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Buku Panduan

Project Management Institute-USA

Pito Sumarno

Project Quality Management

PMI is abbreviation for Project Management Institute as well as trade and


service mark registered in the United States and other nations; PMBOK,
Pito Sumarno Institute. Inc.
2
is trademarks of the Project Management

PMBOK PMI ed 2004


Section 3:
Capter 8 :

Project Quality Management


8.1 Quality Planning

PMBOK p. 183-187

8.2 Perform Quality Assurance

PMBOK p. 187-190

8.3 Perform Quality Control

PMBOK p. 190-198

PMBOK p. 179
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Overview
PROJECT QUALITY MANAGEMENT

8.1 Quality Planning

8.2 Perform Quality Assurance

8.3 Perform Quality Control

1 Inputs
.1. Enterprise environmental factors
.2. Organizational process assets
.3. Project scope statement
.4. Project management plan
2 Tools and Technniques
.1. Cost benefit analysis
.2. Benchmarking
.3. Design of experiments
.4. Cost of quality (COQ)
.5. Additional quality planning tools
3 Outputs
.1. Quality management plan
.2. Quality matrics
.3. Quality checklists
.4. Process improvement plan
.5. Quality baseline
.6. Project management plan (updates)

1 Inputs
.1. Quality management plan
.2. Quality matrics
.3. Process improvement plan
.4. Work performance information
.5. Approved change requests
.6. Quality control measurements
.7. Implemented change requests
.8. Implemented corrective actions
.9. Implemented defect repair
10.Implemented preventive actions
2 Tools and Technniques
.1. Quality planning tools and techniques
.2. Quality audits
.3. Process analysis
.4. Quality control tools and techniques
3 Outputs
.1. Requested changes
.2. Recommended corrective actions
.3. Organizational process assets (updates)
.4. Project management plan (updates)

1 Inputs
.1. Quality management plan
.2. Quality matrics
.3. Quality checklists
.4. Organizational process assets
.5. Work performance information
.6. Approved change requests
.7. Deliverables
2 Tools and Technniques
.1. Cause and effect diagram
.2. Control charts
.3. Flowcharting
.4. Histogram
.5. Pareto chart
.6. Run chart
.7. Scatter diagram
.8. Statistical sampling
.9. Inspection
10. Defect repair review
3 Outputs
.1. Quality control measurements
.2. Validated defect repair
.3. Quality baseline (update)
.4. Recommended corrective actions
.5. Recommended preventive actions
.6. Requested changes
.7. Recommended defect repair
.8. Organizational process assets (updates)
.9. Validated deliverables
10. Project management plan (updates)

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(PMBOK Guide p. 182)

8. Project Quality Management


Project quality management processes include all the
activities of the performing organization that determine
quality policies, objectives, and responsibilities so that
the project will satisfy the needs for which it was
undertaken.

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Enterprise
Environmental Factors

Gavernmental Standards,
Rules & Guidelines
Commercial database

Organizational
Process Assets

Quality policies, Procedures,


and Guidelines, lessons learned
Knowledge base

Scope Definition

Project Scope Statement

5.2
(3.2.2.3)
Implemented Change Requests
Implemented Corrective Actions
Implemented Defect Repair
Implemented Preventive Actions
Work performance Information

Quality
Planning
8.1
(3.2.2.12)

Approved Changes Requests


Quality Management Plan
Approved Corrective Actions
Quality Matrics
Approved Preventive Actions
Quality Checklists
Process Improvement plan
Quality Baseline
Project Management Plan (updates)

Perform Quality
Assurance
8.2 (3.2.3.2)

Close Project
4.7
(3.2.5.1)

Deliverables

Organizationals Process Assets


(Updates)

Requested Changes
Recommended Corrective Actions
Project Management Plan (updates)
Aproved Change requests

Quality Control Measurements

Direct & Manage


Project Execution
3.2
(3.2.3.1)

Project Management Plan

Develop Project
Management Plan
4.3
(3.2.2.1)

Perform
Quality
Control 7.3
(3.2.4.7)

Quality Control measurements


Quality baseline (updates)
Recommended Corective Actions
Recommended preventive Actions
Recommended Defact Repair
Project Management Plan (updates)
Validated Deliverables
Validated Defect Repair
Requested Changes

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Project Quality Management


Process
Flow Diagram

Integrated Change
Control
4.6

(3.2.4.2)

