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PERCEPTION

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What do you find in the picture?

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What do you find in the picture?

Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000


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What do you find in the picture?

Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000


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 Introduction of Perception:
 Perception involves the way we view the

world around us.


 It adds meaning to information gathered via

the five senses of touch, smell, hearing,


vision and taste.
 Perception is the primary vehicle through

which we come to understand our


surroundings and ourselves.

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 Definition of Perception:
 Perception can be defined as a process by

which individual organize and interpret their


sensory impressions in order to give
meaning to their environment.

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 Process of Perception:

 Perceiver

 Receiving Selecting Organizing



Reacting Checking Interpreting

 Situation

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 Factors that influence Perception Factors in the perceiver


Attitudes

Motives
 Interests
Experience

Expectations


Factors in the Situation
 Time
Work Setting
Perception

Social Setting

Factors in the target


Novelty
Motion
Sounds
Size
Background
Proximity
Similarity
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BARRIERS TO PERCEPTION:

 Selective Perception: People selectively

interpret what they see on the basis of


their interests, background, experience,
and attitudes.
uHalo effect
uContrast Effects
uProjection
uStereotyping

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uHalo effect : Drawing a general


impression about an individual on the
basis of a single characteristics.
uExample: An instructor may be quiet,
assured, knowledgeable, and highly
qualified, but if his style lacks zeal, the
students would probably give him a low
ranking.
u The reality of the halo effect was confirmed by
giving various traits like intelligent, skillful,
practical and were asked to evaluate the
person to whom those traits applied. The
person was judged as wise, humorous,
popular etc.
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uContrast Effects : Evaluation of a


person’s characteristics that are
affected by comparisons with other
people recently encountered who rank
higher or lower on the same
characteristics.
uExample: A candidate is likely to receive
a more favorable evaluation if
preceded by mediocre applicants and
a less favorable if preceded by strong
applicants.

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uProjection : Attributing one’s own


characteristics to other people.
uExample: People who engage in
projection tend to perceive others
according to what they themselves are
like rather than according to what the
person being observed is really like.

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uStereotyping : Judging someone on the


group of one’s perception of the group
to which that person belongs.
uExample: All Muslims are not terrorists.

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 Basic Factors Affecting Perception :


uOur Mental set
uFirst Impression
uPast Experiences
uExpectations
uSocial and Psychological Needs
uStatus and Group Factors
uInterest
uMood

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 Special Factors Affecting Perception :


uExternal Factors:
lNature
lLocation
lIntensity
lSize
lContrast
lMovement
lRepetition
lFamiliarity and Novelty

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 Special Factors Affecting Perception :


uInternal Factors:
lPersonality
lLearning

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 Perceptions and its application in


organization :
uEmployment Interview
uPerformance Evaluation
uPerformance Expectations
uEmployee Loyalty

Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000