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DESIGN OF SEWAGE

TREATMENT PLANT WITH UASB


TECHNOLOGY

PRESENTED BY :
JAINAB NAZMA
M.MAHESHWARI
A.SUNITHA

CONTENTS
o OVERVIEW

o INTRODUCTION
o SOURCE

OF THE SEWAGE WATER


o CHARACTERISTICS OF SEWAGE
WATER
o SEWAGE WATER TREATMENT
PLANT
o PREMILINARY TREATMENT
o PRIMARY TREATEMENT

o SLUDGE

TREATMENT DISPOSAL
AND UTILIZATION
o DESIGN OFSEWAGE WATER
TREATMENT PLANT WITH UASB
TECHNOLOGY
o CONCLUSION

INTRODUCTION

Sewage treatment is not a cheap


proposition.
Public bodies have to think twice before
making substantial investments
particularly in developing countries where
environmental issues could not be given
priority due to financial constraints.
Over the years, treatment related issues
are becoming expensive as governments
are not only giving emphasis to treat
wastewater in order to protect their
resources but the concept of reuse &
recycling is also becoming an important

Sewage is the liquid waste of community.


It includes the wastes from water closets,
urinals, and bath rooms, kitchens of the
residences and waste water from
industries and also storm water.
The liquid waste from the residential
areas is called as Domestic sewage and
that from industries is called industrial
sewage.
Sewage contains 99.9% of water only.
But the small portion of solids and other
materials present in sewage which
causes nuisance and pollution.

Generally sewage water is treated in four


treatment steps namely :
Preliminary

& Primary Treatment : Is used to

remove the covers, papers, oil & grease


Secondary

Treatment : Is used to remove the

suspended solids, COD and BOD.


Tertiary

Treatment : Is used to remove coli form

bacterias present in the water. In the case of


sewage treatment different methods like physical,
chemical, biological processes are used to treat
wastewater.
In this, biological method is divided into two
categories.
1.Aerobic
2. Anaerobic process methods.

APPROACH AND DESIGN PHILOSOPHY:

The design philosophy adopted for preparing the


process design has considered unit dimensions and
reactor sizes in consideration with the physical
limitations of the site as well as to satisfy the
technical requirements.

The primary objective of the design philosophy was


to prepare a sewage treatment plant, which is simple
to operate, maintain and more importantly which is
sustainable in the long run.

The sewage treatment scheme includes, primary


treatment in the form of screening, grit removal,
followed by UASB and facultative type of aerated

OBJECTIVES OF PROJECT :
To avoid the pollution of receiving water bodies and
thus preventing the health hazards.
To create hygienic environment around the town.
To protect the fish and other aquatic life.
To avoid the sewage sickness of land on to which it is
disposed.
To production of methane, which is used as energy
resources like power generation, used as bio gas.
Utilization of sludge like fertilizers for agriculture field
and for making cement.
Reuse of waters in agriculture lands, domestic
purpose and in industries for cooling.
Reduce the impact of water pollution on environment

SOURCE OF SEWAGE WATER

We should always be mindful of whether or not we


are polluting the water around us. We need to take
care of our water, not abuse it.

Every town and city, whether small or big, uses water.

Cities use water for firefighting, street cleaning, and


watering public areas such as parks, grass, trees,
shrubs, and flowers.

Water is also used to fill public drinking fountains,


including those at schools and libraries.

All of the All of the different businesses in our


community also use water.
Think about all the water that is used by restaurants,
hospitals, laundries, dry cleaners, golf courses,
hotels, car washes, beauty shops, barber shops, gas
stations, and health clubs as well as all of the other
businesses in town.

The map shows


the usage of
water by various

industries.

In this present situation due to the lack of water it is


very hard to use clean water for each and every basic
needs.
So we have to reuse the waste water to reduce the
usage of clean water which is generated from homes,
industries, hospitals, beverages etc. as mentioned
above.
In this the waste water which is to be treated is
mainly taken from residential homes, commercial
buildings, hospitals, industries etc.

