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PROGRAMMABLE

LOGIC CONTROLLER
(PLC)

PLC = AUTOMATION

1.1 Three Factors of Automation


What is automation?
Moving the machine automatically in an Industrial Plant is automation.
Ex. Putting a cap (lid) on a bottle in a running conveyor
put a lid

Five Senses

Brain

Visual, feeling, taste,


hearing, smell

Judgment

Muscle
Action

1. Visual conforms that the bottle comes on the conveyor

INPUT

2. Judgment decides to put lid

CONTROL

3. Get a lid to put it on a bottle

OUTPUT

These are called 3 factors of automation

INPUT (X)

CONTROL

OUTPUT (Y)

Micro switch

Relay

Lamp

Limit switch
Sensors

Timer
Counter

Buzzer
Motors

Push button
switch

Thermostat

Cylinder

1.2 External Input / Output Signal and


Input / Output Number

-An input number is the number of


hexadecimal which begins from 0.

X indicates as the input signal


- (X01-X09 and XOA-X0F)
Y- indicates as the output signal
- (Y01-YO9 and Y0A-Y0F)

1.3 UNIT COMPOSITION OF A PLC MODULE


A block type example explains the composition of an actual sequencer.

Power
supply unit

CPU unit

Input /
output unit

Base
unit

Chapter 2 Components and functions of PLC


2.1 Components and functions of PLC
Input

Memory

CPU

Output

Power

Peripheral tool

Name

Power

Functions

Transforms the external


power supply to direct
power

Name

Functions

Input

Input devices were connected


here. It reads the signals from
the Photoelectric sensor devices
and transfer them to CPU.

Micro switch

Photoelectric sensor

CPU

Reads the signals from the


input part, judge them
according to the program
order, and sends the signal to
the output part.

program

Memory

memorize the program

Name

Functions
Lamp

Output

Peripheral
tool

Output devices are


connected here. It receive
the signals from CPU and
conveys them to output
devices.

Peripheral tool includes


programming console and
support software.

Buzzer

How the system works


Push the switch
to run the motor.

Memory

Push
the switch

Motor runs.
What is the next step after

the switch was pushed?


Program of the memory tells
me to move the motor.
The switch
has been pushed

Move the motor.

Chapter3: Ladder chart


Schematic/Ladder Diagram

Conventional

PLC Program

L1

L2
PB1

PB2

L1

L2
X1

M1

M1

M1

M1
L1

M1

X2

Y2

M1

All input Signals were assigned as X and


Output signal as Y

3.1 ON circuit or Normally Open (NO)

A contact

push
PB1
While the pushbutton is pushed,
the lamp shall keep on.

LAMP
PB1 or X1

LAMP or Y1
Y1

In this diagram, if you release the button the lamp will


return back to OFF mode.

3.2 OFF circuit or Normally Close (NC)


B contact

push
PB1
While the pushbutton is pushed,
the lamp shall keep off.

LAMP

PB2 or X2

LAMP or Y1
Y1

In this diagram, if you release the button the lamp will


return back to ON mode.

3.3 AND circuit (series)

PB1

AND

PB2

Turn on the lamp when both


PB1 and PB2 are pushed.

LAMP
<Ladder chart>
X1

X2
Y1

In this diagram, PB1 & PB2 shall push


together to turn the lamp ON.

3.4 OR circuit (parallel)


OR

X1
Y1

When either PB1 or PB2 is ON the


lamp shall be ON
PB1 (X1)

PB2 (X2)

LAMP (Y1)

X2
<Ladder chart>

Chapter 4. Programming and Time Chart

ON AND OFF TIME CHART

Common Symbols
Coil
M
Timer
T
Input
-X
Output - Y
Counter - C

Input A
Input B

Output Y

WHEN INPUT A IS ON, OUTPUT A WILL BE ON. WHEN INPUT B IS ON,


OUTPUT A WILL BE OFF.

Ladder Diagram

L1

X1

L2

X2
M1

M1

Y1

M1

ON DELAY TIMER

Input A

Input B

t=5sec

Output Y

WHEN INPUT A IS ON, AFTER 5 SECS., OUTPUT A WILL BE ON. WHEN INPUT B IS
ON, OUTPUT Y WILL BE OFF.

Ladder Diagram

L1
X1

L2

X2
T1 k50

T1

M1

T1
Y1

M1
END

End