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WDM Technology

1. WDM Outline

WDM Outline (1) - Definition


Wavelength-division multiplex (WDM) system
A multi-channel fiber-optic transmission system in which
one fiber transmits a number of client signals in the channels
provided by different wavelength optical carriers.

NEC Corporation 2002

WDM Outline (2) - Non-WDM and WDM


Term
REG
REG
REG
REG
Term
Term
REG
REG
REG
REG
Term
Term
REG
REG
REG
REG
Term
Term
REG
REG
REG
REG
Term
Term
REG
REG
REG
REG
Term
Term
REG
REG
REG
REG
Term
Term
REG
REG
REG
REG
Term
Term
REG
REG
REG
REG
Term

Non-WDM
Term
Term
OMUX
Term
Term
Term
Term
Term
Term

ODMUX
OA

OA

OA

WDM

OA

Term
Term
Term
Term
Term
Term
Term
Term

Enhanced fiber efficiency.


Easier capacity expansion just by adding transponders.
Space & power saving at intermediate stations.
NEC Corporation 2002

WDM Outline (3) - Advantages


Cost-effective transmission
The resources of WDM system, consisting of a terminal pair
and a line system, are shared by a number of channels.
Use of the in-line amplifiers is more economical than that of
3R (Re-shaping, Re-timing and Re-generating) regenerators
because an optical amplifier in the line system (in-line
amplifier) collectively amplifies al the channel signals.
Easier system expansion due to independence among the
optical carrier wavelengths.
Channel bit rate flexibility, up to 10 Gbit/s due to use of
optical amplifiers.

NEC Corporation 2002

WDM Outline (4) - Disadvantages


Multi-channel failure possibility due to a line failure.
Requirements for more deliberate design of the dispersion

management, gain profile management and launched


power due to broader wavelength range to be handled.

NEC Corporation 2002

WDM Technology
2. WDM System Configuration

Terminal and Line Systems Overview

IL-AMP
span

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IL-AMP
#n

Optical mux/demux
Ch-signal regeneration

Wavelength conversion
Optical mux/demux

IL-AMP
#1

TERM
system

Client signals

WDM aggregate signals

Intermediate
regenerator
Line system

IL-AMP
#1

IL-AMP
#n

Wavelength conversion
Optical mux/demux

Client signals

(n-1)
IL-AMP spans
TERM
system

Terminal System Example of N-channel System


Client#1

Transmit Amplifier (TXA)

Transponder
(TPND)
Ch-N

SV Coupler 1

OMUX

Ch-1

Line 1
Receive Amplifier
(RXA)

Client#40
Transponder
(TPND)

Ch-N

ODMUX

Ch-1

Legend Ch: Channel


DCF: Dispersion Compensation Fiber
ODMUX: Optical Demultiplexer
OMUX: Optical Multiplexer
OSC: Optical Supervisory Channel Processor
SV: Supervisory
NEC Corporation 2002

OSC

Line 2
SV Coupler 2

DCF

Line System (1) In-line Amplifier


Line 1

Line 1

In-line Amplifier (ILA)


SV Coupler

SV Coupler

DCF
OSC
In-line Amplifier (ILA)

SV Coupler

SV Coupler

Line 2

NEC Corporation 2002

DCF

Line 2

Line System (2) Intermediate Regenerator


ODMUX

Line 1

RXA

Ch-1

Ch-N
DCF
DCF
OSC
TPNDBB

OMUX
TPNDBB

TXA

Line 1

TPNDBB
OSC
Ch-1

RXA

Line 2

Line 2

TPNDBB

TXA
OMUX

TERM System B-1

Ch-N
ODMUX

TERM System B-2

Legend TPNDBB: Transponder for back-to-back system


NEC Corporation 2002

DCF

System Configuration - Networking Point of View


ITU-T Recommendation G. 872 Architecture of
optical transport networks (OTN) defines the
OTN structure and functionality to provide;

Optical signal transmission


Optical signal multiplexing
Optical signal routing
Optical signal supervision
Optical signal performance assessment
Optical network survivability

