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A.

Cacbon monooxit
I. Tnh cht vt l
L cht kh, khng mu,
khng mi, khng v
Nh hn khng kh
Rt t tan trong nc
Ho lng -1950C, ho
rn -205,50C
Rt c

M hnh phn t
CO

II. Tnh cht ho hc


1.Cacbon monooxit l oxit khng to
mui ( oxit trung tnh)
CO
l
oxit
axit
hay
CO khng tc dng vi nc, axit v dung
baz
dch kim oxit
iu
kin? thng

2. Tnh kh
-Tc dng vi O2:
+2

+4 -2

2 CO + O2
to

CO2

-Tc dng vi oxit kim loi


+3

+2

2 Fe2O3 + 3 CO
to

Kt lun:

+4

2 Fe + 3 CO2

* CO l oxit trung tnh

* CO c tnh kh

III. iu ch
1. Trong phng th nghim:
HCOOH

H 2 SO4 ,t 0

CO

2. Trong cng nghip:

* Cho hi nc qua than nung


10500 C

C + H2O
CO +
H2

H2O

* T C, khng kh
C + O2

CO2
t0

CO2 + C
2CO
t0

B. Cacbon ioxit
I.Tnh cht vt l
*L cht kh khng mu, nng gp
1,5 ln khng kh
*Tan khng nhiu trong nc

* CO2 ho lng di p sut 60atm


nht thng

II. Tnh cht ho hc


*Cu to phn t:
CO2 c tnh
cht ho hc
ging CO
khng ?

1.CO2 l oxit axit: Khi tan vo nc to axit


cacbonic
CO2 (k) + H2O(l)

H2CO3 (dd)

2. CO2 khng chy, khng duy tr s chy


ca nhiu cht => dng CO2 dp tt cc
m chy
Tuy nhin mt s kim loi mnh (Mg, Al)
vn tip tc chy trong kh CO2 => khng
dng0 CO2+4 dp tt cc
m
chy

+2
0
t0
2 MgO + C
2 Mg + CO2
V d:

Kt lun : *CO2 l oxit axit


*CO2 c tnh oxi ho

yu

III. iu ch
1. Trong phng th
nghim
2HCl + CaCO3
CO
2 + CaCl2 +
H2.
2OTrong cng nghip
CO2 c thu hi t qu trnh t chy
nhin liu ( than, kh thin nhin, du
m)

CO2 c nh hng nh
th no n mi trng sng ?

CO2 l kh gy nn hiu ng nh
knh

C. Axit cacbonic
v mui
cacbonat

I. Axit cacbonic: H2CO3


* L axit rt km bn, ch tn ti trong
dung dch long, d b phn hu thnh
Em
bit2 g
v
*
L
axit
rt
yu,
nc
CO2, H2O
axit
cacbonic?
H2CO3
H+ + HCO3HCO3H+ + CO32*H2CO3 to ra 2 loi mui
NaOH + H2O + CO2
NaHCO3 +
H2O + H2O + CO2
2NaOH
Na2CO3 +
2H2O

II. Mui cacbonat


1. Tnh cht
a.Tnh tan:
Mui cacbonat ca kim loi kim,
amoni v a s mui hiro
cacbonat d tan. Mui cacbonat
ca kim loi khc khng tan trong nc.
b. Tc dng vi axit:

Nhn xt
Mui cacbonat (k c mui khng tan
trong nc), mui hiro cacbonat u tc
dung vi axit mnh hn axit H2CO3 gii
phng CO2
V d:
CaCO3 + 2HCl
CO2
NaHCO3 + HCl
CO2

CaCl2 + H2O +
NaCl + H2O +

c. Tc dng vi dung dch kim


Mui hiro cacbonat tc dng d dng
vi dung dch kim
V d: NaHCO3 + NaOH
H 2O
HCO3- + OH-

Na2CO3 +
CO32- + H2O

d. Phn ng nhit phn


*Mui cacbonat trung ho ca kim loi kim
bn vi nhit. Mui cacbonat trung ho ca
kim loi khc, mui hiro cacbonat b nhit
t
phn
huCaCO
V d:
CaO +

3 (r)

CO2(k)

(r)

2. ng dng

vi(CaCO3)
dng sn
xut xi mng

Na2CO3
dng
trong sn
xut
thu tinh,
gm

Bi tp:
1.Khi un nng dung dch
canxihirocacbonat th c kt ta xut
hin. Tng cc h s t lng trong phng
trnh ho hc ca phn ng l
A.
A. 4
B. 5
C. 6
D. 7

2. Cho 2,24 lt CO2 (ktc) hp th ht trong


100ml dung dch NaOH 1,50M. Dung dch
thu c sau phn ng c
A. Na2CO3
B. NaHCO3
C. Na22CO33 v NaHCO33
D.Na2CO3 v NaOH d

Bi tp v nh
Lm cc bi tp 1,2,3,4,6 sch gio
khoa
Nghin cu bi: Silic v hp cht ca
silic

Chc cc em hc tp tt