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PHILOSOPHICAL

APPROACH

NOORASMA BINTI AHMAD


(MD1405MD0008)
HASYUZAINI BINTI CHE HASSAN
(MD1405MD0015)
NORHANIZA BINTI GHAZALI
(MD1405MD0017)
NUR NAJWA BINTI HASRUDIN
(MD1405MD0016)

Beliefs
World view
School of thought

Perennialism
Essentialism

Progressivism
Reconstructionism

a.

the schools purpose

b.

whats subject are of value


how students learn
the process of teaching

c.
d.

* Nature and human nature in particular remains the same throughout history.
* Education develops a persons rationality.
* Nurture of the intellect is essential role of the school.
* Teachers are task masters, presenting knowledge and setting the rules.
* Classical thought is emphasized through the study of history, language, literature,
humanities, science, & arts.
* View of knowledge and culture criticized because contributions are dead, white,
male writers and thinkers.
* Paideia Proposal - All men should seek a state of human excellence, enlightenment,
goodness.
*All children should have classical education that is rigorous, demanding, & disciplined

Value traditional education that conserves the wisdom of the past.

Passes on the next generation the accumulated wisdom of the past.

Cultivates rational powers through contact with the cultures best.

Values and imitates cultures of the past.

Student is there to learn what is taught.

Curriculum is based on materials reflecting universal and recurring


themes that cultivaterationality and deductive thinking.

Studies the classics of Western culture.

Idealism - Learn the essential ideas and knowledge needed to live well.
Realism - Mind learns through contact with the physical world.
Essential skills and practical knowledge needs to be learned.
Value the past but not captured by it as in perennialism.
Schools should focus on the basics or established disciplines - the 3Ms.
(Membaca , Menulis, Mengira)

John Dewey - Father of Progressivism.


Philosophy and Education are identical, both involving the practical,
experimental attempt to improve the human condition.

Major impact on the concept of the democratic American education


ideal.

Views the mind as a problem solver.

People are naturally exploring, inquiring entities and learn through direct
experience.

Student must master the scientific method.

Value of knowledge resides in the ability to solve human problems.

Subject matter provides information and methodologies for finding


solutions.

The teacher is an intellectual guide or facilitator in the problem solving


process.

School is a democratic society in itself, preparing students for community


life.

This curriculum is cutting edge information needed to correct


current societal problems and build a new society. To make a better
world, and prepare for the future.
Reconstructionist insists on promoting character education by
making group decisions in the light of the consequences of those
decisions.
They prefer the group problem-solving-project methodology.
People are responsible for social conditions and can improve the
quality of human life by changing the social order.
Society is in need of constant reconstruction. Such social change
involves both reconstruction of education and the use of education
in reconstructing the society.
It does not really seek to find a new system of education, but one
that worked well in the past.
School is a platform to build a new society , teacher is an agents of
change and students have the courage to try and be active.

Index

Philosophical Approach

What Subject Are of Value

(a)

(b)

(c)

1.

PERENNIALISM
Teachers are task
masters, presenting
knowledge and setting
the rules.
Classical thought is
emphasized through the
study of history,
language, literature,
humanities, science, &
arts.
All children should have
classical education that is
rigorous, demanding, &
disciplined.

Curriculum is based on materials


reflecting universal and recurring
themes that cultivaterationality and
deductive thinking.
GOALS OF EDUCATION: Teach
knowledge and universal values
which are everlasting.

Subject recommended: literature,


mathematics, science, language
and art

Index

Philosophical Approach

What Subject Are of Value

(a)

(b)

(c)

2.

ESSENTIALISM

GOALS OF EDUCATION:

An educational philosophy suggesting


that there is a critical core
of information that all people should
possess.

Teach knowledge and


basic culture

Back to the basic skills and academic


subjects. Students should be able to
master these subjects.
Criticize interdisciplinary teaching.

Teaching of essential facts


and concepts on Science,
Literature, Health and P.E.;
Hard Sciences, technical
and vocational courses.
Curriculum :
Basic skills (reading,
writing, arithmetic)
Compulsory subject like:
Science, History, Art and
Music whilst Literature and
Humanities are optional.

Inde
x

Philosophical Approach

What Subject Are of Value

(a)

(b)

(c)

3.

PROGRESSIVISM
People are naturally exploring,
inquiring entities and learn through
direct experience.
The teacher is an intellectual guide
or facilitator in the problem solving
process.
Education which aims to give
children the freedom to develop
naturally in a democratic
environment.

GOALS OF EDUCATION
produce individuals who
are ready to face changes
in their daily lives.
Curriculum : Choice
of subjects
according to individual
interest

Index

Philosophical Approach

What Subject Are


of Value

(a)

(b)

(c)

4.