The diagram
Shows usage
Of water by
Household
residential building

CHARACTERISTICS OF

SEWAGE WATER

Sewage is a dilute mixture of various types of wastes


from the residential, public and industrial places.
The Characteristics of sewage depends on source of
water mainly. Sewage contains organic and
inorganic matters which may be dissolved,
suspension, and colloidal state.
Sewage also contains various types of bacteria,
virus, protozoa, algae, fungi etc.

The characteristics of sewage can be classified


as:

Physical characteristics :
Color : With the time of the colour of sewage begins to get
black as the decomposition starts. Fresh sewage has
yellowish, grey or light brown colour. The colour of septic
sewage is more or less black.

Odour :Fresh domestic sewage has a slightly soapy or oily


odour, but the stale sewage has offensive odour of hydrogen
sulphide and other sulphur compounds

Temperature : The biological activities increase with the


rise in the temperature up to about 60degcel.
Turbidity : The turbidity of the sewage directly depends on
the quantity of solid matters present in it suspension state.
Solids : The sewage contains more than 99.9 percentage
of water and only 0.1 percentage of solids. These solids are
present in sewage in suspended, dissolved and colloidal

Biological characteristics :
Sewage contains large quantity of bacteria which
come from excremental matter
All the bacterias present in sewage are not
harmful
Only pathogenic bacteria which are discharged
by the sick persons having infectious disease
such as cholera, typhoid dysentery, diarrhea etc.
are harmful to the human health and give
difficulties at the treatment plants

The sewage has following biological


characteristics:
Bacteria
Algae
Fungi

Chemical characteristics :
Sewage contains complex organic matters
derived from urine, faces etc and inorganic
chemicals .
Normally fresh sewage is alkaline in nature but
tends to acidity as it becomes stale.

SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT


Sewage Treatment Plant is a facility designed to
receive the waste from domestic, commercial and
industrial sources and to remove materials that
damage water quality and compromise public health
and safety when discharged into water receiving
systems.
The Principal objective of waste water treatment is
generally to allow human and industrial effluents to
be disposed of without danger to human health or
unacceptable damage to the natural environment.
Its objective is to produce an environmentally safe
fluid waste stream (or treated effluent) and a solid
waste (or treated sludge) suitable for disposal or
reuse (usually as farm fertilizer)

CLASSIFICATION OF TREATMENT PROCESSES :

Sewage can be treated in different ways. Treatment


processes often classified as:

Preliminary treatment
Preliminary devices are designed to remove or cut up the
larger suspended and floating solids, to remove the heavy
inorganic solids, and to remove excessive amounts of oils
or greases.
The objective of preliminary treatment is the removal of
coarse solids and other large materials often found in raw
wastewater.

Preliminary devices used are


Screens -- rack, bar or fine
Grit chambers
Pre-aeration tanks

SCREENS

GRIT REMOVAL

PREAREATOIN TANKS

PRIMARY TREATMENT :
In the primary sedimentation stage, sewage flows
through large tanks, commonly called "pre-settling
basins", "primary sedimentation tanks" or "primary
clarifiers".
In this treatment, most of the settle able solids are
separated or removed from the wastewater by the
physical process of sedimentation.
The purpose of primary treatment is to reduce the
velocity of the wastewater sufficiently to permit solids
to settle and floatable material to surface

SECONDARY TREATMENT :
Secondary treatment involves further treatment of the
effluent, coming from the primary sedimentation tank.
Filters (intermittent sand filters and trickling filters)
Aeration tanks
Oxidation ponds and Aerated lagoons

TRICKLING FILTERS

AERATED LAGOONS

TERTIARY TREATMENT
Tertiary treatment consists in removing the organic load
left after the secondary treatment, particularly to kill the
pathogenic bacteria.
This treatment, normally carried out by chlorination, is
generally not carried out for the disposal of sewage in
water, but is carried out , while using the river stream
for collecting the water for re use or for the water
supplies.
It may, however, sometimes be adopted, when the out
fall of the sewage is very nearer to the water intake of
some nearby town.
A complete treatment system may consist of the
application of a number of physical, chemical and
biological processes to the wastewater.

