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Chapter1: Triangle Midpoint Theorem

and Intercept Theorem

Outline
Basic concepts and facts
Proof and presentation
Midpoint Theorem
Intercept Theorem

1.1. Basic concepts and facts


In-Class-Activity 1.
(a) State the definition of the following terms:
Parallel lines,
Congruent triangles,
Similar triangles:

Two lines are parallel if they do not meet


at any point
Two triangles are congruent if their
corresponding angles and corresponding
sides equal
Two triangles are similar if their
Corresponding angles equal and their
corresponding sides are in proportion.
[Figure1]

(b) List as many sufficient conditions as


possible for
two lines to be parallel,

two triangles to be congruent,


two triangles to be similar

Conditions for lines two be parallel


two lines perpendicular to the same line.
two lines parallel to a third line
If two lines are cut by a transversal ,
(a) two alternative interior (exterior) angles are
equal.
(b) two corresponding angles are equal
(c) two interior angles on the same side of
the transversal are supplement

Corresponding angles
Alternative angles

Conditions for two triangles to be congruent

S.A.S
A.S.A
S.S.S

Conditions for two triangles similar


Similar to the same triangle
A.A

S.A.S
S.S.S

1.2. Proofs and presentation


What is a proof? How to present a proof?
Example 1 Suppose in the figure ,
CD is a bisector of ACB and CD
is perpendicular to AB. Prove AC is equal
to CB.
C

Given the figure in which


ACD BCD, CD AB

To prove that AC=BC.

The plan

is to prove that

ACD BCD

Proof
Statements

1. ACD BCD
2.
CD AB
3. CDA 900
4. CDB 900
5. CD=CD
6. ACD BCD
7. AC=BC

Reasons

1. Given
2. Given
3. By 2
4. By 2
5. Same segment
6. A.S.A
7. Corresponding sides
of congruent
triangles are equal

Example 2 In the triangle ABC, D is an


interior point of BC. AF bisects BAD.
Show that ABC+ADC=2AFC.
B
F
D

Given in Figure BAF=DAF.


To prove ABC+ADC=2AFC.

The plan is to use the properties of angles in


a triangle

Proof: (Another format of presenting a proof)


1. AF is a bisector of BAD,
so BAD=2BAF.
2. AFC=ABC+BAF
(Exterior angle )
3. ADC=BAD+ABC
(Exterior angle)
=2BAF +ABC (by 1)
4. ADC+ABC
=2BAF +ABC+ ABC ( by 3)
=2BAF +2ABC
=2(BAF +ABC)
=2AFC.
(by 2)

What is a proof?

A proof is a sequence of statements, where


each statement is either
an assumption,
or a statement derived from the previous
statements ,
or an accepted statement.
The last statement in the sequence is the
conclusion.

1.3. Midpoint Theorem


C

Figure2

1.3. Midpoint Theorem


Theorem 1 [ Triangle Midpoint Theorem]
The line segment connecting the midpoints
of two sides of a triangle
is parallel to the third side
and
is half as long as the third side.

Given in the figure , AD=CD, BE=CE.


To prove DE// AB and DE= 12 AB
Plan: to prove ACB~ DCE
C

Proof
Statements
1. ACB DCE
2. AC:DC=BC:EC=2
4. ACB ~ DCE
5. CAB CDE

6. DE // AB
7. DE:AB=DC:CA=2
8. DE= 1/2AB

Reasons
1. Same angle
2. Given
4. S.A.S
5. Corresponding
angles of similar
triangles
6. corresponding angles
7. By 4 and 2
8. By 7.

In-Class Activity 2 (Generalization and


extension)
If in the midpoint theorem we assume AD
and BE are one quarter of AC and BC
respectively, how should we change the
conclusions?
State and prove a general theorem of
which the midpoint theorem is a special
case.

Example 3 The median of a trapezoid is


parallel to the bases and equal to one half
of the sum of bases.
Figure
A

Complete the proof

Example 4 ( Right triangle median theorem)


The measure of the median on the
hypotenuse of a right triangle is one-half of
the measure of the hypotenuse.
B

C
A

Read the proof on the notes

In-Class-Activity 4
(posing the converse problem)
Suppose in a triangle the measure of a
median on a side is one-half of the measure
of that side. Is the triangle a right
triangle?

1.4 Triangle Intercept Theorem


Theorem 2 [Triangle Intercept Theorem]
If a line is parallel to one side of a triangle
it divides the other two sides proportionally.
Also converse(?) .
C

Figure
D

Write down the complete


proof

Example 5 In triangle ABC, suppose


AE=BF, AC//EK//FJ.
(a) Prove CK=BJ.
(b) Prove EK+FJ=AC.
C

J
A

(a)
1 KJ EF
BJ BF
2. BK BE
BJ BF
AE CK
3. BE

BK
AE BE
4. CK

BK
AE BF

5. CK
BJ
6.
7. Ck=BJ
CK AE

1
BJ BF

(b) Link the mid points of EF and KJ. Then use


the midline theorem for trapezoid

In-Class-Exercise
In ABC, the points D and F are on side AB,
point E is on side AC.
(1) Suppose that

DE // BC , FE // DC , AF 4, FD 6
Draw the figure, then find DB.
( 2 ) Find DB if AF=a

and FD=b.

Please submit the solutions of


(1) In class-exercise on pg 7
(2) another 4 problems in
Tutorial 1
next time.

THANK YOU
Zhao Dongsheng
MME/NIE
Tel: 67903893
E-mail: dszhao@nie.edu.sg