RECONSTRUCTIONISM
This curriculum is cutting edge information
needed to correct current societal problems
and build a new society. To make a better
world, and prepare for the future.
Reconstructionist insists on promoting
character education by making group
decisions in the light of the consequences of
those decisions.
Society is in need of constant reconstruction.
Such social change involves both
reconstruction of education and the use of
education in reconstructing the society.
It does not really seek to find a new system of
education, but one that worked well in the
past.

Curriculum :
Social science
subjects

CONSTRUCTIVISME
PARENTIALISME

ESENSIALISME
PROGRESSIVSME

Reconstructivism is theory of knowledge that argues


that human generate knowledge and meaning from
interaction between their experiences and their own
idea. (Critical thinking)

Pupils are taught problem solving skills through


activities, brainstorming, role plays and stimulation.
Reconstructivist learners have the courage to try and to
be active, creative and innovative.
Reconstructivist learners can give new information &
logical idea based on the question.

Parenialisme born as reaction to progressive education. They


oppose the view progressivisme emphasizing change and
something new. Parenialisme look into the world situation
these days the full of chaos, uncertainty, and irregularity,
especially in moral life, intellectual and social culture.
Therefore need there the effort to pacify the not all right
that is by way of using to return the values or public
principles which have come to the firm life view, strength
and tested.
Passive recipients of knowledge. They responsible to work
hard in order to gain as much knowledge as they can.
Have to complete all the assignment given by the teacher.

Essentialism learner is a passive recipient of knowledge:


a) the role of the student is that of the listener and the
learner.
b) the individual childs interest, motivations &
psychological states are not importance.
c) subjects should tress usefulness and work should be
task oriented and disciplined.
d) student learn using textbook.

Essentialism learner is said to be both practical and


pragmatic.
Mind learns through contact with the physical world.

Progressivism Learner are naturally exploring,


inquiring entities and learn through direct experience
and student must master the scientific method.
Two main approaches of Progressive Learner which is :
- CHILD CENTERED
- SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTIONISM
Student are active seekers of knowledge. Student be
given the freedom to choose the subject they want to
study that will ensure they study according to their
personal interest.

Reconstructionist insists on
promoting character
education by making
group decisions in the light
of the consequences of
those decisions.
Should be courage enough to try out new things and
willing to change their existing paradigms.

Reconstructivism learning has


had wide ranging impact on
learning theory and teaching
methods in education.

BIL

PHILOSOPHICAL
APPROACH

TEACHING AND LEARNING PROCESS (METHODS AND


MATERIALS)

(a)

(b)

(c)

1.

Perennialsm

Teacher centered (teacher gave lecture)


Teaching method : Didactic (no question asked)
Recitation / drill method
Students repeat what teacher taught
Dont use any demonstration
Students as passive learner.
Use essay and objective written examination.

2.

Essentialism

Teacher
as
the
most
important,
most
knowledgeable in the classroom
Teacher have skilled dissemination of knowledge.
Pupils are passive recipient of knowledge.
Lecture method ( used to describe, define, explain,
analyze, provoke, inquire)
Rely heavily upon textbook.

BIL

PHILOSOPHICAL
APPROACH

TEACHING AND LEARNING PROCESS (METHODS AND


MATERIALS)

(a)

(b)

(c)

Progressivism

Teacher does not view himself as subject matter


expert
Use no lecture, recitation or demonstration
Teaching method : Inductive
Pupil as active seeker of knowledge
Favor problem-solving method or project method
(hands on)
Does not rely too much on text book, but use variety
of materials.
Used interdisciplinary curriculum
Teacher evaluate students by reports and project.

3.

BIL

PHILOSOPHICAL
APPROACH

TEACHING AND LEARNING PROCESS (METHODS AND


MATERIALS)

(a)

(b)

(c)

4.

Reconstructivsm Teacher as a resource person or research project


(Critical Theory)
director (guide students learning)
Beliefs that student learn more, remember longer,
apply new situation if they learn through
experience.
Used interdisciplinary curriculum.
Teaching method :
Pupil teacher dialogue
Problem solving method
Evaluate students subjectively on the basis of their
ability as a social activist rather than give written
examinations
Teacher must be creative and innovative in
classroom
Pupils are taught problem-solving skills through
activities, role plays, stimulation.

https://www.scribd.com/doc/114102686
/Philosophical-and-PedagogicalApproach-of-Curriculum-andCurriculum-Development
http://jpt.moe.gov.myeng/DASAR/falsaf
ah.php
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophy_
of_education

http://www.slideshare.net/cassidylisut/m
alaysian-philosophy-of-education
http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ed416/P
P1.html