PRILIMINARY TREATMENT

Preliminary devices are designed to remove or cut up the


larger suspended and floating solids, heavy inorganic
solids, and excessive amounts of oils or greases.
Preliminary treatment consists of screenings, grit
channels, detritus tank, and pre aeration tank and grease
removals etc.

SCREENINGS
Screening is the first unit operation used at waste
water treatment plants (WWTPs). Screening removes
objects such as rags, paper, plastics, and metals to
prevent damage and clogging of downstream
equipment, piping, and appurtenances.

COARSE SCREENS :
Coarse screens are also known as Racks. Coarse
screens remove large solids, rags, and debris
from wastewater, and typically have openings of
50 mm (0.25 in) or larger.
Types of coarse screens
include mechanically
and manually cleaned
bar screens, including
trash racks.

FINE SCREENS
Fine screens are typically used to remove material that
may create operation and maintenance problems in
downstream processes, particularly in systems that
lack primary treatment.
Typical opening sizes for fine screens are 1.5 to 6 mm
(0.06 to 0.25 in).Very fine screens with openings of 0.2
to 1.5 mm (0.01 to 0.06 in) placed after coarse or fine
screens can reduce suspended solids to levels near
those achieved by primary clarification.

The efficiency of the screening operation depends of


the spacing between screen bars:
Fine screening, for a spacing under 10 mm
Medium screening, for spacing of 10 to 40 mm
Coarse screening, for spacing of over 50 mm

GRIT REMOVAL BASINS


Grit removal basins, such as grit channels or grit
chamber or detritus tanks are the sedimentation basins
placed in front of the waste water treatment plant to
remove the inorganic particles such as sand, gravel,
grit, egg shells, bones, and other non-putrescible
materials that may clog channels or damage pumps
due to abrasion, and to prevent their accumulation in
sludge digesters.
Grit chambers artifact, nothing but like sedimentation
tanks.

DETRITUS TANKS
Detritus tanks are nothing but rectangular grit
chamber , design to flow with a smaller flow velocity
and longer detention periods (about 3to 4 minutes)so
as to separate out not only the larger grit, etc., but
also to separate out the very fine sand particles, etc.
Due to this, a large amount of organic matter will also
settle out along with the inorganic grit, sand, etc.

PRE-AERATION TANKS :
Pre-aeration of wastewater, that is aeration before
primary treatment is sometimes provided for the
following purposes:
To obtain a greater removal of suspended solids in
sedimentation tanks.
To assist in the removal of grease and oil carried in the
wastewater.
To freshen up septic wastewater prior to further
treatment.
BOD reduction.

PRIMARY TREATMENT
SEDIMENTATION OR CLARIFIERS
The screens and grit chambers to remove most of the
floating materials like paper, rags, cloth, wood etc.
and the heavy inorganic settleable solids from the
sewage.
However, a part of the suspended organic solids
which are too heavy to be removed as floating
matters, and too light to be removed by grit
chambers, are generally removed by the
sedimentation tank.

TYPES OF SEDIMENTATION TANKS


Sedimentation tanks may function either.
Intermittently.
continuously.
The intermittent settling tanks called quiescent type
tanks are simple settling tanks which store sewage
for a certain period and keep it in complete rest.
In a continuous flow type of sedimentation of tanks,
which is generally used in modern days, the flow
velocity only reduced, and sewage is not brought
complete rest, as is done in an intermittent type.
The working of such a tank is simple, as the water
enters from one end, and comes out from the other
end.

SECONDARY TREATMENT
Secondary treatment involves further treatment of the
effluent, coming from the primary sedimentation tank.
This is generally accomplished through the biological
decomposition of organic matter, which can be carried out
either under aerobic or anaerobic conditions.

.In these biological unit, bacteria will decompose the


fine organic matter, to produce clearer effluent
The treatment reactors, in which the organic matter
destroyed and stabilized by anaerobic bacteria,
known as anaerobic biological units and may
consists of anaerobic lagoons, septic tanks, Imhoff
tanks.