NEC Corporation 2002

Relationship between OTN and


Existing WDM Networks (2)
IP

ATM

Ethernet STM-N

Optical Channel
Data Unit (ODU)
Optical Channel
Transport Unit (OTU)
Optical
Physical
Section
(OPS0)
OTM-0
(Non-WDM)

GbE STM-N

Optical Channel (Och)


Optical Multiplex Section (OMSn)
Optical Transmission Section (OTS)
OTM-n (n>1)

GbE

STM-N

Pre-OTN
WDM
(Existing)

Pre-OTN Interface

Legend OTM-n: Optical Transport Module, aggregate with n-optical


channels multiplexed
NEC Corporation 2002

WDM Technology
2. WDM System Configuration
2.1 WDM Terminal Functional
Configuration

Transponders Types and Functions


Two types of transponders are deployed.
Pre-OTN type transponder, deployed in an
existing WDM system.
Wavelength conversion and/or 3R functions only.

OTN-compliant transponder, newly being


deployed.
In addition to wavelength conversion and 3R
functions, construction-and-termination of the
optical-channel-related frame conforming to ITU-T
Draft Recommendation G.709.

NEC Corporation 2002

Pre-OTN Transponder
Client Signal
IN

CLIENT

Optical Receiver (OR)


O-to-E
Conv.

AGC
AMP

Optical
Sender (OS)
E-to-O
Conv.

DEC

Channel
Signal OUT
CHANNEL-N

TIM
EXT

Client Signal
OUT
CLIENT

Optical
Sender (OS)
E-to-O
Conv.

Optical Receiver (OR)

DEC

AGC
AMP
TIM
EXT

NEC Corporation 2002

O-to-E
Conv.

Channel
Signal IN
CHANNEL-N

OTN-compliant Transponder
Optical Receiver (OR)

Client
Signal IN
CLIENT

O-to-E
Conv.

AGC
AMP

DEC

Och Adapt.
(Send)

Optical
Sender (OS)

FEC Cod. &


OTUk Frame
Construct.

E-to-O
Conv.

Channel
Signal
OUT
CHANNEL-N

TIM
EXT

Client
Signal OUT
CLIENT

Optical
Sender (OS)
E-to-O
Conv.

Och Adapt.
(Receive)
OTUk Frame
Termination
& FEC Dec.

Optical Receiver (OR)

DEC

AGC
AMP
TIM
EXT

NEC Corporation 2002

O-to-E
Conv.

Channel
Signal
IN
CHANNEL-N

Optical Multiplexer (OMUX)


Wavelength
n
(n-1)
(n-2)

Channel
#n
#(n-1)
#(n-2)

Wavelength

Client

100 GHz

3
2
1

Aggregate Signal
over n-channels with
wavelengths ranging
from 1 to n.

#3
#2
#1

Channel spacing is
100 GHz and even.

OMUX

NEC Corporation 2002

(n-1) n

Transmit
Amplifier
(TXA)

Optical Demultiplexer (ODMUX)


Wavelength
n
(n-1)
(n-2)

Channel
#n
#(n-1)
#(n-2)

Wavelength

Client

100 GHz

3
2
1

Aggregate Signal
over n-channels with
wavelengths ranging
from 1 to n.

#3
#2
#1

Channel spacing is
100 GHz and even.

ODMUX

NEC Corporation 2002

(n-1) n

Receive
Amplifier
(RXA)

Transmit Amplifier (TXA) Example


EDF

EDF

INPUT

OUTPUT
CPL

GEQ

WDM

WDM

WDM

CPL CPL
SV-IN

PBS

CPL

980nm
Pump-LD

INPUT
-MON

CPL

1480nm x 4
Pump-LDs

OUTPUT
-MON
PIN-PDs

PIN-PD
Control Circuits

Performance
MON-OUT
ALM: Alarm
CPL: Coupler
EDF: Erbium-doped Fiber
GEQ : Gain Equalizer
LD: Laser Diode
MON: Monitor