Goals of Quality Program


Fitness of use
Product Service produced must satisfy real needs
(If a product or service is capable of being used, it is assumed that it will provide
the customer the economic satisfaction desired)
Customer satisfaction
Product / Service meets customers expectations and provides the belief that the
product or service has economic value.
Conformance to the requirements
The project must produce what it said it would produce ( precisely what the
customer desire)
Fitness for Purpose
The Product or Service will meet its intended purpose in all respects and
provide the customer economic satisfaction.
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Quality Concepts
ZERO DEFECTS
No Tolerance for errors within the system (six-sigma goal)
THE CUSTOMER IS THE NEXT PERSON IN THE PROSESS
Conformance to requirements & customer satisfaction
DO THE RIGHT THING RIGHT THE FIRST TIME
Do it once in complete & correct manner
CONTINOUS IMPROVEMENT PROCESS
Plan Do Check Act
PROCESS CAPABILITY
Capable of performing the required functions to achieve the desire outcome

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Quality Concepts
Sig Sigma
Six Sigma is a quantitative statistical measurement meaning fewer than
four defects per million apportunities. Performing at the Six Sigma level
means that products and processes satisfy the customer 99.99966% of the
Lower
time
Upper
Specification
Specification
Limit
Six Sigme include :
Limit
Measure of Quality

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Process of continuous improvement : DMAIC (improve existing process and
product) and DFSS (New design process & product)
Enabler for culture change.

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Quality Concepts
Balanced Scorecard
Alignmeent of the program/initiative into strategy, including alignment of programs
measurement
4 perspective : financial. Customer, internal business process, learning & growth.

ISO 9000
A framework of standard requirement that should be complied, and implemented
Close related to standard procedur

Just in Time (Strategi stok material) yaitu sumberdaya yang diperlukan sudah harus
siap pada saat diperlukan, namun untuk menghemat penggunaan dana , stok tidak perly
berlebihan, tetapi cukup menjamin tidak terganggunya proses produksi.

To decrease the amount of inventory, then decrease the investment and cost of
inventory;

Continues Improvement/Kaizen
Quality of process improves in small increments on a continuous basis.

Total Quality Management


All level in all unit responsible to the quality of the product
Companies and imployee focus on finding ways to continuously improve the
quality.
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Quality Concepts
Gold Plating
Extras services to customer (extra functionality, higher quality component, extra
sow). It is not recommended because no value added, better spend the time to
monitor the project conform to requirement.

Marginal Analysis
Optimal qulity is reached at the point where the incremental revenue from
improvement equal the increment cost to secure it.

Other Terms
Mutually exclusive

Two event cannot occur in single trial

Statistical independence

The probability of one event occuring does not affect the probability of another event
occuring

Probability

Expressed in percent

Normal distribution

Used to measure variations

Standard Deviation

To measure how far for the mean ((P O)/6


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Quality vs Grade

Quality is the degree to which a set of inherent characteristic fulfill


requirements
Grade is a category assigned to products or services having the same
functional use but different technical characteristics
LOW QUALITY is always problem, LOW GRADE is not necessary a
problem

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Cost of Quality
The total costs incurred by investment in preventing nonconformance to
requirements, appraising the product or service for conformance to
requirement (rework)
Failure cost are often categorized into internal and external. Failure cost
are also called cost of poor quality
There are three types of costs that are incurred; Prevention costs,
appraisal costs, and failure costs

Prevention cost
Appraisal cost
Internal failure cost
External failure cost
Measurement and test equipment
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Cost of Prevention & Defect


Cost of Prevention/Conformance

Education & training


Inspection and testing
Improve design for quality purposes
Quality staff
Quality audit

Cost of Defect/Nonconformance

Scrap
Rework
Repair
Replacement
Loss of future business
Legal issues
Risk to life

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Cost of Quality Before and After Quality


Initiative
% OF
TURNOVER
.

