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BIOLOGY

CONCEPTS & CONNECTIONS


Fourth Edition

Neil A. Campbell Jane B. Reece Lawrence G. Mitchell Martha R. Taylor

CHAPTER 8
The Cellular Basis of
Reproduction and Inheritance
Modules 8.1 8.3
From PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts & Connections
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

How to Make a Sea Star With and Without Sex


The life cycle of a multicellular
organism includes
development
reproduction

This sea star embryo (morula) shows one stage


in the development of a fertilized egg
The cluster of cells will continue to divide as
development proceeds
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Some organisms can also reproduce asexually


This sea star is regenerating a lost arm
Regeneration results from repeated cell
divisions

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

CONNECTIONS BETWEEN CELL DIVISION


AND REPRODUCTION
Cell division is at the heart of the reproduction
of cells and organisms
Organisms can reproduce sexually or asexually

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

8.1 Like begets like, more or less


Some organisms make exact copies of
themselves, asexual reproduction

Figure 8.1A
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Other organisms make similar copies of


themselves in a more complex process, sexual
reproduction

Figure 8.1B
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

8.2 Cells arise only from preexisting cells


All cells come from cells

Cellular reproduction is called cell division


Cell division allows an embryo to develop into an
adult
It also ensures the continuity of life from one
generation to the next

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

8.3 Prokaryotes reproduce by binary fission


Prokaryotic cells divide asexually
These cells possess a single chromosome, containing
genes
The chromosome is replicated
The cell then divides into two cells, a process called
binary fission
Prokaryotic chromosomes

Figure 8.3B
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Binary fission of a prokaryotic cell


Plasma
membrane

Prokaryotic
chromosome

Cell wall
Duplication of chromosome
and separation of copies

Continued growth of the cell


and movement of copies

Division into
two cells

Figure 8.3A
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

BIOLOGY
CONCEPTS & CONNECTIONS
Fourth Edition

Neil A. Campbell Jane B. Reece Lawrence G. Mitchell Martha R. Taylor

CHAPTER 8
The Cellular Basis of
Reproduction and Inheritance
Modules 8.4 8.11
From PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts & Connections
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

THE EUKARYOTIC CELL CYCLE AND


MITOSIS
8.4 The large, complex chromosomes of eukaryotes
duplicate with each cell division
A eukaryotic cell has many more genes than a
prokaryotic cell
The genes are grouped into
multiple chromosomes,
found in the nucleus

The chromosomes of this


plant cell are stained
dark purple
Figure 8.4A
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Chromosomes contain a very long DNA


molecule with thousands of genes
Individual chromosomes are only visible
during cell division

They are packaged as chromatin

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Before a cell starts


dividing, the
chromosomes are
duplicated
This process
produces sister
chromatids

Sister chromatids

Centromere

Figure 8.4B
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

When the cell


divides, the sister
chromatids separate
Chromosome
duplication

Two daughter
cells are produced
Each has a
complete and
identical set of
chromosomes

Sister
chromatids

Centromere

Chromosome
distribution
to
daughter
cells
Figure 8.4C
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

8.5 The cell cycle multiplies cells


The cell cycle consists of two major phases:
Interphase, where chromosomes duplicate
and cell parts
are made
The mitotic
phase, when
cell division
occurs

Figure 8.5
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8.6 Cell division is a continuum of dynamic


changes
Eukaryotic cell division consists of two stages:
Mitosis
Cytokinesis

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In mitosis, the duplicated chromosomes are


distributed into two daughter nuclei
After the chromosomes coil up, a mitotic spindle
moves them to the middle of the cell

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INTERPHASE

PROPHASE

Centrosomes
(with centriole pairs)

Early mitotic
spindle

Centrosome

Chromatin

Nucleolus Nuclear
envelope

Plasma
membrane

Chromosome,
consisting of two
sister chromatids

Figure 8.6
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Fragments
of nuclear
envelope

Centrosome

Kinetochore

Spindle
microtubules

The sister chromatids then separate and move


to opposite poles of the cell
The process of cytokinesis divides the cell into
two genetically identical cells

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

METAPHASE

ANAPHASE

Cleavage
furrow

Metaphase
plate

Spindle

TELOPHASE AND CYTOKINESIS

Daughter
chromosomes

Figure 8.6 (continued)