ANAEROBIC TREATMENT PROCESS :


There are two methods for treatment of sewage and
removing methane in sewage treatment plant. They
are aerobic and anaerobic process.
Nowadays anaerobic is widely used in many sewage
plants. The anaerobic process is in many ways ideal
for waste treatment

ADVANTAGES BY USING ANAEROBIC TREATMENT


As much as 80 to 90 percent of the degradable organic
portion of a waste can be stabilized in anaerobic
treatment by conversion to methane gas, even in
highly loaded systems.
This is in contrast to aerobic systems, where only
about 50 percent of the waste is actually stabilized
even at conventional loadings

UPFLOW ANAEROBIC SLUDGE BLANKET


REACTOR :
The UASB reactor maintains a high concentration of
biomass through the formation of highly settleable
microbial sludge aggregates.
The wastewater flows upwards through a layer of very
active sludge to cause anaerobic digestion of organics
of the waste water.
At the top of reactor, three phase separation between
gas-solid-liquid takes place.

Top view of UASB reactor

This reactor consists of an up flowing treatment tank,


provided with a feed inlet distribution system at the tank
bottom.
A gas solid liquid separator device is provided at the top
to help provide a quiescent zone at the top of the
reactor.

Top view of feed inlet boxes

cross section UASB reactor

ADVANTAGES
Lower energy requirement combined with the
production of biogas
Low nutrient requirement
High degree of waste stabilization
Handling high organic loading rates
Lower production of excess sludge, which in addition, is
well-stabilized and therefore easier to dispose.

DISADVANTAGES
requires skilled operation.
Capital cost is high.

IMPACT OF TEMPERATURE ON UASB


REACTORS
At higher temperatures, rates of reaction proceed much
faster, resulting in more efficient operation and smaller
tank sizes.
Two optimum temperature levels for anaerobic
treatment have been reported one in the
mesophilicrange from 85 to 100F, and the other in the
thermophilic range from 120 to 135F.
Although treatment proceeds much more rapidly at
thermophilic temperatures, the additional neat required
to maintain such temperatures may offset the
advantage obtained.

METHANE FORMATION
The methane producing bacteria have proven to be
very difficult to isolate and study.
The conversion of organic matter into methane no
doubt proceeds through a long series of complex
biochemical steps.
Although almost nothing is known of the individual
steps involved.
One source of methane is the direct cleavage of
acetic acid into methane and carbon dioxide.
Major Mechanisms of Methane Formation

Acetic Acid Cleavage: C*H3COOH -> C*H4 + C02


Carbon Dioxide Reduction C02 + 8H - CH4 + 2H20

COLLECTING OF METHANE GAS


GAS COLLECTORS : Methane gas is produced in the
reactors which is collected by using the gas collectors from
these gas collectors gas pumped through the various pipes
of high durability and leak proof s like PVC
GAS HOLDERS : Three floating type of gas holders will be
provided floating in a concrete tank with a holding capacity
of biogas production in the reactor. It will be provided with
inlet, gas outlet, water drain, pressure vacuum relief valves
arrangements.

GAS FLARING SYSTEM : A gas flaring system will be provided


consisting of following;
Pressure regulate and water seal,
Flame check, Pilot gas flame and valve along with
electronic lighter,
Gas flare at 6m height from ground level, and Moisture trap.

Gas flaring system

LAGOONS
Lagoons are one of the most popular methods for
wastewater treatment around the world they are also
among the simplest and least expensive.
Lagoons are especially well suited to small
communities because they can cost less to construct,
operate, and are simpler to maintain than other
systems.
They require more land than other wastewater
treatment methods, but land is usually more available
and less expensive in rural areas

LAGOON SYSTEMS
Lagoons are pond-like bodies of water or basins designed to
receive, hold, and treat wastewater for a predetermined
period of time.
If necessary, they are lined with material, such as clay or an
artificial liner, to prevent leaks to the groundwater below

ANAEROBIC LAGOONS
The word anaerobic means "without oxygen", which
describes the conditions inside this type of lagoon.
Anaerobic lagoons are most often used to treat animal
wastes from dairies and pig farms, commercial or
industrial wastes, or as the first treatment step in
systems using two or more lagoons in a series.