NEC Corporation 2002

PBS

ALM-OUT

PBS : Polarization Beam Splitter


PD: Photo-detector
SV: Supervisory
WDM: WDM Coupler

Receive Amplifier (RXA) - Example


EDF

EDF

DCF

INPUT

OUTPUT
CPL CPL

GEQ

WDM

WDM

WDM

PBS

PBS

CPL

SV-OUT
CPL

INPUT
-MON

980nm
Pump-LD

OUTPUT
-MON
PIN-PDs

PIN-PD
Control Circuits

Performance
MON-OUT
ALM: Alarm
CPL: Coupler
DCF: Dispersion Compensation Fiber
EDF: Erbium-doped Fiber
GEQ : Gain Equalizer
LD: Laser Diode

NEC Corporation 2002

CPL

1480nm x 4
Pump-LDs

ALM-OUT
MON: Monitor
PBS : Polarization Beam Splitter
PD: Photo-detector
SV: Supervisory
WDM: WDM Coupler

Gain Equalization by GEQ - Example

Relative GAIN/LOSS (dB)

6
4
Amplifier gain before equalization (1)
2
0
-2

Amplifier gain after equalization (3)=(1)+(2)

-4
Equalizer loss (2)

-6
-8
1539

1543

NEC Corporation 2002

1547

1551
1555
Wavelength (nm)

1559

1563

WDM Technology
2. WDM System Configuration
2.2 Wavelength Range and
Wavelength Allocation

Wavelength Range appropriate for WDM


0.4

Loss [dB/km]

0.3

Low-loss range

0.2
C band

L band

1530 - 1562 nm 1574 - 1608 nm

0.1

0.0
1300
NEC Corporation 2002

1400

1500

1600

Wavelength [nm]

Wavelength Allocation (1)


ITU-T Recommendation G.692 on the channel
frequencies:
The channel central frequencies are allocated in
equal frequency spacing of 100 GHz or 0.1 THz.
All the channel central frequencies are anchored to
the 193.1 THz reference. The channel central
wavelength corresponding to the reference
frequency is 1552.52 nm.

NEC Corporation 2002

Carrier
frequency

Channel
number
196.0
195.9
195.8
195.7
195.6
195.5
195.4
195.3
195.2
195.1
195.0
194.9
194.8
194.7
194.6
194.5
194.3
194.2
194.1
194.0
193.9
193.8
193.7
193.6
193.5
193.4
193.3
193.2
193.1
193.0
192.9
192.8
192.7
192.6
192.5
192.4
192.3
192.2
192.1
192.0
191.9

1530.33
1531.12
1531.90
1532.68
1533.47
1534.25
1535.04
1535.82
1536.61
1537.40
1538.19
1538.98
1539.77
1540.56
1541.35
1542.14
1542.94
1543.73
1544.53
1545.32
1546.12
1546.92
1547.72
1548.52
1549.32
1550.12
1550.92
1551.72
1552.52
1553.33
1554.13
1554.94
1555.75
1556.56
1557.36
1558.17
1558.98
1559.79
1560.61
1561.42
1562.23

Carrier
wavelength

C40
C39
C38
C37
C36
C35
C34
C33
C32
C31
C30
C29
C28
C27
C26
C25
C24
C23
C22
C21
Tone ch.
C20
C19
C18
C17
C16
C15
C14
C13
C12
C11
C10
C09
C08
C07
C06
C05
C04
C03
C02
C0
1

Wavelength Allocation (2) C band

Note 1: Optical carriers are allocated on ITU-T 100 GHz (0.1 THz) grid in Rec. G. 692.
2: Tone channel is dedicated for operation & maintenance support.

3: Channel numbering scheme is NEC-proprietary.

NEC Corporation 2002


(nm)

(THz)

Carrier
frequency

Channel
number
190.4
190.3
190.2
190.1
190.0
189.9
189.8
189.7
189.6
189.5
189.4
189.3
189.2
189.1
189.0
188.9
188.8
188.7
188.6
188.5
188.4
188.3
188.2
188.1
188.0
187.9
187.8
187.7
187.6
187.5
187.4
187.3
187.2
187.1
187.0
186.9
186.8
186.7
186.6
186.5
186.4
1574.54
1575.37
1576.20
1577.03
1577.86
1578.69
1579.52
1580.35
1581.18
1582.02
1582.85
1583.69
1584.53
1585.36
1586.20
1587.04
1587.88
1588.73
1589.57
1590.41
1591.26
1592.10
1592.95
1593.79
1594.64
1595.49
1596.34
1597.19
1598.04
1598.89
1599.75
1600.60
1601.46
1602.31
1603.17
1604.03
1604.88
1605.74
1606.60
1607.47
1608.33

