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RANOP Radio Network Optimization Principles

Solution Findings (optimization)

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Nokia Siemens Networks

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Objectives
At the end of the this chapter participants will be able to

know the basic interfaces / Network elements and how to


optimize these
know the basics of CS/PS performance optimization
know which tools can be used for optimization

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Nokia Siemens Networks

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Contents of RANOP
Introduction
What is network optimization
What should be taken into account when starting Network
Optimization?

Assessment
Situation at the moment

KPIs and Measurements


Measurement tables + KPIs

Solution findings (optimization) and verification


Maximum gain in limited time
Bottlenecks
Features to be considered
NSN recommended features to be used in optimization
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Nokia Siemens Networks

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Solution finding table of contents


Introduction
Optimization tasks

Performance optimization
Traffic and Capacity optimization
Coverage Optimization
Frequency Optimization
Neighbor Optimization
HO Optimization
(E)GPRS Optimization
Alarms
Implementations (documentation, good case)
Solution verification
Monitoring
Tools to be used

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution Finding - Introduction

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

More detailed inputs


detailed inputs
(ifMore
necessary)
based
(if necessary) based
on
assessment
on assessment

INPUTS
INPUTS

Project
Project
Starts
Starts

Performance
Performance
Problems
Problems

Solution
Solution
Verification
Verification

Are Criterias
Criterias
Are
Fulfilled
Fulfilled

Implementations
Implementations

No

Yes

Monitoring //
Monitoring
Data collection
collection
Data

Project
Project
report
report

Project
Project
Ends
Ends

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Assessments
Analysis

Work orders
orders
Work

Analysis
Analysis

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Solutions
Solutions

Priorization
Priorization

Solutions
Solutions

Solution Finding Phase

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

Performance Optimization

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Performance Optimization - Introduction

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Typical performance problems which have to


be improved
Indoor coverage
problems

CS / PS Capacity
problems
Downlink coverage problems
Downlink interference problems
Uplink Signaling (access)
problems

Soc Classification level


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Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Performance optimization - basic CS/PS flows

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Paging
Optimization

SDCCH
Optimization

Accessibility

Accessibility
Signaling

TCH
Optimization
Retainability
Quality
Traffic / TSLs allocation
Data rates

CS Basic Call Flow


PCH
AGCH
RACH

Get
SDCCH

Establish
SDCCH
connection

Get
TCH

Establish
TCH
connection

Call
phase

Release
phase

Requested
TSLs to
Allocate

TBF
Session

Release
phase

PS MO Uplink TBF
Ready
State

Send
RACH

Soc Classification level


8
Nokia Siemens Networks

Establish
immediate
assignment

Presentation / Author / Date

Get
PDCH

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Performance optimization

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Performance optimization will include here:

CS

PS

Accessibility

MM and SM Signaling

Signaling problems

Retainability
TCH Dropped calls

GPRS Attach
PDP Context activatios

RLC/MAC TSL data rate


TBF Failure

Quality

E2E Data Rate

interference

Throughput

Traffic
Traffic handling

Multislot usage
Territory downgrades/upgrades
PS Blocking

Mobility
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Nokia Siemens Networks

Cell reselection
Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Performance optimization Accessibility


Signaling

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

CS

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

If problems with RACH, AGCH, PCH capacity


Check if combined signaling is existing. If it is existing, it should be removed
Here is combined sdcch in TSL0
Should be
TSL0 = BCCH
TSL1= SDCCH

Check if TRXSIG is big enough, default value for TRXSIG is 32k.If lots of SMS
traffic + HR is used 64k should be used.
Check if there are any bad interference problems
Bad interference problem can cause lot of repetitions => more blocking
Check CCCH related parameters
Check if location areas are optimized
Sizes
Borders
Soc Classification level
10
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Performance optimization Retainability


TCH drop

Solution
Verification

CS

Most Common TCH drop reasons can be seen here


Drop Reason
TCH radio fail call
TCH radio fail old
TCH tc fail call
TCH tc fail old
Lapd fail
BTS fail
user act
BCSU reset
cnfg act
Act fail call
Abis fail call
Abis fail old
A if fail call
A if fail old

Counter
c1013
c1014
c1029
c1030
c1046
c1047
c1048
c1049
c1050
c1081
c1084
c1085
c1087
c1088

Description
Transactions ended due to radio failure.
Transactions ended due to old channel failure in HO.
Transaction failures due to transcoder failure.
Transaction failures due to transcoder failure on old channel during HO.
Transaction failures due to Lapd problems.
Transaction failures due to BTS problems.
Transaction failures due to user actions.
Transaction failures due to BCSU reset.
Transaction failures due to radio network
Channel activation failures during call.
Abis failures during call.
Abis failures on old channel during TCH HO.
A if failures during call.
A if failures on old channel during TCH HO.

In RANOP we are concentrating on radio reasons

Soc Classification level


11
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Performance optimization Retainability


TCH drop

Solution
Verification

CS

TCH DROP Distribution

Excersise
What can be typical reason for TCH radio drops?
Soc Classification level
12
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Performance optimization Quality


RX Quality Level Distribution
Rx Quality x Rx Level

Solution
Verification

CS

NOTE! Same level quality


distribution for both UL and DL
HW Problem:
Bad Quality

Good Quality

for all Rx Levels


Coverage Problem:
Bad quality and
Low Rx Level

HW Problem
All samples below 100dBm
CL10 <-100dBm

High Rv Level
Interference Problem:
Bad quality and
High Rx Level
NWD report 204 model

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13
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

Performance optimization RX Quality - Level CS


Here are some RX quality level distribution examples
Here are some examples how different kind of problems can be found
Like Normal distribution
CL10
CL15
CL20
CL30
CL40
CL63

Q0
10645
47043
56204
200863
12785
4583

CL10
CL15
CL20
CL30
CL40
CL63

Q0
5323
23522
28102
67544
6393
2292

CL10
CL15
CL20
CL30
CL40
CL63

Q0
200863
16543
2654
4543
5114
24

Q1
8516
37634
44963
160690
10228
1123

Q2
6813
30108
35971
128552
8182
583

Q3
5450
24086
28776
102842
6546
452

HW Problem, TRX/combiner etc is broken


Q4
4360
9865
6574
17654
456
261

Q5
3488
7543
10324
9876
112
76

Q6
2791
5643
345
145
24
26

Q7
2232
2345
65
28
23
2

CL10
CL15
CL20
CL30
CL40
CL63

Q0
5323
11761
14051
33772
3196
1146

HW problem, Q4 amount of samples is strange

Q1
4258
18817
22482
54035
5114
562

Q2
3406
15054
17985
43228
4091
292

Q3
2725
12043
14388
34582
3273
226

Q4
2180
18765
36542
150073
9876
6756

Q5
1744
3772
5162
4938
56
38

Q1
4258
9409
11241
27017
2557
281

Q2
3406
7527
8993
21614
2046
146

Q3
2725
6022
7194
17291
1636
113

Q4
2180
9383
18271
75037
4938
3378

Q5
1744
1886
2581
2469
28
19

Q6
4563
65432
65438
18765
3659
100

Q7
9765
7675
63562
14523
2648
174

Q4
2180
13234
2123
3634
4091
2275

Q5
1744
10588
1699
2908
3273
1187

Q6
1395
8470
1359
2326
2618
876

Q7
1116
6776
1087
1861
4532
654

Interference problem

Q6
1395
2822
173
73
12
13

Q7
1116
1173
33
14
12
1

Q6
7865
1173
33
14
12
0

Q7
6543
234
65
28
23
0

CL10
CL15
CL20
CL30
CL40
CL63

Q0
5323
23522
28102
67544
6393
9987

Q1
4258
13234
2123
3634
4091
7543

Q2
3406
10588
1699
2908
3273
4323

Q3
2725
8470
1359
2326
2618
3454

HW Problem, TRX/combiner etc is broken

Q1
160690
13234
2123
3634
4091
54

Q2
128552
10588
1699
2908
3273
8

Q3
102842
8470
1359
2326
2618
87

Q4
17654
6776
1087
1861
2095
7

Q5
9876
2822
173
73
12
0

1.

Lots of Q4 samples. Distribution is not OK HW problem. Site reset will help

2.

Lots of bad signal level samples. TRX/Combiner is broken. If no HW problem


Site is totally in wrong place, site is like transferring traffic to another cell ( cause
level HO). Typically a HW problem

3.

Lots of Q6 and Q7 samples. Distribution is not OK, no Q5 samples HW


problems. Site reset or broken TRX

4.

Typical normal interference problem., lots of q4q7 samples in good signal level

Soc Classification level


14
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Performance optimization Interference, UL CS


-100dBm
-95dBm
-90dBm
-80dBm
-70dBm
-47dBm

q0
10645
47043
56204
200863
1234
24

q1
8516
37634
44963
160690
987
19

q2
6813
30108
35971
128552
790
15

q3
5450
24086
28776
102842
632
12

q4
4360
9865
16574
17654
505
10

q5
3488
7543
5676
3653
404
8

q6
2791
5643
845
145
323
6

q7
2232
2345
65
28
259
5

-100dBm
-95dBm
-90dBm
-80dBm
-70dBm
-47dBm

q0
10645
47043
56204
200863
1234
24

q1
8516
37634
44963
160690
987
19

q2
6813
30108
35971
128552
790
15

q3
5450
24086
28776
102842
632
12

q4
4360
9865
16574
17654
505
10

q5
3488
7543
5676
3653
404
8

q6
2791
5643
845
145
323
6

q7
2232
2345
65
28
259
5

Bad interference problems. By POC


parameter interference can be
decreased, how power is adjusted
etc. Also optimum MS power feature
improves UL interference, no full
power is sent after HO.

-100dBm
-95dBm
-90dBm
-80dBm
-70dBm
-47dBm

q0
10645
47043
56204
200863
1234
24

q1
8516
37634
44963
160690
987
19

q2
6813
30108
35971
128552
790
15

q3
5450
24086
28776
102842
632
12

q4
4360
9865
16574
17654
505
10

q5
3488
7543
5676
3653
404
8

q6
2791
5643
845
145
323
6

q7
2232
2345
65
28
259
5

Bad quality sample due to signal


level problems. Diversity should be
checked, also possibilities to use
LNA to improve UL signal level.
Antenna place should be also
checked if there are some obstacles
near the antenna.