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Nuclear
envelope
forming

Nucleolus
forming

8.7 Cytokinesis differs for plant and animal cells


In animals, cytokinesis
occurs by cleavage
Cleavage
furrow

This process pinches


the cell apart

Cleavage
furrow

Figure 8.7A
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Contracting ring of
microfilaments

Daughter cells

In plants, a
membranous cell
plate splits the cell in
two

Cell plate
forming

Wall of
parent cell

Cell wall

Figure 8.7B
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Vesicles containing
cell wall material

Daughter
nucleus

New cell wall

Cell plate

Daughter
cells

8.8 Anchorage, cell density, and chemical growth


factors affect cell division
Most animal cells divide only when stimulated,
and others not at all
In laboratory cultures, most normal cells divide
only when attached to a surface
They are anchorage dependent

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Cells continue dividing until they touch one


another
This is called density-dependent inhibition
Cells anchor to dish surface and
divide.

When cells have formed a


complete single layer, they stop
dividing (density-dependent
inhibition).

If some cells are scraped away,


the remaining cells divide to fill
the dish with a single layer and
then stop (density-dependent
inhibition).
Figure 8.8A
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Growth factors are proteins secreted by cells


that stimulate other cells to divide

After forming a single layer, cells


have stopped dividing.

Providing an additional supply of


growth factors stimulates further
cell division.

Figure 8.8B
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

8.9 Growth factors signal the cell cycle control


system
Proteins within the cell control the cell cycle
Signals affecting critical checkpoints determine
whether the cell will go through a complete cycle
and divide
G1 checkpoint

Control
system

M checkpoint

G2 checkpoint

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 8.9A

The binding of growth factors to specific


receptors on the plasma membrane is usually
necessary for cell division
Growth factor
Plasma membrane

Receptor
protein

Relay
proteins

Signal
transduction
pathway

Figure 8.8B
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

G1 checkpoint

Cell cycle
control
system

8.10 Connection: Growing out of control, cancer


cells produce malignant tumors
Cancer cells have abnormal cell cycles
They divide excessively and can form abnormal
masses called tumors

Radiation and chemotherapy are effective as


cancer treatments because they interfere with
cell division

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Malignant tumors can invade other tissues and


may kill the organism

Lymph
vessels
Tumor

Glandular
tissue
Metastasis
1

A tumor grows
from a single
cancer cell.

Cancer cells invade


neighboring tissue.

Figure 8.10
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Cancer cells spread


through lymph and
blood vessels to other
parts of the body.

8.11 Review of the functions of mitosis: Growth,


cell replacement, and asexual reproduction
When the cell cycle operates normally, mitotic
cell division functions in:
Growth (seen here in an onion root)

Figure 8.11A
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Cell replacement (seen here in skin)

Dead
cells

Epidermis,
the outer
layer of the
skin

Dividing
cells
Dermis
Figure 8.11B
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Asexual reproduction (seen here in a hydra)

Figure 8.11C
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

BIOLOGY
CONCEPTS & CONNECTIONS
Fourth Edition

Neil A. Campbell Jane B. Reece Lawrence G. Mitchell Martha R. Taylor

CHAPTER 8
The Cellular Basis of
Reproduction and Inheritance
Modules 8.12 8.18
From PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts & Connections
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

MEIOSIS AND CROSSING OVER


8.12 Chromosomes are matched in homologous
pairs

Somatic cells of each


species contain a
specific number of
chromosomes

Chromosomes

Centromere

Human cells have


46, making up 23
pairs of homologous
chromosomes
Sister chromatids
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 8.12

8.13 Gametes have a single set of chromosomes


Cells with two sets of chromosomes are said to
be diploid
Gametes are haploid, with only one set of
chromosomes

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

At fertilization, a sperm fuses with an egg,


forming a diploid zygote
Repeated mitotic divisions lead to the
development of a mature adult
The adult makes haploid gametes by meiosis
All of these processes make up the sexual life
cycle of organisms

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The human
life cycle

Haploid gametes (n = 23)

Egg cell

Sperm cell
MEIOSIS

FERTILIZATION

Diploid
zygote
(2n = 46)
Multicellular
diploid adults
(2n = 46)

Mitosis and
development
Figure 8.13
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

