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HARAPPA CIVILIZATION

INTRODUCTION
One of the most fascinating yet mysterious cultures of
the ancient world is the Harappa Civilization. This
culture existed along the Indus River in present day
Pakistan. It was named after the city of Harappa
which it was centred around.
Harappa and the city of Mohenjo-Daro were the
greatest achievements of the Indus valley civilization.
These cities are well known for their impressive,
organized and regular layout. Over one hundred
other towns and villages also existed in this

region. The Harappan people were literate and used


the Dravidian language. Only part of this language
has been deciphered today, leaving numerous
questions about this civilization unanswered. The
Harappan civilization was mainly urban and
mercantile. Inhabitants of the Indus valley traded
with Mesopotamia, southern India, Afghanistan, and
Persia for gold, silver, copper, and turquoise. This
civilization was the first to cultivate cotton for the
production of cloth.

HARAPPA CLOTHING
The costume of this civilization has been revealed from
unearthed figurines. The dress can be considered as
the normal attire of the female of that time. The
waist is bare and a very scanty skirt was worn. The
skirt was held by girdle that was made of beads or of
bands of woven material secured by a pin or
fastening of some kind. One figure wears a cloak
which was wrapped around the body. Head dresses
are used which was wrapped around the upper part
of the body and were made of stiffened cotton cloth.
A tight collar that gives an appearance of greater
length to the neck was worn by a few figurines.

The male figures are generally seen to be nude.


Probably a robe with or without embroidery was
worn over the left shoulder and under the right arm.
The figure of a man at Harappa might be wearing a
close clinging dhoti. Cotton was woven and dyed for
clothing. The people were skilled in art of spinning
and weaving, they manufactured woolen clothes
from sheep and goats hair

FOOTWEAR
Footwear as such was not found.

ORNAMENTS
People seem to have been fond of Jewellery and hair
dressing. Jewellery made of stones, gold and silver
have been unearthed. Men had varied styles of hair
dressing. For instance, one wears hair parted in the
middle and the short locks at the back of head are
which are kept tidy by a woven fillet. Some show the
hair woven into the bun after the hair being plaited.

Some other figurines show the hair coiled in a ring on the

top of the head and in similar rings concealing the ears.


Beards were trimmed in various styles.
Metal ornaments were made of gold, electrum, silver,
copper, and bronze. Stones like lapis , lazzuli, turquopise,
jadeite,carnelian, agate,onyx, amzon stone, heliotrope,
plasma, tachylite, chalcedony, nepheline-sodalite, shell,
pottery, faience, vitreous paste, quartz, serpentine, and
hematite were used.
The ornaments used are girdles, necklace, bracelets,
pectorals,beads , cones, ear rings,, anklets, bangles and
hair pins.

DECLINE
The Harappa Culture was at its peak for around 500
years. The city was destroyed for n number of times
and it was built again and again. The exact cause for
the destruction of this great civilization is unknown
till date.