national


authorities

Service providers of
specialist technical support

STRATEGY AND TOOLS


Master Plan: addressed issues and lesson learned
Master Plan objectives

Minimisation/Elimination of the risk posed by contamination from the past

Minimisation/Elimination of the pollution transfer from the industrial site to the


lagoon

Maintaining industrial activities while minimising present pollution sources


and the risk of industrial accident

Adopted strategy
Integrated approach to the whole site (3.700 ha)
Definition of requalification objectives for the whole site
Spatial integration
Involvement of multiple stakeholder

STRATEGY AND TOOLS


Master Plan: addressed issues and lesson learned

Site characterization

Environmental issues

Administrative
Data Base

Geognostic
Data Base

Public authorities

WEB-GIS

Historical
Data Base

Uniform analytical
protocol

1200 drillings out of


which more than
500 piezometers

GIS system
managed by
Municipality of
Venice

Land owners

STRATEGY AND TOOLS


Master Plan: addressed issues and lesson learned

Environmental issues

How to deal with the groundwater


contamination?
Factors and Needs:
No groundwater use on the site
Elimination of the contamination risk by water
transfer to the lagoon
Polluted soil source still in the intermediate
timeframe (25 years)
Treatment technical constrains due to the
hydrogeological conditions
Economical sustainability

7 hydrogeological
enclosures are
created

Treatment

Confinement +
monitoring natural
attenuation

STRATEGY AND TOOLS


Master Plan: addressed issues and lesson learned

Environmental issues

How to deal with the contaminated


sediments?
Needs:

Environmental remediation
Suitable depth for port activities

Sediment dredging

Concluded
In progress
Planed

6.400.000 m3 out of which 1.500.000


m3 have to be treated as toxic and
hazard materials

STRATEGY AND TOOLS


Master Plan: addressed issues and lesson learned

Environmental issues

How to deal with soil


contamination?
Need:

Treatment and re-use ON SITE

Definition of priority
intervention areas
Creation of strategic
treatment plants
(bioremediation,
inertization/stabilization,
soil washing, vetrification)

STRATEGY AND TOOLS


Master Plan: addressed issues and lesson learned

Technological and logistic


issues

How to deal with technologies and


logistic?
Need:

The creation of strategic storage and


treatment
plants
serving
different
remediation projects on the site

Soil and sediment movement : 900.000

Logistic and management systems for

ton/year

the movement, storage, treatment and

Soil and sediment storage: 2.000.000

re-use

ton
Soil and sediment treatment: 750.000
ton/year

on

the

site

of

soil

and

sediments
A network for integrating soil treatment
plants

and

industrial/urban

treatment plants

water

STRATEGY AND TOOLS


Master Plan: addressed issues and lesson learned

Economical and financial


issues

Needs:
To promote redevelopment processes as an economic driver of
remediation activities
A substantial part of the costs to be covered by the site owners

ENVIRONMENTAL
REMEDIATION

SOCIO-ECONOMICAL
REQUALIFICATION

Marketing
Information
Economic valuation
Redevelopment planning

STRATEGY AND TOOLS


Master Plan: addressed issues and lesson learned

KNOWLEDGE
DIAGNOSIS and
PREVISION
ACTIVITIES
Monitoring
Characterization

Need for an overall


management system
PLANNED AND IN
PROGRESS
INTERVENTION

MANAGEMENT,
PLANNING, CONTROL
AND MONITORING
SYSTEMS

Confinements

Dredging

Hydrogeological models
Strategic risk assessment

Integrated
Environmental
Information
System
(IEIS)
Decision support
System (DSS)

MASTER PLAN
INTERVENTION

Remediation
Treatment plants

RESEARCH

Water adduction

Technological
research

Landscape
requalification

STRATEGY AND TOOLS


Master Plan: addressed issues and lesson learned

Regulatory issues

The extension of the perimeter to the whole mega-site overcomes


administrative and property borders
Needs:

Liability

Cost sharing

Treatment
ON SITE
Special
regulations
regarding
Remediation
objectives

Temporary
storage of
hazardous
waste
material

Management authority for the


implementation of the Master Plan

Re-use
ON SITE

Outline
Case study: the lagoon of Venice (Italy)
Methodological approach: assessment and
management tools to support urban planning
Changes of environmental quality
Nutrients
Primary production
Pollutants