8.14 Meiosis reduces the chromosome number


from diploid to haploid
Meiosis, like mitosis, is preceded by
chromosome duplication
However, in meiosis the cell divides twice to
form four daughter cells

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

In the first division, meiosis I, homologous


chromosomes are paired
While they are paired, they cross over and
exchange genetic information
The homologous pairs are then separated, and
two daughter cells are produced

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

MEIOSIS I: Homologous chromosomes separate


INTERPHASE
Centrosomes
(with
centriole
pairs)

Nuclear
envelope

PROPHASE I

METAPHASE I

Microtubules
attached to
Spindle kinetochore

Sites of crossing over

Chromatin

Sister
chromatids

Tetrad

Figure 8.14, part 1


Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Metaphase
plate

Centromere
(with kinetochore)

ANAPHASE I
Sister chromatids
remain attached

Homologous
chromosomes separate

Meiosis II is essentially the same as mitosis


The sister chromatids of each chromosome
separate

The result is four haploid daughter cells

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

MEIOSIS II: Sister chromatids separate


TELOPHASE I
AND CYTOKINESIS

PROPHASE II

METAPHASE II

ANAPHASE II

TELOPHASE II
AND CYTOKINESIS

Cleavage
furrow

Sister
chromatids
separate

Figure 8.14, part 2


Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Haploid
daughter cells
forming

8.15 Review: A comparison of mitosis and meiosis


For both processes, chromosomes replicate only
once, during interphase

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

MITOSIS

MEIOSIS
PARENT CELL
(before chromosome replication)

Site of
crossing over

PROPHASE I
Tetrad formed
by synapsis of
homologous
chromosomes

PROPHASE
Duplicated
chromosome
(two sister chromatids)

METAPHASE

ANAPHASE
TELOPHASE

2n

Chromosome
replication

Chromosome
replication
2n = 4

Chromosomes
align at the
metaphase plate

Tetrads
align at the
metaphase plate

Sister chromatids
separate during
anaphase

Homologous
chromosomes
separate
during
anaphase I;
sister
chromatids
remain together

2n

Daughter cells
of mitosis

Figure 8.15
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

MEIOSIS I

METAPHASE I

ANAPHASE I
TELOPHASE I

Haploid
n=2
Daughter
cells of
meiosis I

No further
MEIOSIS II
chromosomal
replication; sister
chromatids
separate during
anaphase II
n
n
n
n
Daughter cells of meiosis II

8.16 Independent orientation of chromosomes in


meiosis and random fertilization lead to
varied offspring

Each chromosome of a homologous pair comes


from a different parent
Each chromosome thus differs at many points
from the other member of the pair

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The large number of possible arrangements of


chromosome pairs at metaphase I of meiosis
leads to many different combinations of
chromosomes in gametes
Random fertilization also increases variation in
offspring

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

POSSIBILITY 1

POSSIBILITY 2

Two equally probable


arrangements of
chromosomes at
metaphase I

Metaphase II

Gametes

Combination 1

Combination 2

Figure 8.16
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Combination 3

Combination 4

8.17 Homologous chromosomes carry different


versions of genes
The differences between homologous
chromosomes are based on the fact that they
can carry different versions of a gene at
corresponding loci

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Coat-color genes

Eye-color genes

Brown

Black

White

Pink

Tetrad in parent cell


(homologous pair of
duplicated chromosomes)

Figure 8.17A, B
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Chromosomes of
the four gametes

8.18 Crossing over further increases genetic


variability
Crossing over is the exchange of corresponding
segments between two homologous
chromosomes
Genetic recombination results from crossing
over during prophase I of meiosis
This increases variation further

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Tetrad

Chaisma

Centromere

Figure 8.18A
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Coat-color
genes

How crossing over


leads to genetic
recombination

Eye-color
genes
Tetrad
(homologous pair of
chromosomes in synapsis)

Breakage of homologous chromatids

Joining of homologous chromatids

Chiasma

Separation of homologous
chromosomes at anaphase I

Separation of chromatids at
anaphase II and completion of meiosis
Parental type of chromosome
Recombinant chromosome
Recombinant chromosome
Parental type of chromosome

Figure 8.18B
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Gametes of four genetic types