Savings

rework
Rework

Inspection

prevention
Prevention

prevention
Before

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After

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8.1 QUALITY PLANNING


Identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and
determining how to satisfy them

1. Interprise environmental
factors

1. Cost Benefit Analysis

1.Quality Management
Plan
2. Quality Metrics

2. Banchmarking
2. Organizational process
assets
3. Project scope statement

3. Quality Checklist

3. Design of Experiments
4. Cost of Quality (CoQ)

4. Project Management Plan

4. Process Improvement
plan

5. Quality Baseline

5. Additional Quality Planning


Tools
6. Project Management
Plan (updates)

INPUTS

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES


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OUTPUTS

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8.1 QUALITY PLANNING


1. Interprise environmental factors (4.1.1.3 p. 83)
Regulations, Rules, Standards, and Guidelines
specific to the application area may affect the
project.
2. Organizational Process Assets (4.1.1.4 p. 84)
Organizational Quality policies, procedures and
guidelines, historical database and Lessons learned
from previous projects specific to the application
area may affect the project.

INPUTS
Inputs
1. Interprise environmental factors
2. Organizational process assets
3. Project scope statement
4. Project Management Plan

4. Project Management
Plan (4.3 p.88)

3. Project Scope Statement (5.2.3.1 p 113) WBS is


key input to quality planning since it documents
major project deliverables, the project objective that
serve to define requirements (which were derived
from stakeholder needs, wants, and expectations),
thresholds, and acceptance criteria.
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8.1 QUALITY PLANNING

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES

1. Cost-Benefit Analysis (p.185)


Less rework, higher productifity, lower costs, and
increased stakeholder satisfaction.
Cost of meeting quality requirements is the expense
associated with Project Quality Management activities

Tools & Techniques


1. Cost Benefit Analysis
2. Banchmarking
3. Design of Experiments
4. Cost of Quality (CoQ)
5. Additional Quality Planning
Tools

2. Benchmarking (p.185)
Comparing actual or planned project practices to those of
other projects to generate ideas for improvement and to
provide a basis by which to measure performanc.

3. Design of Experiments (DOE)

(p.185)

is statistical method that helps identify which factors may


influence specific variables of a product or process under
development or in production.

4. Cost of Quality (COQ) (p. 186)


are the total costs incurred by investment in preventing
nonconformance to requirements, appraising the product
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or service for conform to requirements,


REWORK.

5. Additional Quality
Planning Tools (p.186)
Other quality planning tools
used to help better define the
situation and help plan
effective quality management
activities: (brainstorming,
affinity diagrams, force field
analysis, nominal group
techniques, matrix diagrams,
flowcharts, and prioritization
matrices.
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8.1 QUALITY PLANNING


1. Quality Management Plan (p.186)
as Inputs to the avewrall project management plan and must
address quality control (QC), Quality assurance (QA), and
continuous process improvement fot the project
QMP may be formal or informal, highly detaild or broadly framed,
based on the requirements of the project.

2. Quality Metric (p.186)


used in the QA and QC processes.
Defect density, failure rate, availability, realibility and test
coverage.

3. Quality Cheklists

(p.187)

a structured tool, usually component-specific, used to verify that a


set of required steps has been performed. (Do this) or (have
you done this?)

4. Process Improvement Plan (p. 187)


Process boundaries ( purpose, start-end, input-output,etc)
Process configuration (Flowchart-analysis)
Process metrics ( maintain control over status of process)
Target for improved performance (guides process improv)
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OUTPUTS
Outputs
1.Quality Management Plan
2. Quality Metrics
3. Quality Checklist
4. Process Improvement plan
5. Quality Baseline
6. Project Management Plan
(updates)

5. Quality Baseline (p.187)


Basis for measuring and reporting
quality performance as part of the
performance measurement
baseline.

6. Project management Plan


(updates) (p.187) updates
through the inclusion of a
subsidiary quality management
plan and process improvement
plan (4.3 p.88) Requested changes
(additions, modifications,
deletions) review and disposition
through the Integrated Change
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Control process (4.6 p.96)

Project Quality Plan (PQP)


SHOULD ADDRESS, BUT NOT LIMITTED TO:

PROJECT MANAGEMENT METHODS


ROLES & RESPONSIBILITIES
DELIVERABLES & MILESTONES
STANDARDS FOR MONITORING & CONTROL PURPOSES
PROCESS REVIEWS
MAJOR CHEKPOINTS
INPECTION & ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

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8.2 PERFORM QUALITY ASSURANCE


Applying the planned, systematic quality activities to ensure that the
project employs all processes needed to meet requirement

1.Quality Management Plan


2.Quality Metrics
3. Process Improvement Plan
4. Work Performance
Information
6. Approve Change Request
7. Quality Control Measurement
8. Implemented Change
Request
9. Implemented Defect Repair
10. Implemented Preventive
Action