Carrier
wavelength

L01
L02
L03
L04
L05
L06
L07
L08
L09
L10
L11
L12
L13
L14
L15
L16
L17
L18
L19
L20
Tone ch.
L21
L22
L23
L24
L25
L26
L27
L28
L29
L30
L31
L32
L33
L34
L35
L36
L37
L38
L39
L40

Wavelength Allocation (3) L band

Note 1: Optical carriers are allocated on ITU-T 100 GHz (0.1 THz) grid in Rec. G. 692.
2: Tone channel is dedicated for operation & maintenance support.

3: Channel numbering scheme is NEC-proprietary.

NEC Corporation 2002


(nm)

(THz)

Optical Supervisory Channel (OSC)


OSC is the dedicated engineering service channel
defined in ITU-T Rec. G. 692.
ITU-T Recommendation G.692 assigns (151010) nm
or (198.51.4) THz for the OSC frequency or
wavelength.
While the 1510 nm is convenient for C-band, another
supplier-proprietary OSC wavelength such as 1630 nm
can be assigned for L-band.
The OSC transmits the line supervisory or engineering
service information such as the number of traffic
channels installed and order wire traffic etc.

NEC Corporation 2002

WDM Technology
WDM System Configuration
Transmission Performance
Objective, Problem and
Solutions

Transmission Performance - Measure

As a digital transmission system, transmission


performance of a WDM system is assessed by
data transmission errors in bit-error ratio
(BER).

Two causes of transmission errors:


1. Optical noise, referred to as the amplified spontaneous
emission (ASE), created and accumulated in the optical
amplifiers used as ILAs.
2. Waveform distortion created in the optical fibers.
Generally, the effect by ASE is predominant over that by
the waveform distortion.

NEC Corporation 2002

Performance Degradation Factors


Degradation
factors
ASE created &
accumulated by
EDFAs as ILAs

Degradation
by

Noise

AND
Optical fiber
dispersions &
non-linear
effects

TPND

NEC Corporation 2002

Performance
assessment
parameters

Waveform
distortion

Optical signalto-noise ratio


(SNRo)
Optical Q-factor,
or simply Q, as a
measure of the
eye diagram
quality

TPND

Gain Profile Management (1)


The gain profile management regulates the gain
profile, or the gain-to-wavelength characteristics,
to meet the BER requirements of the individual
channels.
The gain profile of an optical amplifier covering a
range of wavelength generally exhibits uneven
characteristics as shown simply below.
Power level

WDM signal input


to AMP

Wavelength(WL)

NEC Corporation 2002

AMP gain-WL characteristics WDM signal output from AMP


(Uneven gain profile)
(Uneven ch-signal levels)

Gain Profile Management (2)


Purpose of the gain profile management is to
compress, or equalize, the wavelength-dependent
gain variation into acceptable limits using GEQ.
AMP gain-WL characteristics
(Uneven gain profile)

Power level

WDM signal input


to AMP

Wavelength(WL)

(AMP + GEQ) gain-WL


characteristics

NEC Corporation 2002

WDM signal output from AMP


(Even ch-signal levels)

GEQ gain-WL
characteristics

Dispersion ps/(nmkm)

Performance Assessment Parameter (3)


Chromatic Dispersion of Optical Fiber

<1530nm

1310

NEC Corporation 2002

1500

1550

1600
Wavelength (nm)

>1560nm

Chromatic Dispersion
Adverse Effects on Performance
Transmission errors caused by the pulse waveform
distortion due to the pulse transition point dispersion.
Pulse width=a
Pulse width=b<a

Time Slot
Transmitted pulse

Transmission
fiber cable

Time Slot
Received pulse

Effective pulse width of the received signal is reduced due to the


transition point dispersion.
The reduction in the effective pulse width can cause transmission
error.