BIOLOGY
CONCEPTS & CONNECTIONS
Fourth Edition

Neil A. Campbell Jane B. Reece Lawrence G. Mitchell Martha R. Taylor

CHAPTER 8
The Cellular Basis of
Reproduction and Inheritance
Modules 8.19 8.23
From PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts & Connections
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

ALTERATIONS OF CHROMOSOME NUMBER


AND STRUCTURE
8.19 A karyotype is a photographic inventory of an
individuals chromosomes
To study human chromosomes
microscopically, researchers stain and display
them as a karyotype
A karyotype usually shows 22 pairs of
autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Preparation of a karyotype
Blood
culture

Packed red
And white
blood cells

Hypotonic solution

Stain
White
Blood
cells

Centrifuge

2
1

Fixative

Fluid

Centromere

Sister
chromatids
Pair of homologous
chromosomes

4
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 8.19

8.20 Connection: An extra copy of chromosome 21


causes Down syndrome
This karyotype shows three number 21
chromosomes
An extra copy of chromosome 21 causes Down
syndrome

Figure 8.20A, B
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The chance of having a Down syndrome child


goes up with maternal age

Figure 8.20C
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

8.21 Accidents during meiosis can alter


chromosome number
Abnormal
chromosome count
is a result of
nondisjunction
Either
homologous
pairs fail to
separate
during
meiosis I

Nondisjunction
in meiosis I

Normal
meiosis II

Gametes
n+1

n+1

n1

n1

Number of chromosomes
Figure 8.21A
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Or sister chromatids fail to separate during


meiosis II

Normal
meiosis I

Nondisjunction
in meiosis II

Gametes
n1

n+1

Number of chromosomes
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

n
Figure 8.21B

Fertilization after nondisjunction in the mother


results in a zygote with an extra chromosome

Egg
cell

n+1

Zygote
2n + 1

Sperm
cell
n (normal)

Figure 8.21C
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

8.22 Connection: Abnormal numbers of sex


chromosomes do not usually affect survival
Nondisjunction can also produce gametes with
extra or missing sex chromosomes
Unusual numbers of sex chromosomes upset the
genetic balance less than an unusual number of
autosomes

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Table 8.22
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

A man with Klinefelter syndrome has an extra


X chromosome
Poor beard
growth
Breast
development

Underdeveloped
testes

Figure 8.22A
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

A woman with Turner syndrome lacks an X


chromosome
Characteristic
facial
features
Web of
skin
Constriction
of aorta

Poor
breast
development

Underdeveloped
ovaries

Figure 8.22B
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

8.23 Connection: Alterations of chromosome


structure can cause birth defects and cancer
Chromosome breakage can lead to
rearrangements that can produce genetic
disorders or cancer
Four types of rearrangement are deletion,
duplication, inversion, and translocation

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Deletion

Duplication
Homologous
chromosomes
Inversion

Reciprocal
translocation

Nonhomologous
chromosomes
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 8.23A, B

Chromosomal changes in a somatic cell can


cause cancer
A chromosomal translocation in the bone
marrow is associated with chronic myelogenous
leukemia
Chromosome 9

Chromosome 22

Reciprocal
translocation

Philadelphia chromosome
Activated cancer-causing gene
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 8.23C

BIOLOGY
CONCEPTS & CONNECTIONS
Fourth Edition

Neil A. Campbell Jane B. Reece Lawrence G. Mitchell Martha R. Taylor

CHAPTER 8
Extra Photographs

From PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts & Connections


Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Sea urchin development

Figure 8.0x
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

E. coli dividing

Figure 8.3x
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Cell cycle collage

Figure 8.5x
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Mitosis collage, light micrographs

Figure 8.6x1
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Mitotic spindle

Figure 8.6x2
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Fibroblast growth

Figure 8.8x
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Breast cancer cell

Figure 8.10x1
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Mammograms

Figure 8.10x2
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Human female bands

Figure 8.19x1
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Human female karyotype

Figure 8.19x2
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Human male bands

Figure 8.19x3
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Human male karyotype

Figure 8.19x4
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Down syndrome karyotype

Figure 8.20Ax
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Klinefelters karyotype

Figure 8.22Ax
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

XYY karyotype

Figure 8.22x
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Translocation

Figure 8.23Bx
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings