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Ovary: A (cortex), B (medulla)

Which hormones are secreted by the ovary?


1.Estrogen by follicular cells and
2. Progesterone by coprus luteum

Ovary: arrow head points at zona pellucida around a primary


oocyte in a primary ovarian follicle, yellow arrow points at a
premordial follicle. Which hormone changes premordial follicles
into primary follicles: FSH of pituitary basophils

Fallopian tube/oviduct/ uterine tube, highly folded mucosa lined by


simple columnar partially ciliated epithelium, non ciliated simple
columnar cell are secretory

VAGINAL MUCOSA: STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS


NON-KERATINIZED EPITHELIUM (VACUOLATED)

Uterus: endometrium; proliferative/follicular/ estrogenic phase

Uterus showing secretory/ luteal/ progestational phase


of endometrium

LD

RESTING MAMMARY GLAND SHOWING A LARGE


LACTIFEROUS DUCT (LD) AND FEW INTERLOBULAR DUCTS.
NO SECRETORY ACINI

Mammary gland during pregnancy, arrows points at interlobar


ducts, arrow head points at adipose tissue. Estrogen causes
proliferation of ducts, progesterone causes proliferation of acini

Ovary showing primordial follicles deep to


tunica albuginea, growing follicle (yellow arrow)
and a mature graafian follicle (blue arrow).
Which hormone causes rupture of mature follicle: LH

CORPUS LUTEUM SECRETES PROGESTERONE:THECA


LUTEIN CELLS (YELLOW ARROW), GRANULOSA
LUTEIN CELLS (RED ARROW)

Adrenal gland: arrow head points at capsule, arrow points at a blood


sinusoid in medulla (secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine). Red
arrow: zona glomerulosa: aldosterone, green arrow: zona
fasciculata: cortisol, blue arrow: zona reticularis, sex hormones.

ituitary gland: a pars distalis, b pars intermedia, c pars nervos


Mention 6 hormones secreted by pars distalis (Adenhypophysis) and
hormones stored in pars nervosa (Neurohypophysis) and their actions

PITUITARY GLAND: ARROWS POINT AT ACIDOPHILS


ARROW HEADS POINT AT BASOPHILS. MENTION THE
HORMONES SECRETED BY EACH AND THEIR ACTIONS

PARS DISTALIS OF PITUITARY GLAND


SHOWING: A ACIDOPHIL, B BASOPHIL,
C CHROMOPHOBE CELL

THYROID GLAND: C REFERS TO COLLOID


INSIDE THYROID FOLLICLES

THYROID GLAND (HIGH POWER), ARROW POINTS


AT A FOLLICULAR CELL (CUBOIDAL), C COLLOID.
MENTION THE FUNCTION AND EMBRYONIC ORIGIN
OF FOLLICULAR CELLS

THYROID GLAND, ARROW HEADS POINT AT


PARAFOLLICULAR CELLS. MENTION THEIR FUNCTION
AND EMBYONIC ORIGIN

THYROIG GLAND SHOWING A PARAFOLLICULAR


CELL (BLACK CIRCLE)

PARATHYROID

T
T

THYROID (T) AND PARATHYROID GLANDS


MENTION THE EFFECT OF PARATHYROID HORMONE
ON BLOOD CALCIUM LEVEL AND ITS MECHANISMS

TESTIS SHOWING THICK CAPSULE (ARROW) AND CROSS


SECTIONS OF SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. MENTION
THE FUNCTION OF TESTIS

SEMINIFEROUS TUBULE (HIGH POWER) SHOWING


DIFFERENT STAGES OF SPERMATOGENESIS,
RED ARROW POINTS AT A PRIMARY SPERMATOCYTE: HOW

SEMINIFEROUS TUBULE (HIGH POWER) SHOWING


DIFFERENT STAGES OF SPERMATOGENESIS.
A: SPERMATOGONIA, B: PRIMARY SPERMATOCYTES

Seminiferous tubule (high power) showing


different stages of spermatogenesis, red arrow points at
a primary spermatocyte. black arrow points at a Sertoli cell.
Mention 4 functions for Sertoli cells

EPIDIDYMIS: NOTE THE LINING PSEUDOSTRATIFIED


COLUMNAR CILIATED EPITHELIUM (STEREOCILIA).
MENTION ITS FUNCTION

EPIDIDYMIS, NOTE THE WIDE REGULAR LUMINA AND


THE PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR
EPITHELIUM WITH STEREOCILIA

EPIDIDYMIS: NOTE THE TYPE OF LINING


EPITHELIUM AND THE SPERMS FILLING THE LUMINA

VAS DEFERENS (DUCTUS DEFERENS): VERY THICK


MUSCLE COAT (INNER AND OUTER LONGITUDINAL
AND MIDDLE CIRCULAR). MENTION ITS LINIG EPITHELIUM.

VAS DEFERENS: ARROW POINTS AT


PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR CILIATED EPITHELIUM
WITH STEROECILIA.

PROSTATE GLAND: NOTE THE THICK FIBROMUSCULAR


SEPTA AND THE VARIABLE SHAPES AND SIZES
OF SECRETORY ACINI. MENTION 2 CLINICAL CONDITIONS
RELATED TO IT.

PENIS: CC CORPUS CAVERNOSUM


CS CORPUS SPONGIOSUM

CC

CC

CS

CROSS SECTION IN THE PENIS. WHATIS THE


LINING OF PENILE URETHRA?

PENIS: THIN BLACK ARROW POINTS AT PENILE


URETHRA, THICK BLACK ARROWS POINT AT
URETHRAL GLANDS OF LITTRE

Cavernous/penile urethra
Lined by: the stratified columnar epithelium

TESTIS SHOWING THICK CAPSULE (A) AND CROSS


SECTIONS OF SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES (B)

VAS DEFERENS: ARROW POINTS AT


CIRCULAR MUSCLE LAYER, ARROW HEADS POINT AT
LONGITUDINAL MUSCLE LAYERS

Parotid gland: purely serous acini

Mucous acini in sublingual salivary tract

Submandibular gland: mixed gland, more


serous than mucous acini

Arrow head points at serous demilune in submandibular


salivary gland

Arrows point at striated (intralobular) ducts between darklystained serous acini of parotid gland

Arrow points at a striated/secretory duct among darkly-stained


serous acini of parotid gland, it secretes potassium and bicarbonate

Parotid gland
Black arrows: serous acini, red arrows: striated ducts

Pancreas: arrows point at islets of Langerhans, note


the thin trabeculae and the darkly-stained purely serous acini

Pancreas: Arrow points at an islet of Langerhans,


Arrow heads point at zymogen granules in serous pancreatic acini

Pancreas: two islets of Langerhans among serous


pancreatic acini. Mention its 3 types of cells and 3 hormones
secreted by them

Gall bladder wall, Note the simple columnar lining epithelium.


What is the function of the gall bladder?

Liver: Straight arrows point at trabeculae, curved arrow points


at central vein, arrow head points at Glissons capsule

Portal triad in portal area of liver: A hepatic artery,


B portal vein, C bile duct. Mention the direction of blood
From portal vein and hepatic artery. Mention the direction of bile.

Liver: arrow heads: trabeculae, A: central veins,


B: portal areas

Liver: black arrows point at blood sinusoids,


arrow head points at Kupffer cell (mention its function and origin),
red arrow points at nucleus of a hepatocyte

Kidney: arrow points at capsule,


arrow heads point at renal corpuscles in renal cortex
Mention all types of cells related to renal corpuscle

Kidney showing renal corpuscle in the middle,


A: distal convoluted tubules (mention the hormone that targets
it and its function), red arrow is inside a proximal convoluted tubule

Kidney: arrow heads point at proximal convoluted tubules.


Mention their function.

YELLOW CIRCLE SURROUNDS A PROXIMAL


CONVOLUTED TUBULE, RED CIRCLE SURROUNDS
A DISTAL CONVOLUTED TUBULE IN RENAL CORTEX

Kidney: A proximal convoluted tubule,


B distal convoluted tubule, C collecting tubule
arrow heads point at blood capillaries

Kidney: arrows point at large collecting tubules.


Mention the hormone that acts on collecting tubules and its source.

URETER: LINING EPITHELIUM IS TRANSITIONAL


MUCOSA IS FOLDED: STAR-SHAPED LUMEN

Ureter: note the lining transitional epithelium

Urinary bladder: Red arrow points at transitional epithelium,


Black arrow points at a bundle of smooth muscles. Note the thickness
of the muscle layer of the bladder (detrusor muscle)

Urinary bladder: red arrow points at transitional epithelium

Trachea: arrow head points at trachealis muscle


Arrows point at C-shaped hyaline cartilage ring

Trachea: Black Arrow Points at hyaline cartilage


Red Arrow : Pseudostratified Columnar Ciliated Epi

Trachea: Red Arrow: Pseudostratified Columnar Ciliated


Epithelium
Black Arrows: Blood Vessels in Submucosa

Lung: arrow points at a respiratory bronchiole, arrow head


points at a blood vessel

Lung: arrow points at a plate of hyaline cartilage in the wall


of an intrapulmonary bronchus

Lung: Arrow points at a plate of Hyaline Cartilage in the wall


of an Intrapulmonary Bronchus
Red Arrow: Pseudostratified Columnar Ciliated Epi Lining the lumen

Terminal bronchiole: arrow heads point at Clara cells.


Mention their function. Mention 3 structures missing in the
wall of a bronchiole.

Lung alveoli: Curved arrow points at alveolar macrophages,


Straight arrow points at type I pneumocytes,
Arrow head points at type II pneumoctes. Mention the function of each

Lung: arrow head points at type I pneumocytes, straight arrow


Points at type II pneumocytes, curved arrow points
at interalveolar septum