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-K.

MOHAN RAM

Conjunctiva
Thin, transparent, mucous
membrane lining the posterior aspect of
eye lid & anterior aspect of eye ball
Latin : conjoin to join ( it
joins the eye ball to the eye lid )

Conjunctiva

Palpebral
Conjunctiva

Marginal

Tarsal

Conjunctival
Fornix

Orbital

Bulbar
Conjunctiva

Scleral

Limbal

Marginal
Palpebral
Conjunctiva

Tarsal
Orbital

Extends from the lid margin ( opening of


tarsal gland ) to the sulcus subtarsalis
Sulcus subtarsalis
Marks the inferior edge of the tarsal plate
Shallow groove situated 2mm from lid margin

Lacrimal puncta open in the marginal zone

Firmly adherent to the tarsal plate

Thin+transparent+highly vascular structure

Meibomian glands appear as yellow streaks


through the tarsal conjunctiva

Extends from the upper border of the tarsal


plate to the fornix
Loosely attached to the superior tarsal muscle
[Mllers muscle] and so folds readily
Shallow grooves and elevations are called
Stiedas plateaux and grooves

Bulbar
Conjunctiva

Scleral

Limbal

Thin, transparent & loosely attached to


underlying sclera
Permits the visualization of Conjunctival and
episcleral vessels
Separated from the sclera by episcleral
vessels and Tenons capsule

3mm ridge around the cornea


Conjunctiva, Tenons capsule and episcleral
tissue are fused together
Strongly adherent to sclero-corneal junction

Joins the bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva


Ducts of the lacrimal gland open into the
lateral part of superior fornix

Epithelium

Adenoid
Layer
Substantia
Propria
Fibrous
Layer

Conjunctiva

Number of layers

Cells in the layers


Superficial layer: Squamous cells

Marginal

5 layered non-keratinised
stratified squamous
epithelium

Middle three layers: Polyhedral


cells
Deepest layer: Cylindrical cells

Tarsal and Orbital

2 layers of Stratified cuboidal


epithelium

Superficial layer: Cylindrical cells


Deepest layer: cuboidal cells
Superficial layer: Cylindrical cells

Fornix and Scleral

3 layers of Stratified,
squamous epithelium

Middle layer: polyhedral cells


Deepest layer: Cuboidal cells
Superficial layer: squamous cells

Limbal

10 layers of stratified
squamous epithelium

Middle layer: polygonal cells


Basal- cubical

Also called Lymphoid layer


Consists of fine connective tissue reticulum in
the meshwork of which lies the lymphocytes
Not present at birth , develops after 2-3
months of life

Has Collagenous fibres + Elastic fibres


Thicker than adenoid layer except in the
Tarsal Conjunctiva
Lodges the Conjunctival vessels and nerves

Mucin Glands

Accessory
Lacrimal Glands

Goblet Cells

Glands of
Krause

Henles
Glands

Glands of
Wolfring

Glands of
Manz

Rudimentary
A.L.G.

Unicellular round or oval mucous glands

Absent in the Marginal & Limbal conjunctiva

These cells are destroyed after discharging


the contents

Numerous on nasal
side
High in children
and young adults

Not true glands

Tubular structure which contains a few goblet


cells

Present in the folds of mucous membrane


present in palpebral conjunctiva between
tarsal plate & fornices
Resembles the Crypts of Lieberkuhn in large
intestine

Located in the scleral conjunctiva

Arranged in a ring around the cornea, near


the scleral junction

Mucin Glands

Provide a hydrophilic layer that allows for


even distribution of the tear film
Ensures tear film stability by reducing the
surface tension
Provides lubrication and protects the
epithelial cells of cornea and conjunctiva

Lie in deep sub - conjunctival tissue of the


upper and lower fornices
42 in number in upper fornix and 6 to 8 in
lower fornix
In upper fornix they lie between the palpebral
part of the lacrimal gland and tarsal plate.

Also called Glands of Ciaccio, larger than


Glands of Krause
Situated in the upper border of the tarsus
midway between the end of the tarsal glands
2 to 5 in the upper lid and 1-3 in the lower
lid

Marginal Tarsal Arcade


Peripheral Tarsal Arcade
Anterior Ciliary Arteries

Conjunctivitis
Conjunctivochalasis
Pinguecula
Pterygium
Rougine

Subconjunctival
hemorrhage