AEROBIC LAGOONS
Dissolved oxygen is present throughout much of the
depth of aerobic lagoons.
They tend to be much shallower than other lagoons, so
sunlight and oxygen from air and wind can better
penetrate the wastewater.
In general, they are better suited for warm,sunny
climates, where they are less likely to freeze.
Wastewater usually must remain in aerobic lagoons
from 3 to 50 days to receive adequate treatment

FACULTATIVE LAGOONS
Like environmental conditions, conditions inside the
facultative lagoons are always changing.
Lagoons experience cycles due to variations in the weather,
the composition of the wastewater, and other factors.
In general, the wastewater in facultative lagoons naturally
settles into three fairly distinct layers or zones.
Different conditions exist in each zone, and wastewater
treatment takes place in all three

Facultative lagoon

AERATED LAGOONS
Aerated lagoons are common in small communities.
These systems use aerators to mix the contents of the
pond and add oxygen to the wastewater.
They are sometimes referred to as partial-mix or
complete-mix lagoons depending on the extent of
aeration.
Partial-mix aerated lagoons are often anaerobic
lagoons that have been adapted and upgraded to
receive more wastewater

Aerated lagoons

ADVANTAGES OF LAGOON SYSTEMS:

Lagoon systems can be cost-effective to design and


construct in areas where land is inexpensive.
They use less energy than most wastewater treatment
methods.
They are simple to operate and maintain and generally
require only part-time staff.
They can handle intermittent use and shock loadings
better than many systems, making them a good option
for campgrounds, resorts, and other seasonal
properties.

DISADVANTAGES
Lagoon systems require more land than other
treatment methods.
They are less efficient in cold climates and may require
additional land or longer

SLUDGE TREATMENT
DISPOSAL AND UTILIZATION
The sludge accumulated in a wastewater treatment
process must be treated and disposed of in a safe and
effective manner.
The purpose of digestion is to reduce the amount of
organic matter and the number of disease-causing
microorganisms present in the solids.

THICKENING : Thickening is usually the first step in sludge


treatment because it is impractical to handle thin sludge, a
slurry of solids suspended in water.
An alternative to gravity thickening is dissolved-air flotation.
In this method, air bubbles carry the solids to the surface,
where a layer of thickened sludge forms.

DIGESTION : Sludge digestion is a biological process in


which organic solids are decomposed into stable substances.
Digestion reduces the total mass of solids, destroys
pathogens, and makes it easier to dewater or dry the sludge.
Digested sludge is inoffensive, having the appearance and
characteristics of a rich potting soil.
ANAEROBIC DIGESTION : Anaerobic digestion is a
bacterial process that is carried out in the absence of
oxygen.
The process can either be thermophilic digestion, in which
sludge is fermented in tanks at a temperature of 55 C, or
mesophilic, at a temperature of around 36 C.
Though allowing shorter retention time (and thus smaller
tanks), thermophilic digestion is more expensive in terms of
energy consumption for heating the sludge.

SLUDGE DRYING BEDS :The digested sludge from the


digestion tank contains lot of water, and is, therefore, first
of all, dewatering or dried up, before further disposal either
by burning or dumping.
In India, the water of sludge is removed by drying the
sludge on drying beds.
Whereas western countries, dewatering is generally done
by vacuum filters or by using high speed centrifuges.

Sludge drying beds

DEWATERING : Digested sewage sludge is usually


dewatered before disposal.
Dewatered sludge still contains a significant amount of
wateroften as much as 70 percentbut, even with that
moisture content, sludge no longer behaves as a liquid and
can be handled as a solid material.
Sludge-drying beds provide the simplest method of
dewatering.

SLUDGE DISPOSAL
The solids that result from wastewater treatment may
contain concentrated levels of contaminants that were
originally contained in the wastewater.
A great deal of concern must be directed to the proper
disposal of these solids to protect environmental
considerations.

DISPOSAL IN WATER
This is an economical but not common method because
it is contingent on the availability of bodies of water
adequate to permit it.
At some seacoast cities, sludge either raw or digested is
pumped to barges and carried to sea to be dumped in
deep water far enough off shore to provide huge dilution
factors and prevent any ill effects along shore.

Disposal on Land
Under land disposal the following methods may be
included:
Burial
Fill
Application as fertilizer or soil conditioner

SLUDGE UTILIZATION
Sludge Utilization for Construction Work as Cement
Ingredient
About 26% of generated sludge in 2002 was utilized as
Cement Ingredient. Inorganic matter of sewage sludge
comprises silica, aluminum, calcium, iron, etc. and the clay,
which is used as cement ingredient, comprises the same
elements.
Then, after generated sludge is dehydrated and
incinerated, incinerator ash is used as cement ingredient.
Also, dewatered sludge, which contains organic matter and
inorganic substance, is utilized as fuel for cement burning
and cement ingredient.
Sludge Utilization for Construction Work
About 20% of generated sludge in 2002 was utilized for
Construction Work.
In Japan, dewatered sludge is incinerated to reduce its
volume, and incinerator ash is used as soil stabilization
additive, roadbed material, etc.

TERTIARY TREATMENT

Tertiary treatment consists in removing the organic


load left after the secondary treatment, particularly
to kill the pathogenic bacteria.
This treatment, normally carried out by chlorination,
is generally not carried out for the disposal of
sewage in water, but is carried out , while using the
river stream for collecting the water for re use or for
the water supplies.
CHLORINATION SYSTEMS
Chlorination system includes mainly of three units they are

Chlorine house
Chlorination mix tank
Chlorination contact tank

CHLORINE HOUSE :

o Chlorination house will incorporate vacuum type


gaseous chlorinator along with all accessories and
required number of chlorine tonner.

Chlorine house

CHLORINE MIX TANK


Chlorine mix tank is provided with slow speed mechanical
mixer to mix the chlorine solution with treated effluent of
facultative aerated lagoon. From chlorine mix tank water will
flow to chlorine contact tank.

Chlorine mix tank

CHLORINE CONTACT TANK

In chlorine contact tank actual disinfection of treated waste


water will take place by keeping water in contact with
chlorine.

Chlorine contact tank

Chlorine contact tank

CHLORINATION PROCESS
Chlorination of wastewater is the application of chlorine to a
wastewater to accomplish some definite purpose.
The purpose of chlorination may not always be disinfection
and may, in fact, involve odor control or some other objective
which will be noted.
Chlorine may be applied in two general ways, gaseous and
liquid. In general, the effective chemical form of chlorine that
either destroys the microbe or acts against odor, etc., is the
same

REACTIONS OF CHLORINE IN WASTEWATERS


When chlorine is mixed with pure water, it immediately
dissolves, forming fist hypochlorous acid and then
hypochlorites:

The above two forms of chlorine (hypochlorous acid


and hypochlorite ion) are called "free" residual chlorine,
as opposed to the reaction products of chlorine with
other compounds that can also be detected using
analytical techniques that are called "combined"
residual chlorine.
Free residual chlorine is a more effective disinfecting
agent than combined residual chlorine, and generally
hypochlorous acid is a much more effective disinfectant
than hypochlorite ion.

DISPOSAL AND REUSE OF


TREATED WATER
DISPOSAL
There are two general methods of disposing of sewage effluent
Dilution i.e. disposal in water
Effluent irrigation or sewage farming i.e. disposal on land
Disposal by dilution
Disposal by dilution is the process whereby the treated sewage
or effluent from sewage treatment plant is discharged into a
river stream, or a large body of water such as a lake or sea.
Disposal on land
In this method, the sewage effluent (treated) is generally
disposed of by applying it on land. The percolating water may
either join the water table, or is collected below by a system of
under drains. This method can then be used for irrigation crops.

REUSE OF TREATED WATER


Wastewater can be recycled/reused as a source of water for
a multitude of water demanding activities such as
agriculture, aquifer recharge, aquaculture, firefighting,
flushing of toilets, snow melting, industrial cooling, parks and
golf course watering, formation of wetlands for wildlife
habitats, recreational impoundments, and essentially for
several other non-potable requirements.

REUSE OF IRRIGATION :
Irrigation reuse of wastewater can be for application
on:
(I) agricultural crops, woodlots and pastures.
(ii) Landscape and recreational areas.