Decision support system: assessment and


management of Porto Marghera industrial
district
Conclusions

Case study: Porto Marghera in the


context of the lagoon of Venice
Geographical zonation
Historical
center of Venezia
(110000 equivalent
inhabitants)
City of VeneziaMestre (220000
equivalent inhabitants)

Industrial district
(15000 employees)
Unconfined
fishing ponds
Aquaculture

Aquaculture
Unconfined fishing
ponds
Littorals
(31000
inhabitants)
Open lagoon (i.e.
tidal exchange)

City of Chioggia

Case study: the lagoon of Venice

Drainage basin
1,877 km2
2.5 x

Lagoon : 550 km2


600 x 106 m3 water volume
Islands, coastal barriers,
reclaimed areas : 40 km2
Fish farms : 92 km

Lagoon
400 x 106 m3/d

Salt marshes : 47 km

10 6 3
m /d

Adriatic sea

Case study: the lagoon of Venice

Identification of driving forces


End-use zonation
Cultural tourism
(6M visitors/y)

Aquaculture

Industrial
production
Fishing
Services,
commercial
activities
Clam
harvesting
(25K ton/y)

Cruise/Beach/
Entertainment/
tourism
(8M visitors/y)

Cultural tourism
(1M visitors/y)

From environmental quality to planning

Environmental Quality (WFD): good ecological status


Ecological Status" is an expression of the quality of the structure and
functioning of aquatic ecosystems associated with surface waters,
classified in accordance with Annex V (WFD Article 2.21)
Quality elements: biological, hydromorphological, physico-chemical, chemical

Assessment tools
1. DPSIR
2. Environmental risk
assessment
3. Strategic environmental
assessment
4. Socio economic evaluations
5. Decision support systems

Planning
The lack of sound knowledge
concerning
environmental
status and vulnerability, as
well as environmental quality
standards for chemicals,
may be a severe constrain
for planning water and land
uses

Assessment and management of impacts


Driving force: anthropic or natural
factors
responsible
of
the
environmental state (e.g. population,
industry, tide)
regulatory

DRIVING FORCES

Action: human actions on


driving forces and/or pressures
and/or state to reduce or
eliminate the impacts
ACTIONS

DPSIR
framework

PRESSURES

rem
edi
atio
n

al
c
i
log
o
hn
c
te

STATE
Pressure: how a driving
force act on the environment
(e.g. atmospheric emission,
effluent discharge)

IMPACTS
Impact: alterations resulting
from the effects of pressures
on the state

State: result of pressures applied on


biotic and abiotic resources

Identification of pressures
Driving force: anthropic or natural
factors
responsible
of
the
environmental state (e.g. population,
industry, tide)
regulatory

DRIVING FORCES

Action: human actions on


driving forces and/or pressures
and/or state to reduce or
eliminate the impacts
ACTIONS

DPSIR
framework

PRESSURES

rem
edi
atio
n

al
c
i
log
o
hn
c
te

STATE
Pressure: how a driving
force act on the environment
(e.g. atmospheric emission,
effluent discharge)

IMPACTS
Impact: alterations resulting
from the effects of pressures
on the state

State: result of pressures applied on


biotic and abiotic resources

Identification of pressures for the Lagoon

PRESSURES

DRIVING
FORCES

Tide

Meteorology
Subsidence
eustacy

STATE

Industry
energy prod.

Fishing
fish farming

Lagoon levels
current
waves

Sea-lagoon
exchange Drainage basin
water input

Urban settlements
Sewage systems
and
treatment plants

Transport

Atmospheric emissions
and
depositions

Vegetation of islands
and salt marshes

IMPACTS

Agricolture
animal farming

Tourism

Sea levels
current
waves

ACTIONS

ANTHROPIC
ANTHROPIC

NATURAL

Contaminated areas

Pollutant
loads
Fish, mussel
and shellfish
harvesting

Drainage basin
sediment load

Fishing activity
regulation
Canals and rii
excavation

Salt marshes
reconstruction
Aquatic
fauna

Sediment
composition

Water
composition

Phanerogams
transplantation
Macroalgae
harvesting

Micro-macroalgae
and phanerogams
stocks

Water
biology

Morphologic deterioration
of emerged
intertidal and
submerged areas

Agricoltural
practices
improvement
Emission and
discharges
Reduction/prohibition

Contaminated sites
remediation

Man-induced sediment
resuspension

Sediment
morphology
and texture

Hygienic and
sanitary condition
deterioration

Sewerage systems
and
treatment plants
improvement

Eutrophication
and related
aspects

Micropollutants
in biota

Terrestrial
fauna

Ecological and human health


risks

Landscape
deterioration

Population
and
biodiversity
reduction

Sediment
capping

Identification of pressures

Changes of environmental quality in the Lagoon of Venice


Years

70-80

80-90

From 2000
on

Environmental issues

Eutrophication (nutrients load


and algae blooms)
Chemical contamination
(toxicant and sediment
redistribution)
Ecological status, emerging
pollutants, and sustainable
management

Assessment of state and trends (changes)

1. Reduction of eutrophication
2. Decrease of traditional fishing vs. increase of
clam farming and harvesting by means of
hydraulic harvesting boats
3. Significant concentrations of persistent and toxic
substances (i.e. PTSs), both organic (e.g. dioxins)
and inorganic (e.g. mercury) in sediments and
biota due mainly to past polluting discharges
4. Occurrence of significant concentrations (i.e.
causing adverse effects) of new pollutants such
as endocrine disrupters and pharmaceuticals in
wastewater, and in lagoon water, sediments and
organisms

Changes of environmental quality

The development of the industrial area, and the


digging of deep and large canals for commercial
purposes, between the 60s and 70s, created the
condition for the increase of the eutrophication and
pollution in the lagoon
The subsequent enforcement of environmental
regulations, treatment of industrial and municipal
wastewaters, as well as reduction of industrial
activities, led to improve the Lagoon environmental
quality

Changes of environmental quality


1980

90% decrease of
seaweeds biomass
(kg/m2 ww)
No anoxia
2003

Changes of environmental quality


50%
decrease
of
organic
phosphorus
and 20% decrease of
total nitrogen in surface
sediments
due
to
mainly
sediment
resuspension
Organic phosphorus
sediment concentration
1987 vs. 1998

1987
10442 g cm3 dwt

1998
59 31 g cm3 dwt

Changes of environmental quality


1980
basin

SC

GPP

240
422
179

NPP
ktonnes
1038
1371
503

south
central
north
total

841

2912

18498

6437
8816
3246

GPP

Seaweed biomass
and production

1665
301
392

decrease

2003
basin

SC

south
central
north

63
11
15

total

NPP
ktonnes
337
67
74

89
477
2003/1980

basin

SC

south
central
north
total

26.1
2.6
8.4
10.6

NPP
%
32.5
4.9
14.7
16.4

2358
GPP
25.9
3.4
12.1
12.7

Changes of environmental quality


Total fishing in the Lagoon (1985-2005)
3000

Fishing markets:
Chioggia & Venice

Tonnes

2500
2000

anoxia

1500

free clam
harvesting

1000
500
0
1985

1990

1995

2000

Decrease of traditional
fishing vs. increase of clam
harvesting and farming

2005

50000

40

40000

30
2

30000

km

Tonnes

Tapes- harvesting in free areas

20000

20
10

10000
0
1986

Tapes -farming areas

1990

1994

1998

2002

0
1986

1990

1994

1998

2002

Changes of environmental quality

More than 600 small clam-harvesting boats

and ca. 120 hydraulic and mechanical


big clam-harvesting boats

..dredged the lagoon since the 1995 disrupting


bottoms and re-suspending high amounts of fine sediments

Changes of environmental quality


Change of sediment
grain-size due to fine
sediment resuspension
and transport

Sediment fine fraction (<63 m)

1998-99

100
80

60
40
20
0
St. A

St. B

St. C

St. D

Sediment loss

B
cm/anno
cm/year

1989-90

-1
-2

-0.05

-0.54

-1.48

-3.64

Alberoni

Sacca Sessola

San Giuliano

Fusina

St A

St B

St C

-3
-4

St D

Changes of environmental quality


Modification of number
and
composition
of
macro-algae taxa and
introduction of many
invasive species (33% of
total recorded species)
Macroalgal
Quality Index
estimation

Chlorophyceae
Rhodophyceae
Phucophyceae

Macroalgal Taxa
80

66

59

60

36

% 40 27
20

14

18

16

50

51

4045
15

29
16

20

0
Schiffner & Pignatti 1962
Vatova 1938

Sfriso 1987 Solazzi et al., CoRiLa 20011991


2003

Changes of environmental quality


Temporal trends of Persistent Organic
Pollutants (POPs) loads in sediments
Organic pollutants: significant reduction of concentrations after
the peak recorded in years 60-70
HCB (g/kg)

0.0

0.2

0.4

PCB Aroclor (g/kg)

0.6

20

PCDDs+PCDFs (ng/kg)

PCB Somma (g/kg)

40

200

PCDD/Fs I-TE (ng/kg)

400

IPA Somma (g/kg)

2000

2000

2000

2000

2000

1980

1980

1980

1980

1980

1980

1960

1960

1960

1960

1960

1960

1940

1940

1940

1940

1940

1940

1920

1920

1920

1920

1920

1920

1900

1900

1900

1900

1900

1900

anni

anni

2000

Vertical profiles of some POPs in


northern Lagoon marsh

500

1000

Ecological risk assessment


Significant risk posed to benthic
community by pollutants mixture in
sediments. Major contributions by
metals (e.g. mercury, cadmium,
chromium)

Benthic community
Pollutants mixture
risk assessment

Risk Estimation:
Visualisation of individual
contribution of each pollutant to
the total risk by PIE CHART
1998

Sum Toxic Unit = i [Sediment concentrationi/ Ecotoxicological benchmarki]

i = ith pollutant

Sum Toxic Unit > 1 Potential adverse effects occurs

Ecological risk assessment


Significant risk posed to clams (i.e.
edible organisms and important
economic resources) by metals
(e.g. mercury and cadmium), and
to lesser extent by PCBs

Cadmium for clams

H a z a r d Q u o tie n t

2.6

2 .6 0

2.4

2 .4 0

2 .0 0

1.6

1 .6 0

1.3

1 .3 0

Hazard Quotient (HQ) =

Estimated clam tissue concentration


Tissue screening concentration

HQ > 1
Potential adverse
effects

Ecological risk assessment


Risk posed by POPs to aquatic food web organisms
Significant risk posed to the food web organisms (especially
benthic biota and juveniles fishes) by few PCBs and PCDD/Fs
congeners. Lagoon areas of concern are those affected by past
industrial discharges

Emerging pollutants: potential adverse effects of


Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs)
Potential adverse effects posed by water and sediment
concentrations of estrogenic compounds, with more than 16% of
water samples and 100% of sediment samples potentially
causing testis ova development, interrupted eggs production,
and reduced embryo development in fish

Ongoing research
Lot of environmental, economic, social data and information
available in the lagoon of Venice: need to organize and finalize
this information for effective managing and urban planning
Identification of two assessment
levels:
Screening phase at lagoon scale
to identify priority sites (hot
spots) on the basis of
environmental and socio
economic elements
Site-specific phase to support
the decision making (e.g.
required remediation
techniques) at each hot spot

Application: environmental risk management


Conceptual model: exposure of human and environmental receptors

Application: environmental risk management


Lagoon of Venice, Italy
Area: approx. 3500 hectares

Porto Marghera:
generalities

Industrial core extension: 2000


hectares
Number of industries: around 300
Main productions: petrochemical,
chemical, power plants, shipyards
and oil refineries
Main contaminants: PAHs, amines,
dioxins, halogenated organic
compounds and metals (arsenic,
cadmium, lead, zinc)
The largest contaminated site of
national interest in Italy, according to
the Italian Law 426/98.

Application: environmental risk management


DESYRE DSS: objectives
Integrated assessment strategies and tools and efficiency in the use of the
large volume of available information
Socio-economic valuation with reference to the regional context
Risk assessment which allows risk zoning for groundwater and soil
Selection of the most suitable technologies in time and space
Creation of active participatory processes for building consensus among
interested multiple stakeholders

DESYRE DSS: users


Public authorities (municipalities, regional and national administrations)
Site owners and developers
Services providers
Research Institutes and Universities

DESYRE: structure
Socio-Economic
Assessment Module

Characterisation Module

Risk Assessment Module (pre)


Technological Assessment Module
Risk Assessment Module (post)

Definition of different
remediation scenarios

Decision Module

Conclusions

The complex framework of the lagoon of Venice is


an important playground to integrate urban
planning in view of environmental quality
Decision Support Systems are primary tools in
integrating assessment of urban and natural
environments
The enforcement of recent European regulations
and the needs of stakeholders and planners will
lead to more integrated assessment and
management toward a more sustainable
development