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Hydrodynamic Design of Francis Turbine

Runner

P M V Subbarao
Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department

Provision of Features to Efficient & Benign


Muscle.

Environment Friendly Runner


The issue of safe fish passage dominating the decision of
whether a new generation turbine design concept is
environmentally friendly.
Fish passage is an important issue to many hydroelectric
plants operations.
Biological design criteria are needed to assist in establishing
allowable limits of hydraulic parameters that may contribute to
fish mortality and plant operation.
Injury and mortality mechanisms are dependent on the zone
which the fish takes to pass through the turbine system.
At Wanapum Dam in Washington, fish that passed through a
zone near the turbine hub experienced 5% higher mortality than
fish that passed through the zone in the middle of the runner.

Injuries caused by pressure appear to be related to the


difference between the acclimation pressure upstream of
the turbine and the exit pressure within the draft tube zone.
A threshold value of the shear stress indicator was
identified as 135 m/s/m.
Values above this rate are believed to cause mortality .
Turbines can be designed to operate cavitation free while
increasing power production. Proper turbine operation at
cavitation-free conditions will reduce maintenance costs
and fish mortality that is believed to be related to
cavitation.
Tests at Wanapum Dam showed that peak fish survival did
not coincide with peak efficiency

Fish Injury Mechanisms

Fish Friendly Runner

Shape of Francis Channel : Meridional Plan


Rr1i

Rr1e
Rr2i

L/Dri
R
r2e

Real values of Radii


The real value of the outlet tip radius R
r 2e

The real value of the intlet root radius

0.24 2e 0.28

Rr1i


2 e
2 gH


2
h1i

1.65 h1i 1.8

Rr2e and Rr1i are only fix two points of the leading and trailing
edges and the rest of these curves should be drawn to lead to
better efficiency of runner.

Determination of Inlet & exit edges runner


The form of these edges is two
parabolic curves.

1i
1e

Define the non-dimensional


specific speed
N s ND

2i
2e

2N
0.75
602 gH

For
0.088 N s ND 0.275

the leading edge form is a parabolic arc


with the peak in the point by radius of
2.Rr1i-Rr2iwhich passes through the
points 1i and 2i,

1i
and for specific speeds between

1e
2i

0.275 N s ND 0.89

its form is also a parabolic arc but with


the minimum point in the 1i
and the axis is parallel to runner axis.

2e
In the exit area, trailing edge is a parabolic
curve which has a minimum point in 1e and
also passes through a point such as 2i with a
radius of Rr1i/3.

Dimensions of Runner Channel : Meridional Plan


Rr1i

Rr1e
Rr2i

r2e

L/Dri

The BOVET well known


relations give the
geometry of hub and
shroud curves in the
runner blade zone.
The form of limit curves
is defined by equation:

R
z z z
3.081 1
Rm
L L L

Location of Runner Vane in Runner Channel

Variation of Flow Velocity

Vf

Perpendicular Plan : Conservation of Rothalpy