DOMESTIC AND INDUSTRIAL USE :


Reuse of wastewater for purposes other than irrigation
may be either for:
Industrial reuse;
Non-potable purposes;
Indirect potable purposes; or
Direct potable purposes

WASTE WATER REUSE


Wastewater can be recycled/reused as a source of
water for a multitude of water demanding activities such
as agriculture, aquifer recharge, aquaculture,
firefighting, flushing of toilets, snow melting, industrial
cooling, parks and golf course watering, formation of
wetlands for wildlife habitats, recreational
impoundments, and essentially for several other nonpotable requirements

DESIGN OF SEWAGE WATER


TREATMENT PLANT WITH UASB
TECHNOLOGY

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Design of sewage water treatment plants based on the
various factors they are
DESIGN PERIOD : The treatment plant, like the sewage
system, is normally designed to meet the requirements over
a 15 year period after its completion.
The time lag between the design and the completion should
not normally exceed 2-3 years, and exceptional case 5
years.
Care must be taken that the plant is not considerably under
loaded in the initial stages, particularly the sedimentation
tank.
POPULATION FORECAST : The population are increased by
births, decreased by deaths, increased by migration and
increased by annexation. These all four factors change in
population.

PER CAPITA DEMAND : The entire spent water of a community


should normally contribute to the total flow in a sanitary sewer.
However, the observed Dry Weather Flow quantities (DWF)
usually are slightly less than the per capita water consumption,
since some water is lost in evaporation, seepage into ground,
leakage etc.

FLOW ASSUMPTIONS : The flow in sewers varies considerably


from hour to hour and also seasonally, but for the purposes of
hydraulic design it is the estimated peak flow that is adopted.
The peak factor or the ratio of maximum to average flow
depends upon contributory population and the following values
are recommended.

DEGREE OF TREATMENT : The degree of treatment will be


mostly be decided by the regulatory agencies and the extent to
which the final products of treatment are to be utilized.
The regulatory bodies might have laid down standards for the
effluent or might specify the conditions under which the effluent
could be discharged into a natural stream, sea or disposed of
on the land.

DETENTION PERIOD : The rate of removal of BOD and


SS is maximum during the first 2 to 2 hours of settling
and thereafter decreases appreciably.
Hence, increase in the detention time beyond 2 to 2
hours will not increase the percentage removal of
BOD or SS proportionately
LOCATION OF TREATMENT PLANT :The treatment plant
should be located as near to the point of disposal
possible.
If the sewage is to be disposed of finally in the river or
natural streams, the treatment plant should be
located on the river bank.
Care should be taken while locating the site that it
should be on the downward stream side of the city
and tank sufficiently away from the water intake
works.

LAYOUT OF TREATMENT PLANTS

The following points should be kept in mind while


giving layout of any sewage treatment plant:
1. All the plant should be located in order of
sequence, so that sewage from one process
should directly go into the next process.
2. If possible all the plants should be located at
such elevation that sewage can flow one plant
into next under its gravitational force only.
3. All the treatment units should be arranged in
such a way that minimum area is required, it will
also insure economy in its cost.
4. Sufficient area should be occupied for future
extension, in the beginning.
5. The site of treatment plant should be very neat
and very good appearance.

TOPOGRAPHY
Topographic conditions e.g. the slope of an area etc.
have an influence over the type of technology chosen
and these conditions change from one site to the next.
Some areas have a topography that allows easier
implementation of wastewater technologies then
others.
The types of wastewater technologies chosen with
consideration of topographic conditions work more
efficiently as with these technical considerations in
mind they become more effective, producing better
quality effluent.
Topographic conditions should be considered as a
criterion however is not included in the rating sheet as
it is very site specific.

CONCLUSION
In these days it is very essential to treat waste
water because it pollutes the environment.
The sewage treatment scheme includes, primary
treatment in the form of screening, grit removal,
followed by UASB and facultative type of aerated
lagoon.
Historical evolution of the application of the UASB
based STPs in India and subsequent modifications
over the years with respect to the design, material
of construction, operation and maintenance have
given a new dimension to this technology.
Reduced capital costs, increased durability of the
reactors and simple operation and maintenance
are some of the features of these modifications.

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