INPUTS

1.Quality Planning Tools and


Techniquest
2. Quality Audits

3. Process Analysis
4. Quality Control Tools and
Techniques

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES


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1.Requested Changes

2. Recommended
Corrective Action
3. Organizational Process
Assets (updates)

4. Project Management
Plan (updates)

OUTPUTS

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8.2 PERFORM QUALITY ASSURANCE


INPUTS
1. Quality management Plan (p. 188)
How QA will be performed within the project
(8.1.3.1 p. 186)
2. Quality matrics (8.1.3.2 p. 186)
3. Process Improvement Plan (8.1.3.4 p. 187)
4. Work performance
Information (4.4.3.7 p.94 )
including technical performance
measures, project deliverable status,
required corrective actions, and
performance reports (10.3.3.1 p. 233)

5. Approved Change requests


(4.4.1.4 p.92 ) include modifications

Inputs
1.Quality Management Plan
2.Quality Metrics
3. Process Improvement Plan
4. Work Performance Information
6. Approve Change Request
7. Quality Control Measurement
8. Implemented Change Request
9. Implemented Defect Repair
10. Implemented Preventive Action

6. Quality Control measurements (8.3.3.1 p.197)


are the results of quality control activities that are fed back to
the QA process for use in re-evaluating and analyzing the
quality standards and processes of the performing
organization.

7. Implemented Change Requests (4.4.3.3 p. 93)


to work methods, product requirements,
quality requirements, scope, and
8. Implemented Corrective Actions (4.4.3.4 p. 93)
schedule. Need to be analyzed for any
affects upon the quality management
9. Implemented Defect Repair (4.4.3.6 p. 94)
plan, quality metrics, or quality
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checklists. Can be used as audits, quality Pito Sumarno
10. Implemented Preventive Actions (4.4.3.5 p. 93)
reviews, and process analyses.

8.2 PERFORM QUALITY ASSURANCE


TOOLS & TECHNIQUES
1. Quality Planning Tools and Techniques (8.1.2
p.185) can be used for QA activities
2. Quality Audit (p.189)
independent review to determine whether project activities
comply with organizational and project policies,
processes, and procedures.
Objective: to identify inefficienct and ineffective policies,
processes, and procedures in use on the project
Confirm the implementation of approved change requests,
corrective actions, defect repairs, and preventive actions.

Tools & Techniques


1.Quality Planning Tools and
Techniquest
2. Quality Audits
3. Process Analysis
4. Quality Control Tools and
Techniques

3. Process Analysis (p.189)


Examines problem experienced, constraints experienced,
and non-value added activities identified during process
operation.Include root cause analysis, a specific technique
to analyze a problem/situation, create preventive action for
similar problems.

4. Quality Control Tools and techniques


(8.3.2
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p.
192)

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8.2 PERFORM QUALITY ASSURANCE OUTPUTS


1. Requested Changes
Quality improvement include taking action to increase the
effectiveness and efficiency of the policies, processes, and
procedures of the performing organization, which should provide
added benefits to the stakeholders of all projects (4.4.3.2. p.93)

Outputs
1.Requested Changes
2. Recommended Corrective
Actions
3. Organizational Process Assets
(updates)
4. Project Management Plan
(updates)

2. Recommended Corrective Actions


Recommended immediately as a result of quality assurance
activities, such as audits and process analyses

3. Organizational process Assets (updates)


used during the Perform Quality Control process (8.3 p 190)

4. Project management Plan (updates)


(4.3 p. 88) wiil be updated from changes to the quality
management plan that result from changes to the Perform Quality
Assurance process.

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8.3 PERFORM QUALITY CONTROL


Monitoring specific project results to determine wheter they comply with
relevant quality standards and identifying ways to eliminate causes of
unsatisfactory performance

1.Quality Management Plan


2.Quality Metrics
3. Quality Checklists
4. Organizational Process
Assets
5. Work Performance
Information
6. Approved Change Requests
7. Deliverables

INPUTS

1.Cause and Effect Diagram


2.Control Chart
3. Flowcharting
4. Histogram
5. Pareto Chart
6. Run Chart
7. Scatter Diagram
8. Statistical Sampling
9. Inspection
10. Deffect Repair Review

