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ANIMAL

REPRODUCTION
Autor: Aneta

BASIC

Phylum Rotifera
Small aquatic & marine
animals
Usually cone or wineglass shape
Ring of cilia around
mouth
Early observers mistook
for rotating wheel

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Animal-Reproduction.ppt

Phylum Rotifera
Some live on mosses,
lichens
Can be dried and will
revive when moistened
3-4 years common
50+ years reported

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Animal-Reproduction.ppt

Phylum Rotifera
Usually parthenogenic (exhibit parthenogenesis)
Asexual reproduction
Female lays asexual eggs, females, females,
generation after generation.
Copies successful genome exactly
Favored in stable environment

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Asexual Reproduction in Animals


Sponges
Sea anemones
Platyhelminthes
Planarians
Flukes (larval stages)

Rotifers
Aphids
some Fishes
some Lizards

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Asexual Reproduction
Asexual reproduction
Faster?
Preserves successful genome
Faster population growth
No males

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Rotifers and Aphids


Parthenogenesis, usually,
Sexual alternative
Females produce some males (when, how ?)
Males inseminate females, who produce sexual
eggs
Offspring more variable
Some variants survive &/or reproduce better than others

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Sexual Reproduction
Why be sexual?
Variability of offspring in unpredictable
environment.
Some expected to be less fit than their parents
Some expected to be as fit than their parents
Some expected to be more fit than their parents

Recombination
Elimination of unfavorable alleles (without
elimination of the population)
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Sexual Reproduction
Why make (so many)
males?
Frequency-dependent
selection
When more males than
females, females favored.
When more females than
males, males favored

Genetic sex determination,


such as X, Y chromosomes
1:1 sex ratio

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Sexual Reproduction
Other sex determination
Temperature-dependent sex determination
Sea turtles: males at temps below ~25-30 C, females at
higher temps.
Alligators: males at higher temps, females at lower temps

Changing sex
Population of mostly females with few males (fishes)
Female can change to male (Bluehead wrasse)
Male can change to female
Tapeworm proglottids
Male first, later female
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Sexual Reproduction
Other sex determination
Haplo-diploidy
Hymenoptera
Bees, wasps, ants

Fertilized eggs (2n)


develop into females
Queen, workers

Unfertilized eggs (1n)


develop into males
Drones

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Sexual Reproduction
Hermaphroditism
Flukes, tapeworms
Self-fertilization possible

Earthworms
Obligate outcrossing

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Sexual Reproduction
Mammalian (human) reproductive systems
Genetic sex determination,
XY chromosomes 1:1 sex ratio
Testis-determining gene on Y chromosome

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Male Reproductive System


Male functions:
Produce viable, motile
sperm
Deliver sperm to female
tract

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Male Reproductive System


Testis (pl. testes)
Lobules with Seminiferous tubules
produce sperm

Interstitial cells of Leydig


produce testosterone

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Male Reproductive System


Spermatogonium
2n stem cell
Mitosis new
spermatogonium, plus

Primary spermatocyte
2nd spermatocyte
Spermatids
Sperm (immature)

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Male Reproductive System


Epididymis
Crescent-shaped at
posterior-lateral side of
each testis
Site of sperm maturation
(~ 20 days)
Sperm storage
3-8 weeks ?

Tail connects to ductus


deferens

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Male Reproductive System


Vas deferens
passes through inguinal canal
passes superior-lateral surface
of bladder
joins ducts of seminal vesicles
ejaculatory duct

Seminal vesicles
Prostate gland
Bulbourethral glands
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Male Reproductive System


Semen, = secretions from . . .
Seminal vesicles, ~ 60% by volume
NaHCO3, fructose, coagulating proteins

Prostate gland, ~ 35%


Citrate, proteins

Bulbourethral glands, ~ 4 %
Alkaline mucus

Sperm, ~ 1 %
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Male Reproductive System


Endocrine regulation
of male system
Gonadotropinreleasing hormone
(GnRH)
FSH
LH
Testosterone

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Female Reproductive System


Functions

produce ova
receive sperm
site of fertilization
hold & nourish
embryo/fetus
bear infant
nurse infant

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Female Reproductive
System

Ovary

Follicle development
and oogenesis
Timing of oogenesis
Primary oocytes in fetal
ovary
Secondary oocytes
monthly,
Sperm enter 2nd oocyte,
completion of meiosis

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Female Reproductive System


Uterine (Fallopian)
tubes
Extend laterally from
uterus
Infundibulum = open,
funnel-shaped end

Site of fertilization

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Female Reproductive System


Uterus
Lies over urinary
bladder
Fundus
Body
Cervix

Site of implantation
Formation of placenta

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Female Reproductive System


Endocrine regulation
of ovarian & uterine
cycles

FSH
LH
Estrogens
Progesterone
Chorionic
gonadotropin

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Female Reproductive
System

Endocrine regulation of
ovarian & uterine cycles

FSH
LH
Estrogens
Progesterone
Chorionic gonadotropin

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