Soc Classification level


15
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

MS power control can be seen here.


If Power is reduced no bad UL
problems. BSC border is increasing
good level samples

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Performance optimization Interference

Solution
Verification

CS

UL examples
-100dBm
-95dBm
-90dBm
-80dBm
-70dBm
-47dBm

-100dBm
-95dBm
-90dBm
-80dBm
-70dBm
-47dBm

-100dBm
-95dBm
-90dBm
-80dBm
-70dBm
-47dBm

UL_q0
490
8410
38512
219137
509591
244302

UL_q0
70004
80339
106883
246892
254875
23288

UL_q0
251992
123653
62938
27005
2831
751

UL_q1
137
3768
5249
4600
2504
582

UL_q1
5020
392
233
227
155
21

UL_q1
30668
1151
247
51
3
0

UL_q2
368
3225
3066
2453
1812
711

UL_q2
3500
286
318
314
298
27

UL_q2
20552
403
144
65
9
4

UL_q3
605
3023
2323
2311
3050
1363

UL_q3
2564
461
602
860
935
103

UL_q3
18417
692
288
149
28
10

UL_q4
1014
2767
1692
1470
1271
1713

UL_q4
2232
328
199
298
203
109

UL_q4
18156
519
353
177
87
25

UL_q5
1378
2304
1570
1724
1465
873

UL_q5
1946
250
146
338
135
11

UL_q5
18286
351
129
82
10
1

UL_q6
16983
221
62
40
6
0

UL_q6
1830
1561
1191
1864
1649
671

UL_q6
2190
275
234
395
166
41

UL_q7
12478
72
29
16
0
0

UL_q7
2586
1859
1268
1221
337
87

UL_q7
2579
92
64
60
15
0

DL_q0
27862
89094
142228
222462
44504
5994

Some UL interference in good signal


level. UL power control is not
working properly. Ul power control is
good indicator, if power is adjusted,
there are no big problems in UL
direction

There is no UL interference, or just a


little. MS is adjusting power properly,
there are only little samples in good
UL signal level.

DL_q1
5537
4236
2732
1523
91
49

DL_q2
5529
3853
2550
1355
123
17

DL_q3
6069
3576
2356
1552
151
17

DL_q4
6109
2893
1510
716
81
12

DL_q5
6107
2264
1114
812
101
29

DL_q6
5389
1372
774
1081
191
65

Huge amount of UL bad samples. Cells is not working properly, it is like transferring traffic, UL quality/ UL level HOs are
triggering immediately. These kind of cells must be investigated.

Soc Classification level


16
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

DL_q7
4119
584
404
343
88
10

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

Performance optimization Interference, DL

CS

-100dBm
-95dBm
-90dBm
-80dBm
-70dBm
-47dBm

q0
10645
47043
56204
200863
12785
4583

q1
8516
37634
44963
160690
10228
1123

q2
6813
30108
35971
128552
8182
583

q3
5450
24086
28776
102842
6546
452

q4
4360
9865
16574
17654
456
261

q5
3488
7543
5676
3653
112
76

q6
2791
5643
845
145
24
26

q7
2232
2345
65
28
23
2

Really bad interference problem signal level is really


good (<-70dBm) and usually no better cell available no
HO samples can be seen in the table. Interference is
causing drops.

-100dBm
-95dBm
-90dBm
-80dBm
-70dBm
-47dBm

q0
10645
47043
56204
200863
12785
4583

q1
8516
37634
44963
160690
10228
1123

q2
6813
30108
35971
128552
8182
583

q3
5450
24086
28776
102842
6546
452

q4
4360
9865
16574
17654
456
261

q5
3488
7543
5676
3653
112
76

q6
2791
5643
845
145
24
26

q7
2232
2345
65
28
23
2

Bad interference problem signal level good (<-80dBm)


and sometimes no better cell available. If better cell
available and quality samples are 4 or worse HO (reason
quality or interference, depends on the parameter)
Interference is causing drops.

-100dBm
-95dBm
-90dBm
-80dBm
-70dBm
-47dBm

q0
10645
47043
56204
200863
12785
4583

q1
8516
37634
44963
160690
10228
1123

q2
6813
30108
35971
128552
8182
583

q3
5450
24086
28776
102842
6546
452

q4
4360
9865
16574
17654
456
261

q5
3488
7543
5676
3653
112
76

q6
2791
5643
845
145
24
26

q7
2232
2345
65
28
23
2

-100dBm
-95dBm
-90dBm
-80dBm
-70dBm
-47dBm

q0
10645
47043
56204
200863
12785
4583

q1
8516
37634
44963
160690
10228
1123

q2
6813
30108
35971
128552
8182
583

q3
5450
24086
28776
102842
6546
452

q4
4360
9865
16574
17654
456
261

q5
3488
7543
5676
3653
112
76

q6
2791
5643
845
145
24
26

q7
2232
2345
65
28
23
2

Soc Classification level


17
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Situation is network is working properly If there are quality


4 or worse samples quality HO. Most of the samples are
q4 samples. If lots of q5..q7 samples interference
problem and interference must be analyzed / removed. If
quality HOs but no q5..q7 samples better cell is available
no interference problems. In these signal levels
overlapping exists and if handover reason is no PBGT, it will
be quality HO. By parameter amount of quality HOs can be
adjusted

Bad quality samples due to signal level problems. If PBGT


overlapping is not existing lots of quality HOs + level
HOs (margin are lower than in PBGT).
Not interference problem, more coverage problem.

Check how much samples vs. HOs are


better cells available or not.

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Performance optimization Interference

Solution
Verification

CS

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

DL, examples
-100dBm
-95dBm
-90dBm
-80dBm
-70dBm
-47dBm

DL_q0
12057
44818
98587
225919
88708
15881

DL_q1
2827
4811
7107
7450
1014
84

DL_q2
3108
5041
7400
7731
971
109

DL_q3
3952
5866
8334
8445
998
122

DL_q4
4783
6587
8470
7726
751
104

DL_q5
6200
7223
8781
7441
688
167

DL_q6
7013
7259
7825
5695
689
199

DL_q7
8156
6781
6162
3369
367
184

-100dBm
-95dBm
-90dBm
-80dBm
-70dBm
-47dBm

DL_q0
8006
24951
57559
200602
304206
108047

DL_q1
1636
1636
2171
5771
5464
2134

DL_q2
1681
1627
1884
4686
4310
1908

DL_q3
2197
1767
1651
4130
3796
1623

DL_q4
2379
1037
781
1736
1315
689

DL_q5
2510
431
330
566
350
230

DL_q6
2025
175
161
254
153
129

DL_q7
1290
53
47
97
105
64

-100dBm
-95dBm
-90dBm
-80dBm
-70dBm
-47dBm

DL_q0
7055
20109
34531
107539
177614
58718

DL_q1
1398
1307
1053
875
283
78

DL_q2
1374
1274
745
518
316
91

DL_q3
1906
1161
587
630
663
198

DL_q4
2163
694
273
161
61
54

DL_q5
2003
332
131
98
32
40

DL_q6
1468
211
94
113
29
54

DL_q7
832
84
41
47
9
32

Soc Classification level


18
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

There are almost as much samples Q5 and Q7 samples as


Q 4 samples even interference is really bad or there is
no better cell available ( no hos after bad quality samples).
These kind of interference cells should be optimized,
otherwise there are lots of drops etc

There are no as much Q5Q7 samples as Q4 samples


after interference samples Quality HO is done or the
interference situation is not so bad, for example sampling is
Q0,Q2,Q4,Q2,Q5,Q0,Q2,Q3,Q4,Q2 quality HO is not
triggering

There are bad quality samples only due to signal level


problems.

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Performance optimization, Interference

Solution
Verification

CS

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

(internal / external)

Internal Interference
Interference can be seen from stats or can be measured by scanner.
Neighbor cells (DL) or mobiles (UL) are causing interference.
By frequency / network planning interference can be decreased.

External Interference
Interference can be seen from stats or can be measured by scanner.
External radio frequencies are causing interference
Military use
In the border area, interference is coming from other country.
Some external wireless system (for example some wireless industry system)
is causing interference
Increased I level can be also due to external interference

Soc Classification level


19
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Performance optimization Traffic


Traffic handling
How to balance traffic
between other cells in same
site?
HO parameters

Traffic layers
1800 (dual band)
CBCCH
Soc Classification level
20
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

cellA

Traffic will be
pushed to neighbor
cells

cellB

Umbrella
Traffic reason HO
DR

CS

Implementations

Blocking in cellA

PBGT
Quality /interference margins
Level margins

HO Features

Solution
Verification

Assessments &
Analysis

cellC

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Performance optimization Traffic


Traffic handling
How to balance traffic
between other sites?
HO parameters

Solution
Verification

CS

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Some blocking in cellA

Traffic will be pushed


To neighbor cells

HO Features
Umbrella
Traffic reason HO
DR
cellB

cellC

Soc Classification level


21
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

cellA

PBGT
Quality /interference margins
Level margins

Implementations

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

Performance optimization PS

Before PS Optimization basic GSM optimization


should be done

1. As high signal level as possible


It means that even the indoor signal level should be high enough to
have MCS9 for getting the highest data rate on RLC/MAC layer.

2. As low interference as possible


The aim of having high C/I is to avoid throughput reduction based
on interference.

3. Enough capacity
Enough BSS hardware capacity (interface and connectivity) is
needed to provide the required capacity for PSW services in time.
Both CSW and PSW traffic management should be harmonized
with the layer structure and long term plans.
Soc Classification level
22
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Performance optimization GPRS Attach

Solution
Verification

PS

Typical failures outside BSS


User subscription
non-GPRS users and users from other operators with no roaming
agreement

Protocol error
Mainly caused by MS not responding during attach, some possible
reasons:
Radio contact lost
MS out of coverage
Collision of signaling message MS sends Attach Request or Detach
Request when the previous Attach Request is still in process

Typical recommendations:
PS Core settings
Further RF optimization
GPRS detach feature

Soc Classification level


23
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Performance optimization PDP Context


Activation

Solution
Verification

PS

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

Typical failures:
PS Core
Subscribers use incorrect APN during PDP Context Activation
Request
Subscribers/MS keep reattempt with the incorrect APN can badly affect
overall PDP Activation Success Rate
APN of other operators often seen, could because of subscribers using
the same MS with different SIM

Soc Classification level


24
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Performance optimization TBF Failure

Solution
Verification

PS

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

Typical reasons for TBF failures


Radio reasons
Bad coverage
Interference problems
Blocking

TBF Failures

Parameter discrepancies
MCA parameters
POC
GPRS_POC
IFP, TFP

SGSN problems

Establishment
No
Failures
Response
TBF
Attempts

Gb, Gn traces will be needed

Soc Classification level


25
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Flush

CSW
Suspend
Traffic
Normally
Ended
TBFs

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Performance optimization Throughput

Solution
Verification

PS

Radio reasons, throughput / timeslot is bad


Bad coverage
Interference problems
Decreased coding scheme => less throughput even many timeslots used

TSL allocation problems, total throughput is bad


Check territory usage
Check downgrades due to CSW traffic and PSW rejects
Add more dedicated timeslots for data if possible

Check TBF sharing


If lots of TBF/ TSL => check that CDED parameter <>0
Too much sharing => territory not big enough. If possible, add more dedicated timeslots

Transmission problems
EDAP congestion
Gg congestion

Soc Classification level


26
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Performance optimization Multislot Usage

PS

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Territory downgrade and upgrade


Territory downgrade due to CSW traffic rise (c1179)
CS traffic handling
Territory downgrade due to less PSW traffic(c1181)
Territory optimization, territory is perhaps not big enough
CS Traffic handling
Territory upgrade request rejection beyond default territory
Upgrade request beyond Default territory for additional resources
(c1174), which can be rejected because of:
1. No (E)GPRS capable resource left (No (E)GPRS enable TRX or the maximum (E)GPRS
capacity reached)
2. PCU and EDAP capacity limitation (256 Abis TSL per PCU)
3. High CSW load
0

Default territory

1174

5
1179

1181
1180

Soc Classification level


27
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Performance optimization PS Blocking

Solution
Verification

PS

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Hard blocking no resources available


More TSLs for data must be available
Check unavailability in the cell
More dedicated timeslots for data
Amount of CS traffic must be reduced (traffic handling with features)
RF optimization => better throughput => less blocking

Sof blocking TSL allocation problems


Check parameters
Territory parameters, CDED, CDEF
Check also also (E)GPRS parameters
Check also timers
Too much delays => more blocking

Soc Classification level


28
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

(if necessary) based


on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Performance optimization Cell Reselection PS

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Project
Ends

Typical main causes:


Bad overshooting
Dominance areas are not clear
Too much cell reselections

Link balance problems


UL / DL

Cell reselection parameters are not properly planned


Check C1,C2, NCCR parameters
Check IFP, TFP parameters

BSC / PCU area optimization is not properly done


Delays will be increased if areas are not properly planned
Soc Classification level
29
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

Traffic and Capacity Optimization

Soc Classification level


30
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


GSM Architecture

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

Project
report

Project
Ends

Traffic and Capacity Optimization levels

Ater, Transcoder (TC), A-interface


BSC level
Site level
TRX level
Timeslot level
TC
Signaling

MSC

A
Ater

Air
interface

BTS
2G

BSC

Abis

Soc Classification level


31
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

BCSU

Gb

SGSN

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


Introduction

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

Ater, TC, A
Capacity and pools

BSC
BSC Type, BSC load, Gb links
BCSU, capacity
EDAP/PCU Type, Load

Site
Antennas, BTS HW/SW BTS configuration, Dual band, CBCCH, SDCCH
traffic etc

TRX
Where capacity will be needed
Timeslot
FR/HR, AMR FR/HR, territory, CMAX, SDCCH traffic
Signaling
CCCH, TRXSIG, SS7 links
Soc Classification level
32
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


Ater, TC, A

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Abis
interfaces

Ater Interface
All traffic from BSC must be transferred to
transcoders. Number of E1s in Ater / Asub
interface is depending on:
TCH Traffic from all abis IFs
CCS7 traffics
O&M links
Utilization rate

1 PCM timeslot in Ater/Asub interface:


64Kbit/s
1 PCM timeslot in Abis interface :
FR= 16 kbit/s
HR = 8 kbit/s
=> 4 or 8 PCM timeslots in abis = 1 PCM
timeslot in Ater
Soc Classification level
33
Nokia Siemens Networks

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Presentation / Author / Date

Project
Ends

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Traffic and Capacity Optimization

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Ater, TC, A

Project
Ends

Required transcoding (TC) capacity is


derived from
Total number of required Ater Channels.
Number of Ater channels is based on total
Erlangs in BSC and blocking in A-interface
Configuration options for TCSM3i for
standalone installations can be seen below
TCSM3i units (capacity step) ETSI channels ANSI channels

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Soc Classification level
12
34

Nokia Siemens Networks

960
1920
2880
3840
4800
5760
6720
7680
8640
9600
10560
11520

760
1520
2280
3040
3800
4560
5320
6080
6840
7600
8360
9120

Presentation / Author / Date

ET 16

ET 16

(16 E1
PCMs)-1
BSC

(16 E1
PCMs)
several
BSCs

3
5
8
10
13
15
18
20
23
25
28
30

3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
33
36

TR3E

8
16
24
32
40
48
56
64
72
80
88
96

Note. In some solution


Transcoder can be
implemented to Media
Gateway MGW

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Traffic and Capacity Optimization

Solution
Verification

Ater, TC, A

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

A Interface
Number of required A- Interface PCMs is derived from total number of
required Ater Channels. 4:1 multiplexing
1 : 120

For Example
Total Erlangs in BSC = 3920 Erl
Blocking in A-interface =0.1%
ErlangB table(3920,0.1QoS )
4042 Ater Channels

Ater Interface PCMs


A interface PCMs(1:4)
Soc Classification level
35
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

ETSI Channels
960
1920
2880
3840
4800
5760
6720
7680
8640
9600
10560
11520

4:1

Ater interface PCMs


8
16
24
32
40
48
56
64
72
80
88
96

A interface PCMs (4:1)

= 4042(ETSI) / 120 = 34
= 34*4 = 136

32
64
96
128
160
192
224
256
288
320
352
384

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


BSC

Solution
Verification

# TRX
#BTS
#BCF
#BSCU
#SS7L
#LAPD
# (logical) PCU
# abis 16k channels
#E1/T1 lines
Erlangs

BSC2i

BSC3i 660

512
512
248
6
16
992
16
4096
144
3040

660
660
504
6
16
1236
24
6144
256
3920

BSC3i 1000/2000
1 cab
2 cab
1000
2000
1000
2000
1000
2000
5
10
16
16
2240
4480
50
100
12800
25600
384
800
5940
11880

How Erlangs are calculated?


This depends on used traffic profile
Different traffic profile => different
results
Example, How to calculate BH call attempts
= (Total_Erl x 3600s) / mean_holding_time(s)
Soc Classification level
36
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Example of BSC capacity evolution


Static limits

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

BSC3i 3000
3000
3000
3000
6
16
5760
30
30720
800
17820

Traffic Profile example


Mean holding time
Mobile originated calls (MO)
Mobile terminated calls (MT)
Handovers per call
Location updated per call
IMSI detach per call
Paging response
SMS (req(subs/1 hour)
Terminated SMS 80%
QoS

120s
70%
30%
1.5
2
0.1
63%
1
80%
2%

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


BSC - Example of Utilization

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

BSC Utilization
TRX Usage
TCH Usage

Actual TRX utilization

Actual TCH Utilization

If utilization values
are too high
=> BCS Capacity
optimization will be
needed

Utilization analysis can be used for long term BSC optimization


Capacity management vs. configuration optimization
Soc Classification level
37
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


BSC - EDAP / PCU / Gb

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

EDAP capacity can be optimized based on KPI values

DL / UL MCS selection limited by EDAP (dap_7a, dap_8c)


DL / UL MCS selection limited by PCU (dap_9, dap_10)
Peak DL EDAP usage (c76004)
Peak UL EDAP usage (c76005)
Territory upgrade rejection due to lack of PCU capacity (blck_32)
Not too much capacity nor too less capacity

EDAP / PCU performance can be decreased due to Gb link


size
UL/ DL Gb load: frl_7a/ frl_8a
This should be checked always with EDAP / PCU optimization

Soc Classification level


38
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Traffic and Capacity Optimization

Solution
Verification

BSC - EDAP / PCU

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

Project
report

Project
Ends

EDAP blocking
If EDAP utilization is below 100 => increasing EDAP does not
provide any help => PCU optimization needed
As a rule of thumb the following estimation may be used to
calculate number of E1s.
Nbr of TRX

Amount of E1s

12 TRX GSM / GPRS

1 E1

9 TRX GSM / EGPRS


6 TRX GSM / Heavy EGPRS
18 TRX GSM / GPRS

1.5 E1

15 TRX GSM / EGPRS


12 TRX GSM / Heavy EGPRS
24 TRX GSM / GPRS

2 E1

21 TRX GSM / EGPRS


18 TRX GSM / Heavy EGPRS

Soc Classification level


39
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Note!
Can be used also T1s
E1:32 channel
T1:24 channel

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


BSC - Gb

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Gb utilization
If values near thresholds, it is recommended to increase Gb link size
OR Implement Gb over IP
Maximum received load % ( DL)

Soc Classification level


40
Nokia Siemens Networks

Gb bandwidth
[kbps]

Restricting Gb
link utilisation
[%]

128

25

256

61

384

68

512

68

640

70

768

75

896

85

1024

90

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


Site - Indoor solution

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Indoor solutions
Before

4 TRX, 20Erl

After

2 TRX, 5Erl

Indoor Site
4TRX, 15Erl

Note! Indoor solution is collecting traffic inside (heavy traffic) office


=> Less frequencies is needed outside the building

Soc Classification level


41
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


Site - Dual Band Network

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

Before

GSM 900 layer (4TRX:24Erl (Bad blocking),


GSM 900 layer (2TRX:2Erl)

Actions:

After
GSM 900 layer (2TRX:7Erl (no blocking)
GSM 1800 layer (4TRX:21Erl)

1800 layer was added


From 900 layer traffic to 1800 layer
3 TRX was removed from 900 layers
Total traffic was increased

GSM 900 layer (1TRX:1,5Erl

Note! Dual band layers can be also GSM 900 and WCDMA

Soc Classification level


42
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


Site Traffic layers
Traffic layers

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

3G Layers
2100 Macro
2100 Micro
2100 Indoor

2G Layers

Note! Traffic between layers can be


handled by parameters
Soc Classification level
43
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

900 Macro
1800 Macro
900/1800 Micro
900/1800 Indoor

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


TRX capacity where it is needed

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

Site configuration 2+2+2 in all sites


Bad Blocking area
8Erl
5Erl

More capacity is needed

3Erl

9Erl
2Erl

1Erl

4Erl
5Erl

5Erl

6Erl

1Erl

4Erl

1Erl

Extra capacity
4Erl
3Erl
Soc Classification level
44
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

2 trx / cell is too much


=> TRX can be transferred
to the cells where these are
more needed

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


Timeslot AMR FR/HR

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

Half rate (HR) is recommended to use when:


More capacity will be needed but additional TRXs can not be
added
Interference problems, Frequency reuse
HW limitations

Temporary needs for additional capacity


Special events
Due to daily traffic profile, additional capacity will be needed just for
short time
Big cruise is passing by, tens of calls during short time

Soc Classification level


45
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


Timeslot AMR FR/HR

Solution
Verification

select the correct channel rate (FR or HR).


The selection of the channel rate depends on 2 main
factors: load and quality
Codec

Good
Quality

load

AMR FR

AMR FR

packing
unpacking
Bad
Quality

Soc Classification level


46
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

AMR HR

AMR HR

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Channel Mode Adaptation is an HO algorithm that aims at

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


Timeslot FR/HR & PS territory

Solution
Verification

Assessments &
Analysis

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

Strategy which timeslots for data and which


for speech?

BFG parameter
Whether the BCCH TRX or other TRXs are preferred in GPRS channel allocation .

FRL parameter
With this parameter the percentage of full rate TCH resources that must be available for
traffic channel allocation is defined.

FRU parameter
With this parameter the percentage of full rate TCH resources that must be available for
traffic channel allocation is defined.

Note! Territory and dual rate in same TRX(HR just


after territory) => not good, should be changed
TRX1

tsl0

tsl1

bcch

sdcch

tsl0

tsl1

TRX2level
Soc Classification
47
Nokia Siemens Networks

tsl2

tsl2

tsl3

tsl3

Presentation / Author / Date

tsl4

tsl4

tsl5

tsl5

tsl6

tsl6

tsl7

tsl7

How to allocate
CS and PS
channels?

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Traffic and Capacity Optimization

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

AMR and PS interworking, CS TCH Allocation Calculation


CS TCH allocation calculation (CTC)

Defines how the GPRS territory is seen when calculating FR resources.

EGPRS
used/default

MBCCHC

TCHD

TCHD

TCHD

TCHD

TCHD

TCHD

5 CS calls
CTC 0

CTC1

CTC2

Working FR TCH resources 6

% of free FR resources

16.7%

14.3%

28.6%

HR Preferred?

Free FR TCH resources

EGPRS
downgraded

MBCCHC

TCHD

TCHD

TCHD

TCHD

TCHD

TCHD

6 CS calls

CTC Value
0 = Only CSW used RTSLs
are used to calculate
CDEF
resources
1 = CSW and PSW used
RTSLs are used. PSW used
RTSLs are seen as occupied
resource when calculating
Territory
downgrade due to PSW RTSLs
CS traffic
2 = CSW used and PSW
used RTSLs are used. PSW
used RTSLs are seen as idle
resource when calculating
resources
downgrad
ed

FRL = relative amounts of


free FR TCH resources in
proportion to working FR TCH
resources
FRL = 15% in this example

Free FR TCH resources

Working FR TCH resources 7

% of free FR resources

14.3%

14.3%

14.3%

HR Preferred?

Soc Classification level


48
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


Timeslot AMR FR/HR

Solution
Verification

Assessments &
Analysis

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

HR will be allocated when there are few free FR TCHs available.


The purpose is to avoid congestion / blocking
HR => FR when there are again enough free FR TCHs
Thresholds are set by parameters (FRL, FRU)
Free FR TCHs
Upper limit for free FR TCHs

Low er limit for free FR TCHs

Time
No packing of
FR calls

Soc Classification level


49
Nokia Siemens Networks

Packing of
FR calls

Presentation / Author / Date

No packing of
FR calls

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


signaling -paging

Solution
Verification

TRXSIG can be dimensioning based on following table:


After implementation paging capacity KPIs and occurrence of
LAPD overload must be checked
TRXSIG

Comments

16k

Can be used if 32k is not possible to use

32k

Default value. Must be used if HR is used or high


SMS
Must traffic
be used if HR is used and high SMS traffic

64 k

Note! If the cell is part of the large location area, high paging
load is expected. Thus small signaling links (16kbps) shall be
avoided.
Soc Classification level
50
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Paging

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


signaling -sdcch

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Assessments &
Analysis

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

Project
report

Project
Ends

Capacity of SDCCH in the cell is depending on the amount of


TRXs in the cell
Capacity of SDCCH in the cell is also depending heavily on
Traffic profile, for example amount of SMSs
Number of TRX in
the cell
1
2
3
4
5

SDCCH Traffic (Erl)


Number of SDCCH in the cell
Erl mErl/subs subs 1 sms/subs/hour 5 sms/subs/hour 10 sms/subs/hour 1 sms/subs/hour 5 sms/subs/hour 10 sms/subs/hour
2.2
25
88
0.4
0.8
1.3
1
1
1
8.2
25
328
1.6
3.1
4.9
1
2
2
14.9
25
596
3.0
5.6
8.9
1
2
3
21
25
840
4.2
7.9
12.6
2
2
3
27
25
1080
5.4
10.2
16.2
2
3
4

SDCCH blocking KPIs should be monitored & avoided


And reason for blocking, SMS, LU, paging etc should be known.

Note! Exceptions are cells that cover ports of entry, such as airports, where
a large number of subscriber location updates are expected
Soc Classification level
51
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


signaling - sdcch

Assessments &
Analysis

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

Increased Dynamic SDCCH


SDCCH resources are used for call

establishment, location updates and


short messages (SMS)
Dynamic SDCCH allocation feature
configures additional SDCCH resources
according to the traffic situation in a cell
When a BTS needs temporarily larger
SDCCH capacity, then idle TCH
resources are configured for the
SDCCH use
When the congestion situation is over
extra SDCCH resources are configured
immediately back to TCH resources
By using Increased Dynamic SDCCH
Capacity, you can use up to 32
SDCCHs per non-BCCH TRX and 24
per BCCH TRX

Soc Classification level


52
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

BCCH SDCCH/8 TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

BCCH SDCCH/8SDCCH/8

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

In case of SDCCH congestion, one


free traffic channel can be
changed dynamically to SDCCH/8
When SDCCH/8 is no longer
needed it is changed dynamically
back to TCH

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


signaling SS7

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

SS7 capacity planning depends heavily on traffic profile.


Typical traffic profile + bytes needed can be seen below
Traffic in BSC 3920 Erl 3920 (Example)
Configuration 2+2+2 (per cell 2 signaling channels, 1 dedicated for data )
Reference model of call traffic
Mean holding
120s
time originated
Mobile
70%
calls
Mobile
30%
terminated
Handovers calls
per
1.5
call
Location
updated
2
per call
IMSI
detach per
0.1
call
SMS (req(subs/1
1
hour)
TOTAL _ Erl subscribers * 25mErl
BusyHourCallAttempts

TOTAL _ Erl * 3600s


MeanHoldingTime

BusyHourCallAttempts

3920Erl * 3600s
117600
120s

Soc Classification level


53
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Procedure
MOT
MTC
HO
LU
Security
SMS

Bytes
290
267
145
160
120
218

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Traffic and Capacity Optimization


signaling SS7

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Total throughput must be calculated based on traffic profile (see previous


slide)
Procedure

Bytes

Mobile Originated Call


Mobile Terminated
Call
Handover
(MSC)
Location Update
Security
SMS
Total

# in Busy Hour
290
267
145
160
120
218

82320
35280
176400
235200
117600
117600

Kbps
53
21
57
83
31
57
302

Total SS7 Capacity: 302 kbps


If SS7 utilization is 20%
302 kbps / (0.2 * 64kbps)

24 64kbps SS7 links are needed

Note!
1 E1 = 31 x 64kbps (total 32, 31 can be used for this purpose)
1 T1 = 24 x 64kbps
Soc Classification level
54
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

Coverage Optimization

Soc Classification level


55
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Solution finding coverage optimization

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

20 km away from site


Signal level -95dBm?
Are both cases critical ones?
Are both cases coverage problem

20km

cases?
Bad coverage what does it mean?
20km

Soc Classification level


56
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

SiteA

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Solution finding coverage optimization

Solution
Verification

Assessments &
Analysis

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

Project
report

Project
Ends

Signal level quality distribution


12478 samples
signal level < -100dBm
Quality 7
=> UL coverage problem?

251992 samples
signal level < -100dBm
Quality 0
=> UL coverage problem?

Exercise
How we should here optimize coverage?
Any problems?

UL_q4
18156
519
353
177
87
25

SIGNAL LEVEL

QUALITY

UL_q5
18286
351
129
82
10
1

UL
UL_q6
16983
221
62
40
6
0

DL

Soc Classification level


57
Nokia Siemens Networks

-100dBm
-95dBm
-90dBm
-80dBm
-70dBm
-47dBm

UL_q0
251992
123653
62938
27005
2831
751

UL_q1
30668
1151
247
51
3
0

UL_q2
20552
403
144
65
9
4

UL_q3
18417
692
288
149
28
10

UL_q4
18156
519
353
177
87
25

UL_q5
18286
351
129
82
10
1

UL_q6
16983
221
62
40
6
0

UL_q7
12478
72
29
16
0
0

DL_q0
27862
89094
142228
222462
44504
5994

UL_q7
12478
-100dBm
72
-95dBm
29
-90dBm
16
-80dBm
0
-70dBm
0
-47dBm

DL_q0
UL_q0
251992
27862
123653
89094
142228
62938
222462
27005
44504
2831
5994
751

DL_q1
UL_q1
30668
5537
4236
1151
2732
247
1523
51
91
3
49
0

DL_q2
UL_q2
20552
5529
3853
403
2550
144
1355
65
123
9
17
4

DL_q3
UL_q3
18417
6069
3576
692
2356
288
1552
149
151
28
17
10

DL_q4
UL_q4
18156
6109
2893
519
1510
353
716
177
81
87
12
25

DL_q5
UL_q5
18286
6107
2264
351
1114
129
812
82
101
10
29
1

DL_q6
UL_q6
16983
5389
1372
221
774
62
1081
40
191
6
65
0

DL_q7
UL_q7
12478
4119
584
72
404
29
343
16
88
0
10
0

DL_q0
27862
89094
142228
222462
44504
5994

Presentation / Author / Date

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution finding coverage optimization

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

Project
report

Project
Ends

Signal level <-90-95dBm is many times level threshold


Typical values for ul/dl level HO (UL, -95dBm, DL, -90dBm)
UL / DL coverage should be always analyzed separately
Here, lots of bad UL signal level samples => UL coverage should be
improved

UL_q4
18156
519
353
177
87
25

SIGNAL LEVEL

QUALITY

UL_q5
18286
351
129
82
10
1

UL
UL_q6
16983
221
62
40
6
0

DL

-100dBm
-95dBm
-90dBm
-80dBm
-70dBm
-47dBm

UL_q0
251992
123653
62938
27005
2831
751

UL_q1
30668
1151
247
51
3
0

UL_q2
20552
403
144
65
9
4

UL_q3
18417
692
288
149
28
10

UL_q4
18156
519
353
177
87
25

UL_q5
18286
351
129
82
10
1

UL_q6
16983
221
62
40
6
0

UL_q7
12478
72
29
16
0
0

DL_q0
27862
89094
142228
222462
44504
5994

DL
5
4
2
1

UL_q7
12478
-100dBm
72
-95dBm
29
-90dBm
16
-80dBm
0
-70dBm
0
-47dBm

DL_q0
UL_q0
251992
27862
123653
89094
142228
62938
222462
27005
44504
2831
5994
751

DL_q1
UL_q1
30668
5537
4236
1151
2732
247
1523
51
91
3
49
0

DL_q2
UL_q2
20552
5529
3853
403
2550
144
1355
65
123
9
17
4

DL_q3
UL_q3
18417
6069
3576
692
2356
288
1552
149
151
28
17
10

DL_q4
UL_q4
18156
6109
2893
519
1510
353
716
177
81
87
12
25

DL_q5
UL_q5
18286
6107
2264
351
1114
129
812
82
101
10
29
1

DL_q6
UL_q6
16983
5389
1372
221
774
62
1081
40
191
6
65
0

DL_q7
UL_q7
12478
4119
584
72
404
29
343
16
88
0
10
0

DL_q0
27862
89094
142228
222462
44504
5994

DL
5
4
2
1

Soc Classification level


58
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution finding coverage optimization

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Solutions to improve coverage


Antenna changes
Tilting
Adding antenna with bigger gain

New cell / site


Costly

DL /UL amplifiers
DL, boosters
UL, Mast head amplifier (MHA)

Diversity

UL
2100MHz

900MHz

Reducing losses

Combiner types
Feeder types

2100MHz
900MHz

Better site / antenna place


Soc Classification level
59
Nokia Siemens Networks

900MHz

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Solution finding coverage optimization


indoor coverage

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Many networks have insufficient indoor coverage due to high building


penetration loss. This includes subways, under ground facilities and
tunnels.
Outdoor coverage is normally ok in urban and city area. Interference is
more an issue for outdoor users.
Micro cell and Indoor cell are good solution to improve indoor coverage
and network quality.
Antenna location is main factor for successful indoor coverage planning

Indoor BTS
Indoor Panel
Antenna

Optical Fiber

Remote Unit
Soc Classification level
60
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Master Unit

RF Cable

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Solution finding coverage optimization


indoor coverage
Other features can be also used for coverage
optimization
Extended cell
Smart radio concept
Antenna hopping

Soc Classification level


61
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Examples of wrong parameter set

impact on network operation/performance call setup,


qual, bands

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

1. No calls happening in a cell


Cell Barred
Non existent (LAC, Cell ID) in MSC
DMAX = 0

2. Very few calls happening in a cell


RxLevAccesMin
Wrong MNC, MCC, LAC declaration

3. Very low traffic in a cell


msTxPwrMax = 0, bsTxPwrMax = 30

4. Bad quality in UL after rehoming


5. Few traffic in 1800 layer of a dual band 900/1800 network

Soc Classification level


62
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Example 1a

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

No calls happening in a cell:


The cell has been barred
Handover

Call Setup

Soc Classification level


63
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Example 1b

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

No calls happening in a cell:


CI different between MSC and BSC or non existent (LAC, Cell
ID) in MSC

Soc Classification level


64
Nokia Siemens Networks

MSC does not find (LAC,


CI) in its database
Presentation / Author / Date

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Example 1c

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

No calls happening in a cell:


MsMaxDistanceInCallSetup (DMAX) = 0
Despite the coverage
of the cell, no calls
will be established!

DMAX = 0

Soc Classification level


65
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Call Setup

RxLevel = -70
dBm

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Example 2a

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Very few calls happening in a cell:


RxLevAccesMin
Mapping

OSS
database

BSS
MML

Lowest range

-110 dBm

-109 dBm

...

...

62

-48 dBm

63

-47 dBm

Highest range

Cell coverage

RxLevAccessMin = -47 dBm

Soc Classification level


66
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Be careful when setting


parameter through xml or dat
file! OSS database unit
should be used to specify
parameter value!

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Example 2b

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Very few calls happening in a cell:


Wrong MNC, MCC, LAC declaration in network - MNC: 01
1 !!! (In OSS correct value)

Note! Be careful when


setting parameter through
xml or dat file! OSS database
unit should be used to
specify parameter value!

Soc Classification level


67
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Example 3

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Very low traffic in a cell:


msTxPwrMax = 0, bsTxPwrMax = 30

Parameter

bsTxPwrMax
bsTxPwrMin
minMsTxPower
msTxPwrMax

Value_______

0 30 dB
0 30 dB
0 36 dBm
0 36 dBm

Attenuation Values (dB)


BTS Max Power = BTS Power (bsTxPwrMax = 0 dB)
BTS Min Power = BTS Power (bsTxPwrMin = 30 dB)

Power Values (dBm)


MS Max Power = (msTxPwrMax = 33 dB)
MS Min Power = (minMsTxPower = 13 dB)

Soc Classification level


68
Nokia Siemens Networks

Implementations

Presentation / Author / Date

Default value

0 dB
30 dB
0 dB

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Example 4

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Bad quality in UL after rehoming:


DiversityUsed parameter not set to yes anymore

After rehoming
RDIV parameter
was set to default
value (No) and UL
quality was
affected.

RDIV = Y

Uplink Diversity
improves quality of
signal received.

Soc Classification level


69
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Example 5

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

Few traffic in 1800 layer of a dual band 900/1800 network:


Idle Mode: C2 parameters not set properly (temporaryOffset,
penaltyTime)
Idle / dedicated mode parameters should be according to
strategy

BCCH
BCCH

slow moving mobile


1800: micro-Layer
Soc Classification level
70
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

fast moving mobile


900: macro-layer

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

Frequency Optimization

Soc Classification level


71
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Solution finding frequency optimization

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

GSM network is based on good frequency planning


Bad frequency planning is causing high interference levels
Lots of drop calls
CS/PS quality is bad
Features are not working properly
Maybe new sites are built due to bad interference problems
Lots of customer complaints
Finally less customers
=> Frequency plan should be properly done

Soc Classification level


72
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Solution finding frequency optimization


Basic Theory
How to analyze my frequency plan
Frequency reuse distance
Frequency allocation reuse
Frequency load
Effective frequency load

Soc Classification level


73
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Solution finding frequency optimization


Theory, Effective reuse

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

Since the frequency band is always limited, the frequencies have to be


reused in the network.
As the reuse distance becomes smaller, there are more frequencies
available for each cell, so more capacity can be provided.
The effective reuse is essentially the same as the conventional
frequency reuse distance.

Reff

N freqsTOT
N TRXave

where:
Reff = effective reuse
NfreqsTOT = total number of used frequencies
NTRXave = average number of TRXs in a cell

Note! The smaller the effective reuse, the higher the capacity in terms of
the number of TCHs provided by one frequency in the network.
Soc Classification level
74
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Solution finding frequency optimization


Theory, Frequency Allocation Reuse RF Hopping only

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Frequency allocation reuse indicates how closely the frequencies


are actually reused in a network.

FAR

N freqsTOT
N freqs/ MA

where:
FAR = frequency allocation reuse
NfreqsTOT = total number of used frequencies
Nfreqs/MA = average number of frequencies in MA-lists

It indicates the severity of a worst case C/I in the cell border.


If the network doesnt utilize fractional loading, the frequency allocation
reuse is the same as the effective reuse.

Soc Classification level


75
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Solution finding frequency optimization


Theory, Frequency load

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Assessments &
Analysis

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

The C/I is low when frequency collisions occur.


In order to guarantee an adequate quality, the collision probability has to be made low.
The collision probability depends on the load of the hopping frequencies called a
frequency load.

The frequency load describes the probability that a frequency channel is used for
transmission at one cell at one time.
The frequency load is a product of two other loads:
hard blocking load (the average busy hour TCH occupancy in most of the cases)
fractional load

L freq LHW L frac


where:
Lfreq = frequency load
LHW = the busy hour average hard blocking load (see next slides)
Lfrac = fractional load (see next slides)
Soc Classification level
76
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Solution finding frequency optimization


Theory, Hard blocking load
The hard blocking load is calculated as

LHW

ThopTCH
N hopTCH

where:
LHW = hard blocking load
ThopTCH = average number of used TCHs in the busy hour
NhopTCH = total number of TCHs in the hopping TRXs

Soc Classification level


77
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Solution finding frequency optimization


Theory, Fractional load

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

Fractional load means that the cell has been allocated more frequencies
than TRXs. This is only possible for RF hopping TRXs.
The fractional load is very useful when the number of TRXs is low. By
utilizing fractional load, it is possible to provide enough frequencies to hop
over (to get FH gain) to even a cell with just one hopping TRX.

L frac

N TRX

N freqs / cell

where:
Lfrac = fractional load
NTRX = number of TRXs in a cell
Nfreqs/cell = number of frequencies allocated to a cell (MA-list length)
Soc Classification level
78
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Solution finding frequency optimization


Theory, Frequency Load,HW and fractional load
75 %

TRX-1

BCCH

f1

TRX-2

f2, f3, f4, f5, f6

TRX-3

f3, f4, f5, f6, f2

TRX-4

f4, f5, f6, f2, f3

Soc Classification level


79
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

HW load is 75%
Fractional load FL is
3 TRX / 5 F = 0.6 = 60%
Frequency load is
HWL * FL = 45%

25 %

Active slots

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Empty slots

(E)GPRS is on the BCCH


layer in this case

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Solution finding frequency optimization


Theory, Effective Frequency Load
Coverage limited network has low EFL
Interference limited network has high EFL
It is calculated by the equation mentioned below:

Soc Classification level


80
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Solution finding frequency optimization

Soc Classification level


81
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Project
Ends

584 re-used
close together

Heavy re-use
of 582

Solution
Verification

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Visual BCCH Plan Inspection

584 re-used
close together

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution finding frequency optimization

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

BCCH Carrier Utilisation

Project
Ends

Channel distribution

60

Occurrences

50
40
30
20

Carriers also used


in MA List

Soc Classification level


82
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

584

583

582

581

580

579

578

577

576

575

574

573

571

570

522

521

520

519

518

517

516

515

514

513

572

10

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Solution finding frequency optimization


BSIC Utilization
BSIC allocation distribution
As can be seen from the
figure, amount of BSIC
combinations are not
spread smoothly
BSIC planning is not
properly done => risks to
double BCCH+BSIC
combinations is increased

Note! Good radio network is based on properly


done BSIC + BCCH Planning
Soc Classification level
83
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Solution finding frequency optimization

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Same color =
same frequency

Signal level is good,


but quality is bad
=> Frequency plan is
not properly done

Soc Classification level


84
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Solution finding frequency optimization


Different frequency planning methods

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

Exercise
How these planning methods differs from each other?
Based on Prediction tools
Planning Tools with propagation models

Based on Interference matrix


Optimizer

Mapinfo
Visualization

Any other methods?


Soc Classification level
85
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Solution finding frequency optimization


Frequency Hopping
Network capacity and performance is
typically limited by co-channel
interference, multipath fading, delay
spread and noise

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Interference

Interference Diversity

F1

F3

F1

F1

Frequency Hopping benefits are based


on:
Interference Diversity
where interference is averaged over
multiple frequencies
Frequency Diversity
which reduces the needed fading
margins

average

F2
F2 F3

F2 F
3

MS_1

Signal
Level

MS_2

MS_3

Frequency Diversity
F1
F2

Interference averaging and reduced


immunity to signal fading gives the
possibility to reduce the C/I margins and
tighten the frequency reuse schemes

F3

MS Location

Distance

Bursts sent on frequency F2 may be degraded or lost, but the initial signal is
still be reconstructed from the bursts on frequencies F1 and F3.

Soc Classification level


86
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Solution finding frequency optimization

TRX 1

7 Timeslot
f1

BC
CH

TRX 2

f2

TRX 3

f3

TRX 4

f4

HSN1
Timeslot 0 hops over TRXs 2-4 only
BCCH does not hop
HSN2
Timeslots 1-7 hop over all TRXs

RF Hopping
0
TRX 1

Timeslot

BC
CH

f1 no hopping

TRX 2

f2,f3..fn hopping according


mobile allocation list
One hopping sequence
number only

TRX 3
TRX 4
Soc Classification level
87
Nokia Siemens Networks

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Project
Ends

Baseband Hopping
1 2

Solution
Verification

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Frequency Hopping
0

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Solution finding frequency optimization


DFCA (Dynamic frequency & channel allocation)

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

Random FH
TRX 1

BCCH

TRX 2

Random FH
over a fixed
frequency
list

TRX 3
TRX 4

DFCA
TRX 1
TRX 2
TRX 3
TRX 4

Soc Classification level


88
Nokia Siemens Networks

Loose interference control

Relies on random spreading of the


interference

BCCH
Cyclic FH
over
individually
selected
frequency lists
and MAIOs
for each
connection

Presentation / Author / Date

C/I > C/I target

Accurate interference control (C/I estimations)

Each connection is assigned with the most suitable


radio channel (MA list, MAIO, TSL)

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Frequency optimization Consistency check


Cells with co-channel and adj-channel frequencies

Cell A

Co-channel frequencies: HO is not possible in case of co-BCCH

Soc Classification level


89
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Monitoring /
Data collection

Analysis

-6dB -9dB

FREQ=9,10,11

If Co / Adj-channel frequencies are existing, these must be removed

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Work orders

Project
Ends

Cell B

Adj-channel frequencies: Ho is possible but might fail due to


interference.

Implementations

Project
report

B
FREQ=10

Solution
Verification

Assessments &
Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Frequency optimization Consistency check

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Check BCCH-BSIC and BCCH reuse distance


Small distances may be
dangerous!

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Project
Ends

FREQ = 234
BSIC = 42

FREQ = 234

FREQ = 234
BSIC = 42

Reuse 4/12
Soc Classification level
90
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Frequency optimization Consistency check


Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Other Checks

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

Neighbors with co-channel frequencies


Neighbors with adj-channel frequencies
Neighbors of a same cell with co-BSIC, co-BCCH
Neighbors from other Vendor
Frequencies / co-BSICs near the country border ( if available)

Soc Classification level


91
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Examples of wrong parameter set

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

impact on network operation/performance frequencies

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

1. Drop call rate increase after new frequency plan


implementation

Double BA List activated

2. Impossibility to unlock some BTS after a RF-frequency


hopping implementation
3. Impossibility to unlock some BTS after a frequency retune

NON-EDGE TRX, with GTRX = Y


TRX, with GTRX = Y, not attached to any EDAP pool

Soc Classification level


92
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Example 1

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

Project
report

Project
Ends

Drop call rate increase after new frequency plan implementation:


In the meantime, measurementBcchAllocation has been changed to
idle and MA list defined with old BCCH frequency band
OLD MA List
BCCH

TCH

TCH

BCCH

TCH

OLD FREQUENCY PLAN

NEW FREQUENCY PLAN

These BCCH frequencies will not be measured by old MA List


These TCH frequencies will be wrongly measured

Soc Classification level


93
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Example 2

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Not possible to unlock some BTS after a RF-frequency


hopping implementation:

After frequency hopping retune, some BCCH frequency


equal to TRX frequency of non-BCCH TRXs
After changing TRX frequency, verify BSIC and TSC
(Training Sequence Code) is changed accordingly.

Soc Classification level


94
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Example 3a

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Impossibility to unlock some BTS after a frequency retune:


NON-EDGE TRX, with GTRX = Y, in a cell with EGENA set
to yes
SEG
EGENA = Y

BTS

(E)GPRS territory

GTRX = Y
GTRX = Y

Soc Classification level


95
Nokia Siemens Networks

SEG
EDGE TRX(s)
NONEDGE
TRX(s)

Presentation / Author / Date

EGENA = Y

BTS

(E)GPRS territory
EDGE TRX(s)
GTRX = Y
GTRX = N

NONEDGE
TRX(s)

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Example 3b

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

Impossibility to unlock some BTS after a frequency retune:


TRX, with GTRX = Y, not attached to any EDAP pool in a cell
with EGENA set to yes
SEG
EGENA = Y
1

BTS

(E)GPRS territory
EDGE TRX(s)
GTRX = Y
GTRX = N

NONEDGE
TRX(s)

Add TRX-1 to EDAP


pool

Soc Classification level


96
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

EDAP pool

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

Neighbor Optimization

Soc Classification level


97
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Solution finding neighbor optimization

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

Keep the neighbor list in order.


Note! If lots of overshooting => dominance areas are not clear => neighbor
list are getting bigger.
Bad overshooting should be avoided
Missing neighbors the worst situation

Use the Handover Adjacency Statistics to identify and remove


neighbors
Bad overshooting cells can cause problems

ISHO optimization
Avoid:
neighbor definitions that are co-BCCH and co-BSIC or Adj-BCCH and
co-BSIC that can lead to wrong neighbor reporting
One-way neighbors

Soc Classification level


98
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Solution finding neighbor optimization

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

GREEN = source
RED
=neighbor cell
BLUE = no neighbor

As can be seen, neighbors are not


fully optimized.
There are missing neighbors and
on the other hand, some far away
cells are neighbors
Soc Classification level
99
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Solution finding neighbor optimization

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

GREEN = source
RED
=neighbor cell
BLUE = no neighbor

Soc Classification level


100
Nokia Siemens Networks

In this area there might be big


problems due to unoptimized
neighbors
Presentation / Author / Date

Overshooting cells => added


to neighbor list.
Neighbor planning is more
difficult to do, if lots of
overshooting cells

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Solution finding neighbor optimization

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

Challenges
Sites by the sea
Dominance areas are reaching
far away => neighbor cells can
be far away
SEA

Indoor solutions
Signal levels from outdoor cells
near windows can be high

High buildings
Lots of cells can be heart near
the window

3G cells
Limited amount of neighbors
Soc Classification level
101
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Only few neighbor cells


=> in the sea there will
be problems

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Solution finding neighbor optimization

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

Neighbor optimization based on statistics


HO attempts, blocking and fails can be analyzed as source or
target cells
Neighbor removing can be done based on stats

In case Number of HO
Attempts is very low to a
certain cell, consider
removing this cell from
Adjacency list.

Soc Classification level


102
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Neighbor Planning Consistency check

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Non symmetrical adjacencies

Project
Ends

Find all non symmetrical adjacencies :


cell B is neighbour of Cell A
cell A is not neighbour of Cell B

Cell A

Cell B

If there are non symmetrical adjacencies, these must be


changed to symmetrical adjacencies
Soc Classification level
103
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

Neighbor Planning Consistency check

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Neighbours with co-channel and adj-channel frequencies


or co-BSIC, co-BCCH
Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Cell B
f=10

f=10, BSIC=2,2

Cell A
f=24

Cell C
f=10, BSIC=2,2

Neighbours with co-BSIC, co-BCCH:


Might generate ghost-access and
HO drop calls.
High sdcch abis failure and high
handover failure could be indicators
for this case.
Soc Classification level
104
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

f=24
f=9,10,11

Neighbours with co-channel or


adjacent channel frequencies:
Will cause interference between
neighbour cells

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Solution finding neighbor optimization


Different methods

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

Exercise
How these planning methods differs from each other?
1.Add maximum nbr of neighbors and after 2 weeks remove
extra neighbors based on HO statistic
2.First only nearest (dominance area) and if problems, add
more neighbors
In neighbor optimization following selection methods can be
used
Based on Optimizer
Based on Map
Based on OSS Statistics

Soc Classification level


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Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Neighbor planning Consistency check


Other Checks

Check cells in MSC vs cells in BSC


Check external adjacencies in MSC
Non symmetrical adjacencies
Neighbors of a same cell with co-BSIC, co-BCCH
3G neighbors

Soc Classification level


106
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

Handover Optimization

Soc Classification level


107
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Solution finding HO optimization

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

HO Strategies Traffic handling (900-1800 layers)

PBGT, quality, level

1800
layer

Umbrella
Traffic Reason
IUO
PBGT, quality, level

900
layer

Soc Classification level


108
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution finding HO optimization

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

Optimizing HOs, Reduce unnecessary HOs


DL Level HO typically (-94dB)
old
Quality HO 3dB
HO Level margin 2dB
=> if Cell1 -98dBm => Cell2 >-96dBm => HO
=> might be HO fail if for example some imbalance

new HO level margin => 24dBm (=disabled in this case)


Quality HO 3dB (HO is done only if quality problems)
No HO, AMR is used => no drops and quality is OK
PBGT is still working. Value can be decreased if problems)

Unnecessary HO is
prevented in this area

-100dBm
Cell1

Cell2

route
-100dBm

Soc Classification level


109
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Solution finding HO optimization

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

Optimizing HOs, HO parameters


Umbrella ( AUCL parameter)
AMR FR/HR
Packing, unpacking parameters
Interference / quality HO
If interference level -75dB => interference problems in good signal level
Rest are quality HOs => bad quality can be also due decreased signal
level.
This difference is good to know

Level / PBGT
If margin is same as PBGT, the only difference is level, See example in
previous slide where Level HO disabled.
It is useful to know if overlapping in good signal level and bad signal level
Can be noticed if overshooting
If no Level HOs => real coverage problems without overlapping
Soc Classification level
110
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution finding HO optimization

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

AMR + Power Control & HO control co-ordination in UL

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

Project
report

Project
Ends

Quality
(BER)
(PxNx:6/16)

UURF

Packing of the call

Power down quality


(PxNx:4/6)

IHRF

No action
(PxNx: 2/3)

LURF

Power up quality
IHRH

(PxNx: 4/6)

(PxNx:1/1)

(PxNx:1/1)

Presentation / Author / Date

RxLevel
Power down
level

Soc Classification level


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Nokia Siemens Networks

UUR (POC) -70

(AMR) Qual HO
HYS -6dB

Handover
trigger

-110dBm

LUR (POC) -95

Handover trigger

Power up
level

LUR (HOC) -95

QURF

(PxNx: 1/1)

Unpacking the call

-47dBm

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

HO Optimization Consistency check

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Synchronized handover

Project
Ends

Non-synchronized Handover
MS sends access bursts (HO_ACCESS) (with varying TA) until
it receives PHYSICAL_INFO
Synchronized Handover
MS sends a few access bursts (HO_ACCESS) and then starts
transmission with previous TA
Non-synchronised handover leads to a longer communication
interruption than synchronised handover (200ms vs. 100ms)
Synchronized HO should be activated between sectors of the same site.
If activated on inter-site adjacencies the handover can fail
Non- Synchronized HO

Synchronized HO

Site A
Soc Classification level
112
Nokia Siemens Networks

Site B

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Solution finding HO optimization


Different methods

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

Exercise 1
In which case the network is working better? (theoretical)
All handovers are quality handovers
All handovers are level handovers
Exercise 2
How these differs from each other?
Quality HO vs. Interference HO
PBGT vs. Level HO
Traffic handling : decreased power 2 dB vs. decreased HO
margin 2dB

Soc Classification level


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Presentation / Author / Date

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

HO planning Consistency check


Other Checks

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

Check cells in MSC vs cells in BSC


Check external adjacencies in MSC
Neighbors with co-channel frequencies
Neighbors with adj-channel frequencies
Neighbors of a same cell with co-BSIC, co-BCCH
Check site with same MA List in different sectors and different
HSN
Check site with same MA List in different sectors and MAIO
collision

Soc Classification level


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Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Examples of wrong parameter set


impact on network operation/performance Handover

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

1. No handover from a cell towards all its neighbours

PLMN permitted = No

2. High Handover failures after implementation of new adjacency plan

SYNC = YES

3. No handover happening from an interfered cell

hoMarginQual set to 0

4. 100% of handover failures in an adjacency relation

Co-BSIC co-BCCH declarati

5. High number of handovers

hoThresholdsLevUL = hoThresholdsLevDL

6. Handover not happening when DL signal level of neighbour much


greater than serving cell

POC DL activated

Soc Classification level


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Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Example 1

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

No handover from a cell towards all its neighbours:


PLMN permitted not set properly. MML Default value is the NCC of the
BTS. So HOs will not happen towards neighbours with different NCC.
No Measurement reports of
Cell B are sent to BSC. So no
HOs occur from Cell A to Cell
B

Plmn permitted 0 = No
.
Plmn permitted 3 = Yes
Plmn permitted 4 = No

Cell A
NCC 3

Cell B
NCC 4

Set Plmn permitted 4 =


Yes

Plmn permitted 7 = No

PLMN permitted parameter consists actually of 8 parameters (0 7) related to


the NCC part of the BSICs of neighbour cells. MS only reports measurements of
cells with NCC permitted (plmn permitted = YES).

Soc Classification level


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Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Example 2

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

Project
report

Project
Ends

High Handover failures after implementation of new adjacency plan


All adjacencies have been implemented with synchronised
parameter set to yes. HOs between cells of different sites will
probably fail.
Synchronized Handover
MS

NETWORK
ACTIVE CALL
HANDO CMD
HANDO ACC

PHYS INFO

Old Channel, Old Cell

Set SYNC = YES


only between
sectors of the
same site.
SYNC = NO

New Channel, New Cell

HANDO COM
ACTIVE CALL

Soc Classification level


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Nokia Siemens Networks

Recommendation is to have Sync HO within BTSs in the


same BCF and Non Sync HO between BTSs in different
BCFs.
Presentation / Author / Date

SYNC = YES

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Example 3

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

No handover happening from an interfered cell


hoMarginQual set to 0
A

Ho Margin Qual = -4

PBGT margin = 6dB

B
Ho Margin Qual = 0

(MML Default)

In an interfered cell, despite high signal strength, quality is not good. So HO


Margin Qual should permit HO to a cell that despite its lower signal strength,
may have a better quality.
Soc Classification level
118
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Example 4

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

100% of handover failures in an adjacency relation


Co-BCCH declaration (Co-BSIC)

Cell A

Soc Classification level


119
Nokia Siemens Networks

Cell B

FREQ=10

FREQ=10

BSIC = 33

BSIC = 33

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Example 5

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

High number of handovers. hoThresholdsLevUL =


hoThresholdsLevDL
Quality

hoThresholdsLevUL
, high thresholds will
anticipate HOs:

-95 -> -100

Level Ho

No Action Needed

hoThresholdsLevDL
:

Interference Ho

HoThresholdInterferenceUL/DL
HoThresholdLevUL

Soc Classification level


120
Nokia Siemens Networks

HoThresholdLevDL

HoThresholdLevUL/
DL
Presentation / Author / Date

-50

-52

-54

-56

-58

-60

-62

-64

-66

-68

-70

-72

-74

-76

-78

-80

-82

-84

-86

-88

-90

-92

-94

-96

-98

-100

-102

-104

-106

-108

7
-110

-95 -> -90

Quality Ho

dBm

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Example 6

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Handover not happening when DL signal level of neighbour


much greater than serving cell
Power control DL activated

A
Power Control
-6dB
B
-3dB

Soc Classification level


121
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

-9dB

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

(E)GPRS Optimization

Soc Classification level


122
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Objectives

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

After PS optimization module learning


You know the impact of GSM performance on (E)GPRS
performance
You know the main assessment activities
You know how the signaling, throughput and mobility can be
optimized

Soc Classification level


123
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

GSM Network as the physical layer of (E)GPRS

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

The optimal GSM network from PSW services point of view has:
1. As high signal level as possible

It means that even the indoor signal level should be high enough to have MCS9 for
getting the highest data rate on RLC/MAC layer.

2. As low interference as possible

The aim of having high C/I is to avoid throughput reduction based on interference.

3. Enough capacity

Enough BSS hardware capacity (interface and connectivity) is needed to provide the
required capacity for PSW services in time. Both CSW and PSW traffic management
should be harmonized with the layer structure and long term plans.

4. As few cell re-selection as possible

The dominant cell coverage is important to avoid unnecessary cell-reselections in


mobility. The prudent PCU allocation can help to reduce the inter PCU cell
reselections.
Dominant cell structure can help to maximize the signal level and reduce the
interference, too.

5. Features

All the features should be used which can improve the PSW service coverage,
capacity and quality in general.