NEC Corporation 2002

Chromatic Dispersion Effects Principles (1)


1. Spectrum of an optical channel signal spreads
around the center wavelength, or a number of
different wavelengths are contained in an optical
channel signal.
2. Lights of different wavelengths propagate at
different velocities through an optical fiber.
3. The two facts above create the dispersion of the
pulse transition points of the received optical
signal.

NEC Corporation 2002

Chromatic Dispersion Effects Principles (2)


Spectrum of Transmitted Signal

electrical signal

dispersion (different velocities for different wavelengths)

Optical
Light Source
t
t
(Laser Diode) continuous light signal Modulator modulated light signa l

(line signal)

ce nte r wa ve le ngth

l (frq.)

Spectrum of continuous light

NEC Corporation 2002

l (frq.)

Spectrum of modulated light

Chromatic Dispersion Effects Countermeasures


Dispersion Management
The dispersion management compensates the
received signal for the dispersion accumulated
over a fiber transmission line to meet the BER
requirement.
Objective for the accumulated chromatic dispersion
depends on the bit rate of the channel signal, for example;
8,000 ps/nm for 2.5 Gbps channel signal, or
300 ps/nm for 10 Gbps channel signal.

Typical chromatic dispersion coefficient of a single-mode


fiber (SMF) is;
+18 ps/(nmkm) in 1550 nm region.

NEC Corporation 2002

Performance Assessment Parameter (4)


Polarization Mode Dispersion of Optical Fiber (1)
Polarization Mode dispersion (PMD) is another
type of dispersion occurring in an optical fiber.
A traffic-signal-carrying light propagates in two
orthogonal polarization states in an optical fiber.
The two states of light propagate at slightly
different velocity causing pulse dispersion referred
to as the polarization mode dispersion (PMD).

NEC Corporation 2002

Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD) (2)


Example
x

Velocity:V1

V1 > V2

Velocity:V2

DGD

Fiber

Fiber without PMD


Fiber with PMD
Propagation without or with PMD
NEC Corporation 2002

Optical Fiber Non-linearity (1)

Two categories of the optical fiber non-linearity:


1. Kerr effects:
a. Self phase modulation (SPM)
b. Cross phase modulation (XPM)
c. Four-wave mixing (FWM)

2. Stimulated scattering:
a. Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS)
b. Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS)

NEC Corporation 2002

Optical Fiber Non-linearity (2) Kerr Effects


Phenomenon

Description

Effects on
Signals

SPM

The fiber refractive index varies Spectrum


depending on the optical signal broadening.
strength.
Waveform
distortion.

XPM

The fiber refractive index varies Spectrum


depending on the strengths of broadening.
coexisting optical signals.
Waveform
distortion.

FWM

Spurious
optical
signals
are Beat noise.
generated due to the third-order Waveform
cross
modulation
among
the distortion.
different wavelength optical signals.

NEC Corporation 2002

Optical Fiber Non-linearity (3) Example


Four-wave Mixing (FWM)
Power (db)

S1

S2

f
213

S3

f
332

U9

U2
U1
f
113

f1- 2f

f
123

f
312

U3
f
112

U4

f1- f

f
321

U6
f
223

f1

U5

f
132

U7

f2

U10
f
221

U8

f3

f
231

f
331

U11

f3+ f

U12

f3+ 2f

Undesired optical signals U1 to U12 generated by FWM


from 3 equally-spaced signals S1 to S3 with frequencies
f1, f2 and f3, respectively.
NEC Corporation 2002

Frequency

Optical Fiber Non-linearity (4)


Stimulated Scattering
Phenomenon

Description

Effects on Signals

SBS

Part of the incident light is Limitation of


scattered
backward
with forward
frequency shifted slightly due to travelling
interaction among the incident lightwave power.
light, optically induced phonons Waveform
and scattered light itself.
instability.

SRS

Part of optical power shifts to Waveform


about 100 nm longer wavelength distortion.
range due to interaction of the Gain tilting.
incident light and thermal
vibration of fiber molecules.

NEC Corporation 2002

Optical Fiber Non-linearity (5) SRS

Optical fiber

Wavelength

Wavelength

Spectrum of transmitted signal

Spectrum of received signal

Gain tilting through SRS

NEC Corporation 2002