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High performance textile

applications
01PCDLQ
Prof. Ada Ferri
ada.ferri@polito.it
Tel: 015-401407

References
Handbook of technical textiles, edited by A.R.
Horrocks and S.C.Anand, Woodhead
Publishing Limited, 2000

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High performance textile applications Prof. Ada Ferri - MSc in Textile Engineering

Definition and scope of technical


textiles
Textile materials and products manufactured
primarily for their technical and performance
properties rather than their aesthetic or
decorative characteristics, a non-exhaustive list
of end uses include: aerospace, industrial,
marine, medical, military, safety, transport
textiles, and geotextiles. Textile Terms and
Definitions, Textile Institute.
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Textile Engineering

Definition and scope of technical


textiles-2
The above definition leaves considerable scope for
interpretation an increasing number of textile products
are combining both performance and decorative
properties and functions in equal measure.
For example, flame retardant furnishings, breathable
leisurewear.
In one of the most dynamic and broad ranging areas of
modern textiles, materials, processes, products and
applications are all changing too rapidly to define and
document.
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High performance textile applications Prof. Ada Ferri - MSc in Textile Engineering

For many years the term industrial textiles was


widely used to encompass all textile products other
than those intended for apparel, household and
furnishing end-uses. And technical textiles and
industrial textiles were considered synonyms.

This usage has seemed increasingly inappropriate in


the face of developing applications of textiles for
medical, hygiene, sporting, agriculture and many
others clearly non-industrial purposes.

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High performance textile applications - Prof. Ada Ferri - MSc in Textile


Engineering

Industrial textiles are now more often viewed as


a subgroup of a wider category of technical
textiles, referring specifically to those textile
products used in the course of manufacturing
operations (such as filters, conveyor belts) or
which are incorporated into other industrial
products (such as acoustic and thermal
insulation for domestic and industrial
appliances).

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High performance textile applications - Prof. Ada Ferri - MSc in Textile


Engineering

Historically, utilisation of fibres in technical


capacities dates back to the early Egyptian and
Chinese who used papyrus mats to reinforce and
consolidate the foundations respectively of the
pyramids and the Buddist temples.

12/01/2015

High performance textile applications Prof. Ada Ferri - MSc in Textile Engineering

However the serious use in modern civil


engineering projects only began after the floods
of 1953 in The Nederlands in which many
people lost their lives.
The event initiated the Delta
works project in which for the
first time synthetic fibres
were written into the vast
construction programme.
Since then, geotextiles have
matured
into
important
multifunctional materials.
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High performance textile applications Prof. Ada Ferri - MSc in Textile Engineering

Use of silk in wound dressing and open cuts in


web and fabric form also dates back to the
early Chinese and Egyptian.

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High performance textile applications Prof. Ada Ferri - MSc in Textile Engineering

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The leading international trade exhibition for technical textiles,


Techtextil, organised biennally since the late 1980s by Messe Frankfurt
in Germany and also in Osaka, Japan, defines 12 main application
areas (of which textiles for industrial applications represent only one
group):

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12 main application areas:


oAgrotech: agriculture, aquaculture and forestry
oBuildtech: building and construction
oClothtech: technical components of footwear and clothing
oHometech: technical components of furniture, household textiles and
floorcoverings
oIndutech: filtration, conveying, cleaning and other industrial uses
oMedtech: hygiene and medical
oMobiltech: automobiles, shipping, railways and aerospace
oOekotech: environmental protection
oPacktech: packaging
oProtech: personal and property protection
oSporttech: sport and leisure

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Textile Engineering

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Definition and scope of technical


textiles-3
The search for an all embracing term to describe
these textiles is not confined to the word
technical or industrial. Terms such as
performance textiles, functional textiles,
engineered textiles and high-tech textiles are
also all used in various contexts, sometimes with
a specific meaning (performance textiles are
frequently used to describe the fabrics used in
activity clothing), but more often with little or
no precise significance.
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Definition and scope of technical


textiles-4

Moreover, there remain many grey areas. For


example, the manufacture and processing of
metallic wires into products such as cables, woven
or knitted meshes,

and reinforcing carcasses


for tyres are not generally
regarded as lying within
the scope of the textile
industry.
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To add to this complexity, different geographical regions and


countries tend to adopt rather different viewpoints and
definitions with regard to what to include in the technical
textile category.
In Europe, the most authoritative source of fibre consumption
data is CIRFS (Comit International de la Rayonne et des Fibres
Synthetiques), the European Artificial Fibre Producers
Association. However, CIRFS reported statistics have specifically
excluded tape and film yarns (a significant proportion of all
polyolefin textiles), coarser monofilaments and all glass products
as well as natural fibres such as jute, flax, sisal.
The Japanese Chemical Fibres Manufacturers Association, JCFA,
at the other extreme, includes all these products, including
natural fibres.
The Fiber Statistics Bureau in the USA includes polyolefin tape
and monofilament yarns but excludes glass.
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Engineering

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http://www.cirfs.org
Dornbin Conference - Austria

http://www.jcfa.gr.jp/english/index_e.html

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How big is the industry?