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES


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1. Quality Control
measurement
2.Validated Deffect Repair
3. Quality Baseline
(updates)
4. Recommended
Corrective Actions
5. Recommended
Preventive Actions
6. Requested Changes
7. Recommended Deffect
Repair
8. Organizational Process
Assets (updates)
9. Validated Deliverables
10. Project Management
Plan (updates)

OUTPUTS

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8.2 PERFORM QUALITY CONTROL


INPUTS
1. Quality management Plan (p. 188)
How QA will be performed within the project
(8.1.3.1 p. 186)
2. Quality matrics (8.1.3.2 p. 186)

1. Quality Management Plan


2. Quality Metrics
3. Quality Checklists
4. Organizational Process Assets
5. Work Performance Information
6. Approved Change Requests
7. Deliverables

3. Quality Checklists (8.1.3.3 p.


187)
4. Organizationals Process Assets
(4.1.1.4 )
5. Work Performance Information (4.4.3.7).
Including technical performance measures, project
deliverables completion status, inputs to QC

6. Approved Change Requests

(4.4.1.4) include
modifications such as revised work methods and schedule.

7. Deliverables (4.4.3.1)

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8.2 PERFORM QUALITY CONTROL


TOOLS & TECHNIQUES
Tools & Techniques
1.Cause and Effect Diagram
2.Control Chart
3. Flowcharting
4. Histogram
5. Pareto Chart
6. Run Chart
7. Scatter Diagram
8. Statistical Sampling
9. Inspection
10. Deffect Repair Review

1. Cause and Effect Diagram

2. Control Charts
3. Flowcharting
4. Histogram
5. Pareto Chart
6. Run Chart
7. Scatter Diagram
8. Statistical Sampling
9. Inspection
10. Defect Repair Review

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Quality Team for a Project


Quality team in project included; senior management,
project manager, project staff, client, vendor and supplier,
subcontractor and regulatory authorities
CLIENT
.

SENIOR
MANAGEMENT

REGULATORY
AUTHORITIES

PROJECT
MANAGER
VENDOR/
SUPPLIER

PROJECT STAFF

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SUB
CONTRACTOR
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Statistical Quality Control

Method used to measure variability in a product for


evaluation and corrective actions.
When the product exceeds the bounds of acceptability
base on statistical inference the product can be rejected
with reasonable assurance that it does not meet
requirements.

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Major systems are used in statistical


quality control
Process control chart
Acceptance sampling

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Ishikawa Diagram
(Cause and Effect analysis)
TIME

MACHINE

METHOD

MAJOR
DEFECT

MATERIAL

USE :
Random Method

ENERGY

MEASUREMENT

PERSONNEL

ENVIRONMENT

Systematic Method
Process Analysis Method

POTENTIAL CAUSE

EFFECT

Always ask : Who? What? Where? When? Why? How?

MACHINE

METHOD

MATERIAL

TIME

CORRECTIVE
ACTION
USE :
Solution Analysis
Method

MEASUREMENT

PERSONNEL
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ENVIRONMENT

ENERGY
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Sample of Ishikawa Diagram


(Cause and Effect analysis)
Reason Phone Not Answered
Machinery
Audix Exists

Audix

Material
LAN Directory
not Updated
Directory
Wrong
extension
in book

Line busy
At lunch
Away from
desk
At meeting

Business
Call
Talking on
other line

Call comes
before/after
hours

Phone Not
Answered
Zero out not established
Re-direct issues
Suport Staff has Audix

People

Personal
call

Method
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Control Chart
UCL

_
X

68.26% 95.46%

99.73%

LCL
=
X

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Control Chart (in control)


UCL

_
X

LCL

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Control Chart (out of control)


UCL

_
X

LCL

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Control Chart (Hugging Control Limit)


UCL

_
X

LCL

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Control Chart (Cycle)


UCL

_
X

LCL

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Control Chart (Trend)


UCL

_
X

LCL

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What happen when we increase


the number of samples in the SPC
(Statistical Process Control)

The Upper Control Limit and Lower Control


Limit bands will be narrow

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Process Flowchart

Project
Request

Compliance
copy

Develop
Artwork
No

Vendors
makeProofs

No

Artwork out
for proofs

Change control
for specs

Artwork
Approved
Yes

No

Package
Yes
Development
review/approval

Yes
QA review/
Approval

Approved Proof
Back to vendor

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Specs signed
(package & QA

Order
Material

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Pareto Diagram (Chart) Histogram


40

100%

Percentage of Defective Cases

25%

Other

Case Wobbles

10

Axle Caulking

50%

Pressure

20

Wobble

75%

Noise

30

Improper Rotation

Number of Defective Cases

Kumulative percentage

Car Problems
Pareto Chart : concept of 80/20 rule : 80% of cost of defects is caused by 20 % of the problems.
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Concertrated on the problem s where the most benefit will result (in limited effort consideration)

41

Control Chart (Run)


UCL

_
X

LCL

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Scatter Diagram
Diagram yang menunjukkan plot data antara dua variabel yang saling
berhubungan. Sumbu X : variabel untuk membuat ramalan; Sumbu Y :
variabel untuk diramalkan.

