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Animal Breeding Systems

drh. Dyah Ayu Oktavianie, M.Biotech

Systems of Breeding
Two basic systems
Straight breeding

System used depends on:

Kind of livestock
Size of the herd
Amount of money available
Goals of the farmer or rancher

Systems of Breeding
Straight breeding:
Purebred breeding
Grading up

Two-breed crosses
Three-breed crosses
Rotation breeding

Purebred Breeding
Purebred animal:
Animal of a particular breed
Characteristics of the breed to which it belongs
Both parents mast have been purebred

Color markings is the most common


Purebred Animals
Not necessarily better than nonpurebred
Undesirable recessive characteristics may
appear because of the homozygosity of the
The average purebred animal is generally
better than the average nonpurebred animal


Mating of related animals

Close breeding- most intensive
Linebreeding- distantly related animals
Increases the genetic purity of the stock
Undesirable and desirable genes become
grouped together in the offspring with
greater frequency and more visible.

Mating of animals of different families within
the same breed
Bring into the breeding program traits that
are desirable but no present in the original
Linecrossing is mating animals from two
different lines of breeding within a breed

Grading up
Mating of purebred sires to grade females
A grade animal in any animal not eligible for
Some breed associations do permit the
offspring of grading up to be registered.

Mating of two animals from different breeds
Offspring is a hybrid
Superior traits from crossbreeding are called
hybrid vigor or heterosis
Animals selected for use in a crossbreeding
program must have the desired traits

Crossbreeding systems for beef

General considerations

Good recordkeeping
Calving difficulties may increase
Fewer calving problems if large breed dams are used
Large breed dams have higher maintenance costs
AI allows access to better bulls
More than one breeding pasture may be required

Crossbreeding systems for beef

Terminal sire crossed with F1 females

Rotate herd bull every three or four years
Two-breed rotation
Three-breed rotation
Four- and Five-breed rotation
Static terminal sire system

Crossbreeding systems for swine

Select breeds that meet the objectives
Select breeds that produce large litter and heavier
weaning weights
Select breeds that have less backfat and high rate
of gain
Sows used should be 50% Chester White,
Landrace, or Yorkshire
Select boars from sows in the top 25% of a herd
Crossbred boars maybe used

Crossbreeding systems include:

Rotational crossbreeding
Terminal crossing system
Rotaternimal system

Crossbreeding systems for sheep