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How big is the industry?


Approximately 25% of all fiber consumed in
US for Technical Textiles
About 24 million tons of fiber worldwide
Roughly $120 billion worldwide
About $31 billion sales in US

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How big is the industry?-2

Source: www.teonline.com
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Updated data
Transparency Market Research has released a new
market report titled Technical Textiles (Mobiltech,
Buildtech, Meditech, Agrotech and Others) Market By
Technology (Thermoforming, 3-D Weaving, 3-D
Knitting and Others) Global Industry Analysis, Size,
Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast, 2012 - 2018,
According to the report the demand for technical
textiles that was worth USD 133.93 billion in 2012 is
expected to increase toUSD 160.38 billion by the end
of 2018. In terms of volumes, the global demand is
expected to reach 30.71 million tons by 2018, growing
at a moderate CAGR of 3.3% from 2012 to 2018.

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Market shares by segment

Source: David Rigby Associates, Manchester, UK; World


Market Forecasts to 2010
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World Fibers Supply

Source: The fiber year 2009-2010, Oerlikon

From 52.6 million of tons in 2000 to 70 million tons in 2009 (88.5 millions
tons in 2012, 12.2 kg per capita per year).
Average annual growth rate of 3.3%.
During that period, the share of man-made fibers managed to increase from
High performance textile applications 59%
to 63%.
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Prof. Ada Ferri - MSc in Textile Engineering

Fiber Growth Rates 2000-2009

The market was driven by man-made fibers, of which synthetics enjoyed an average annual
growth rate of 4% and cellulosic achieved a 3.6% growth rate. On the other hand, natural
fibers just provided below-average rate. In particular, wool has declined to levels from
1950s.
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Production of manmade fibers by


Country

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Overview of applications
Transport textiles
Transport applications (cars, lorries, buses,
trains, ships and aerospace) represent the
largest single end-use area for technical textiles,
accounting for some 20% of the total.

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Products range from woven, knitted fabrics and non-woven


carpeting and seating

safety belts

air bags
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tyre reinforcement

civil and military aircraft


bodies, wings and engine
components

tarpaulin
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Industrial products and components


Diverse field that includes textiles used directly
in industrial processes or incorporated in the
product, such as filters, conveyor belt, seals and
gasket.
In this field the use of non-woven considerably
outweighs that of woven and other fabric types.

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filters

wool felt gaskets

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Reinforced rubber products

conveyor belt

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Milliken www.millikeneurope.com
customized ready to use high performance technical
textile reinforcement for the industry
Scapa www.scapa.com
range of tapes have been developed in conjunction with
cable manufacturers and engineers around the world,
and have been successfully used in numerous energy,
telecommunication, data transmission and sub-sea cable
projects.

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BWF http://www.bwf-group.de

gaskets, insulation materials, soles, upholstery, die cut parts, cut-out


parts, wipers, felt gliders, belts

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Medical and hygiene textiles


The largest use is for hygiene applications, such
as wipes, baby diapers. Nonwoven dominate
these application which account for over 20% of
all nonwoven use, the largest proportion of any
of the 12 major market for technical textiles.

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How a disposable diaper is done:


Inner polypropylene nonwoven sheet
Outer Polyester non woven fabric

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www.edana.org
EDANA is the international association serving the nonwovens and related industries.
Today, unifying the diversified interests of over 220 member companies in a unique
vertically integrated structure along the supply chain, EDANA is the single, powerful
Voice of Nonwovens, representing, protecting and actively promoting the common
interests of nonwovens and their related industries throughout the world, with a
particular focus on Europe, Middle East and Africa.

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Concerns has been expressed at the growth of


disposable products and the burden which
they place upon landfill. Attempts have been
made to develop and introduce more efficient
biodegradable fibers.
Nonwoven of PLA nonwoven is today
available.

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In block diagram form the PLA production sequence is:


Seeds, Soil, Water, Carbon dioxide, Sunlight
Grow-months
Biomass, ideally corn
Harvest/Wet Mill
Starch
Acid/Enzyme Hydrolysis
Dextrose
Fermentation
Lactic Acid
Polymerise
Crude Polylactic Acid Pre-polymer
Depolymerise
Crude Lactide monomer
Fractional Distillation
Pure lactide monomers
Blend/Polymerise
Polylactic Acids
Modification for end-use
Granules for extrusion etc.
Melt Spinning
Crop-Based Polyester Fibres
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The other side of the medical and hygiene market is a rather


small but high value market for medical and surgical products,
such as operating gowns and drapes, sutures and orthopedic
pads.

At the highest value end of this segment are relatively tiny


volumes of extremely sophisticated textiles for uses such as
artificial ligaments, veins and arteries, skin replacement, hollow
fibers for dialysis machines.
Growth prospects in this area are potentially considerable
although the proving and widespread introduction of new lifecritical products takes time.