SCATTER DIAGRAM (Low to Moderate Negative)

SCATTER DIAGRAM (Highly Negative)


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Scatter Diagram

SCATTER DIAGRAM (Highly positive)

SCATTER DIAGRAM (Zero Correlation)


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Rule of Seven
is a rule of thumb or heuristic (7 contoh ambil 1 rusak 6)

Non randdom data points grouped together in series


that total seven on one side of the mine
although the data points are inside of control limit, but it
categorize out of control and should investigated

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Acceptance Sampling
To determine whether or not the lot conform to
the specification or standards necessary to support
the overall project requirements.
Because 100 percent inspection is time
consuming and expensive and stiil may not
guarantee zero defects.
Factors must be determined prior to performing
acceptance sampling;

Sample size
Limits of defects that will cause rejection
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Quality Responsibility
Decision as to the type and amount of work to be accomplished in
any project organization is the responsibility of management,
while performing it is the responsibility of the team member.
The primary responsibility for quality rest with the management in a
company.

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8.2 PERFORM QUALITY CONTROL


1. Quality Control Measurements
represent the results of QC activities that are feed back to QA (8.2)
to reevaluate and analyze the quality standards and processes of the
performing organization.

2. Validated Defect repair


Reinspected and will be either accepted or rejected before
notivication of the decision is provided (4.4) Rejected items may
be require further defect repair.

3. Quality Baseline (updates) (8.1.3.5)


4. Recommended Corrective Actions

OUTPUTS

1. Quality Control measurement


2.Validated Deffect Repair
3. Quality Baseline (updates)
4. Recommended Corrective
Actions
5. Recommended Preventive
Actions
6. Requested Changes
7. Recommended Deffect Repair
8. Organizational Process Assets
(updates)
9. Validated Deliverables
10. Project Management Plan
(updates)

(4.5.3.1) action taken as a result of a QC measurement that


indicates that the manufacturing or development process exceeds
established parameters.

5. Recommended Preventive Actions


(4.5.3.2) action taken to forestall a condition that may exceed
established parameters in manufacturing or development process,
which may have been indicated through a QC measurement.
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8.2 PERFORM QUALITY CONTROL


6. Requested Changes
if the recommended corrective or preventive actions require a
change to the project, a change request (4.4.3.2) should be initiated
in accordance with the define Integrated Change Control process.

7. Recommended defect reapair


Defect is where a component does not meet its requirements or
specifications, and needs to be repaired or replaced.

8. Organization Process Assets (updates)


Completed cheklists. (4.1.1.4)
Lessons Learned Documentation (causes of variances, should be
documented so that they become part of the historical database for
both this project and the performaing organization.(4.1.1.4)

OUTPUTS

1. Quality Control measurement


2.Validated Deffect Repair
3. Quality Baseline (updates)
4. Recommended Corrective
Actions
5. Recommended Preventive
Actions
6. Requested Changes
7. Recommended Deffect Repair
8. Organizational Process Assets
(updates)
9. Validated Deliverables
10. Project Management Plan
(updates)

9. Validated Deliverables
a goal of quality control is to determine the correcness of
deliverables. The results of the execution quality control processes
are validfated deliverables

10. Project Management Plan (updates)


updated to reflect changes to the quality management plan that
Sumarno
result from changes in performing the QCPito
process.
(4.6)

49

Area of Feasible solutions for Quality Work

JOB PERFORMANCE TEAM MEMBER


WRONG
WORK TO BE
ACCOMPLISHED
(MANAGERS
DECISION)

RIGHT

RIGHT

Right-Wrong

Right-Right

WRONG

Wrong-Wrong

Wrong-Right

Pito Sumarno

50

PROJECT QUALITY MANAGEMENT

Thank you
Pito Sumarno

51