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Home textiles
Wide use of loose fibres in wadding and fibrefill
applications.
Hollow fibres with excellent insulation properties
are widely used in bedding and sleeping bags.
Woven fabrics are used as carpet and furniture
backings.
Non woven are now widely used in household
cleaning application in place of traditional mops
and duster.
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Clothing components
This category includes fibres, yarns and textiles
used as technical components in the manufacture
of clothing, such as sewing threads, interlining,
waddings and insulation.
It does not include the outer and lining fabrics of
garment, nor protective clothing which is a
category on its own.
This is a major market for fibrefill products. Some
of the most sophisticated developments has seen
the incorporation of temperature phase change
materials into insulation products.
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Agriculture, horticulture and fishing


Widely used by the fishing industry: nets, ropes
Used by agriculture and horticulture: covering, protection
and containment applications.
New applications: capillary nonwoven matting is used to
distribute moisture to growing plants, extruded nets are
used for wrapping circular bales, lightweight spunbonded
fleece used for shading, thermal insulation and weed
suppression.
Agriculture uses geotextiles for drainage and land
reclamation.
High performance fibres such as HMPE are finding their
way into the fishing industry for the manufacture of
lightweight, ultra-strong lines and nets.
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Construction building and roofing


Temporary structure such as tents.
Architectural membrane is coming to
prominence in the construction of
semipermanent structures such as sport
stadia, exhibition centres.
Nonwoven glass and polyester fabrics are
used in roofing applications.
Glass fibres are almost universally used in
place of asbestos now.
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Composites have a bright future in building and


construction. Existing applications of glass-reinforced
materials include wall panels, septic tanks.
Concrete reinforcement, plaster and other building
materials.
In Japan, carbon fibre is attracting a lot of interest as a
possible reinforcement for earthquake-prone buildings.
The potential uses for textiles in construction are
almost limitless. The construction requirements,
practices and standards of just every country and
region are different and it has proved very difficult for
global leaders to emerge in this market.

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Packaging and containment


Bags and sacks, traditionally from cotton, flax and jute but
increasingly from polypropylene.
Big bags with carrying capacity from one half to 2 tonnes store
powder or granular materials, ranging from fertiliser, sand, cement,
sugar, flour to dyestuffs.
Packaging market uses lightweight nonwoven and knitted structures
for a variety of wrapping and protection application, especially in
the food industry: tea and coffee bags uses wet-laid non-wovens.
Meats and vegetable and fruit are frequently packed with
nonwoven insert to absorb liquids.
A powerful driver for the development and use of textiles in this
area is increasing environmental concern over the disposability and
recycling of packaging materials. Legislation across the EU is now
forcing many manufacturers and distributors of products to rethink
their packaging practices fundamentally.
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Sport and leisure


Even excluding the very considerable use of
textiles in performance clothing and footwear,
there are plenty of opportunities for the use
of technical textiles throughout the sport and
leisure market.
Artificial turf, advanced carbon fibre
composite for racquet frames, fishing rods,
golf clubs, balloon fabrics, parachute and
paraglide fabrics and sailcloth.
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Geotextiles in civil engineering

The economic and environmental advantages of using textiles to reinforce,


stabilise, separate, drain and filter are already well proven.
Geotextiles allow the building of railway and road cuttings and embankments with
steeper sides, reducing the land requirement.
Revegetation of embankments and of the banks of the river can be promoted.
As in the case of construction textiles, one of the problems faced by manufacturers
is the diversity of performance requirements. No two installations are the same in
hydrological or geological terms.
Because of the considerable areas (quantities) of fabric that can be required in a
single project, cost is always a consideration and it is essential not to overspecify a
product not to underspecify it.
Much of the research and development work has been to understand better the
long-term performance characteristics of textiles, which have to remain buried in
unpredictable environment (such as landfill and toxic waste sites) for many years
and continue to perform to an adequate standard.
Nonwovens accounts for 80% of geotextiles applications.

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Protective and safety clothing and


textiles
The variety of protective functions to be
provided by different textile products is
considerable and diverse: protection against
cuts, abrasion, ballistic and other types of
severe impact, fire and extreme heat,
hazardous dust and particles, nuclear,
biological and chemical hazards, high voltages
and static electricity, extreme cold and poor
visibility.
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In Europe, strict regulations have been placed


upon employers through the introduction of
legislation such as the Personal Protective
Equipment (PPE) at Work Regulations. Under
such legislation, it is not only necessary to
ensure that the equipment is adequate but
also that it is used effectively, that is that the
garments are well designed and comfortable
to wear.

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Ecological protection textiles


The last category of technical textile markets, as defined by Techtextil, is
technical textiles for protection of the environment an ecology.
This is not a well defined segment yet, it overlaps with several other areas,
including industrial textiles (filtration media), geotextiles (erosion
protection and sealing of toxic waste) and agriculture textiles.
Apart from these direct applications, textiles can contribute towards the
environment in almost every sphere of their use, for example by reducing
weight in transport and construction. Improved recycleability is becoming
an important issue not only for packaging but also for products such as
cars.
Composite is an area which potentially presents problems for the
recycleability of textile reinforcing materials encased within a
thermosetting resin matrix. Considerable interest is towards thermoplastic
composites which should be simpler to recycle, for example by melting
and recasting into lower performance products.

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