6. The GSM network is the physical layer of (E)GPRS, so the optimization


of GSM network can improve the performance of (E)GPRS, too.
Soc Classification level
124
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Assessments &
Analysis

(E)GPRS Optimization TSL data rate optimization


Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

Timeslot optimization is based on basic optimization


Interference optimization
Coverage optimization
RLC/MAC Data Rate (FTP Download on 2 TSLs)

100
80
kbps

Data rate is heavily


depending on network
quality
Better quality
Better throughput
Less blocking

120

No Interference
C/I 25 dB

60

C/I 20 dB
C/I 15 dB

40
20
0
-65

-70

-75

-80

-85

-90

Signal level (dBm)


Soc Classification level
125
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

-95

-100

-105

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

(E)GPRS Optimization
Network Element and Configuration Assessment
HLR

BSS

BTS
GPRS territory

PCU variant &


dimensioning

BTS HW
considerations
(TRX & BB-card)

PCU strategy in
mixed
configuration

BTS SW (EPCR)

QoS profile
TC

HLR/
AC/
EIR

TCSM

BSS SW and
features

MSC/VLR

GPRS settings

SGSN

Unit capacity
(PAPU etc.)
BSS Gb Flow
control

MS/Client
parameters
Gs

GPRS/EDGE
capability and
release

IP/MPLS/IPoATM backbone

Multislot support

GGSN
RF

BTS

BSC
Abis

Gb

2G
SGSN

Gn
Gi
Application
Applicatio
Servers
n Servers
(co located

RF interface
Coverage
C/I
Capacity
Traffic volume
Mobility

Gb interface
Abis interface
EDAP size /
dimensioning
# of E1/T1s

GPRS/EDGE
traffic
Soc Classification level
126
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Bearer size
IP v.s. FR
Dimensioning

Server
load
settings (Linux/Win)

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

(E)GPRS Optimization - Introduction

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

(E)GPRS Network Optimization

Signaling capacity & resource allocation improvement


Data Rate
Connectivity Capacity (MS-SGSN)
Multiplexing and multislot usage maximization

Mobility improvement

Soc Classification level


127
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

(E)GPRS Optimization - Signaling Capacity &


Resource Allocation improvement
Signaling
PCH, AGCH, RACH and SDCCH (NMOII)

Resource Allocation
Cell (re)-selection
BTS selection
Scheduling

Soc Classification level


128
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

(E)GPRS Optimization - RF Signaling


Paging Measurements (NMO I)
Traffic Volume

cs_paging_msg_sent (c3058) (CS pagings from Gb)


ps_paging_msg_sent (c3057) (PS pagings from Gb)

Congestion (CS + PS)

max_paging_gb_buf (003050)

Paging success ratio on CS

PAC_PAG_REQ_FOR_CS_PAG (c72083) / (cs_paging_msg_sent) (c3000)

Success ratio of Paging on Gs interface (2G SGSN)


sum(DL_MESSAGES_DISCARDED_IN_GS(11000))
Sgsn_961a = ----------------------------------------------------------------------- * 100
sum(CS_PAGING_MSGS + DL_TOM_MSGS)

Solution for reducing PCH rejection and load

Usage of combined structure, modifying MFR and PER parameters


LA/RA re-planning
Cell splitting

Soc Classification level


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Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

(E)GPRS Optimization - RF Signaling


AGCH Measurements
Immediate Assignment
Traffic Volume (with Rejection)
imm_assgn_sent (c3001) - Imm Assign)
imm_assgn_rej (c3002) - Imm Assign Rejected
packet_immed_ass_msg (c72084) - P-Imm Assign

packet_immed_ass_rej_msg (c72087) - P-Imm Assign


Congestion
blck_21b =

packet_immed_ass_nack_msg
------------------------------------------------------------------------packet_immed_ass_nack_msg + packet_immed_ass_ack_msg

Solution for reducing AGCH rejection and load


Usage of combined structure, modifying AG and CALC parameters
Immediate Assignment messages are shared between PCH and AGCH
PBCCH implementation (in case of high (E)GPRS signaling traffic)

Soc Classification level


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Presentation / Author / Date

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

(E)GPRS Optimization - RF Signaling


RACH Measurements
Traffic Volume
PACKET_CH_REQ (c072082) (PSW)
CH_REQ_MSG_REC (c003004) (CSW)

Load
RACH_4 = 100 * avg(ave_rach_busy(C3014)/res_acc_denom3(c3015))
avg(ave_rach_slot(c3006)/res_acc_denom1(c3007))

Repetitions of PS channel requests (load and quality)


RACH_9 = UL_TBF_WITH_RETRY_BIT_SET (c072020) / PACKET_CH_REQ (c072082)

Solution for reducing RACH rejection and load


Usage of combined structure, modifying RET parameter
PBCCH implementation (in case of high (E)GPRS signaling traffic)
Reducing high UL interference (and DL interference if the repetition is too high)
Soc Classification level
131
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

(E)GPRS Optimization - RF Signaling


SDCCH Measurements (NMO II with LA Update)

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Project
Ends

Traffic Volume
SDCCH seizure attempts (c1000)
Average available SDCCH (ava_45a)

Congestion
Blocking on SDCCH, before FCS (blck_5)
Time congestion on SDCCH (cngt_2)

Solution for reducing SDCCH load


Increase of Periodic RA update timer (PRAU) / MS Reachable timer (MSRT)
Drawback: more PAPU capacity is needed and more paging will be generated, if the MS is out of service

More SDCCH TSL allocation and/or Dynamic SDCCH feature usage


Combined RAU (NMO-I with Gs for (E)GPRS)
(Resume feature decreases the amount of RAUs)
LA and border re-planning

Soc Classification level


132
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

(E)GPRS Optimization - Resource Allocation


Introduction

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

Project
report

Project
Ends

RLC/MAC
Basic Allocation related Topics
PSW Activation
Territory settings
Channel pref.
Cell-(re)selection
C1, C2
C31/C32
NCCR

Provide enough capacity to PSW


traffic in general (find balance
between CSW and PSW)

Allocate the traffic to the most


appropriate resource

BTS Selection
MultiBCF and CBCCH
PCU algorithm

Separate GPRS and EGPRS


and share the resources

User
Channel Scheduling
Priority based QoS

Soc Classification level


133
Nokia Siemens Networks

Service and user prioritization

Presentation / Author / Date

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

(E)GPRS Optimization
GPRS Territory

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Circuit Switched traffic has priority outside dedicated territory


GPRS dedicated time slots (% of total cell capacity) can be defined. Only
(E)GPRS can use, no CSW
Dedicated TSL is subset of Default TSL
Territories consists of consecutive timeslots
GPRS can be set to favour the BCCH Transceiver -> minimum interference
Extra GPRS capacity

Default GPRS capacity threshold

TRX 1

BCCH

TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

TRX 2

TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

Free time slots in Circuit


Switched territory
Territory upgrade in interval of
Territory Upgrade Guard Time

Soc Classification level


134
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Default GPRS
Capacity (%)
Territory downgrade
forced by the Circuit
Switched traffic

Dedicated
GPRS
Capacity (%)

Circuit
Switched
Territory
Circuit /
Packet
Switched
Territory

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

(E)GPRS

Cell (re) -Optimization


selection
Cell (re) - Selection

Soc Classification level


135
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

(E)GPRS Optimization
BTS Selection and TSL Allocation
BTS selection and TSL allocation is
Segment
Initial BTS Selection
Reallocation of TBFs among the BTS
1. BTS Load reallocation
2. Uplink Rx level reallocation
3. Downlink Rx level
reallocation
4. Downlink RX level received
first time reallocation

Soc Classification level


136
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

(E)GPRS Optimization
Resource Allocation - Priority based QoS

Solution
Verification

Assessments &
Analysis

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

TBF1 with SSS=6


TBF2 with SSS=1

127 12
7

Latest Service Time = Current Time + Scheduling Step Size

12

12

12

12

11

12

10

13
12

18
13

10 11 (time)
12

9
18
14

18
15

18 18
16

17

Latest service time

52 TDMA frames = 240 ms= 12 blocks

Soc Classification level


137
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

The
scheduling is
done based
on latest
service time,
one TBF at a
time is served
by the RTSL

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

(E)GPRS - Throughput optimization

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

Connectivity Capacity (MS-SGSN)


TSL data rate improvement and multislot usage maximization
(BSS)
E2E data rate (applications)

Soc Classification level


138
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

(E)GPRS Optimization
Connectivity Planning Maximized Capacity

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

The connectivity optimization for maximum capacity is based


on the proper set of CDEF and DAP size.
To provide enough capacity for territory upgrade the 75 %
utilization in the connectivity limits is recommended by NSN
PCU Connectivity capacity limits can be seen below
Outputs
Abis channles (radio TSLs)
EDAP pools
BTS (cell, segment)
TRXs
*PCU & PCU-S handle 128 radio TSLs only with S11.5
*PBCCH is not implemented

Soc Classification level


139
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Max limit*
256
16
64
128

Utilization
75%
75%
75%
75%

Limit
192
12
48
96

unit
TSLs
pcs
pcs
pcs

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

(E)GPRS Optimization
Connectivity in different PCUs
PCU variant
PCU

PCU-S

BSCE, BSC2,
BSCi, BSC2i

PCU-T

BSCE, BSC2,
BSCi, BSC2i

PCU2-U

BSCE, BSC2,
BSCi, BSC2i

PCU-B

BSC3i

PCU2-D

BSC3i

Soc Classification level


140
Nokia Siemens Networks

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

BSS11
BTS

64

64

TRX
Radio TSLs
Abis 16 kbps channels
Gb 64 kbps channels
BTS

128
256
256
31
64

128
128
256
31
64

TRX
Radio TSLs
Abis 16 kbps channels
Gb 64 kbps channels
BTS
TRX
Radio TSLs
Abis 16 kbps channels
Gb 64 kbps channels
BTS
TRX
Radio TSLs
Abis 16 kbps channels
Gb 64 kbps channels
BTS
TRX
Radio TSLs
Abis 16 kbps channels
Gb 64 kbps channels
BTS
TRX
Radio TSLs
Abis 16 kbps channels
Gb 64 kbps channels

128
256
256
31
64
128
256
256
31
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
2 x 64
2 x 128
2 x 256
2 x 256
2 x 31
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

128
128
256
31
64
128
256
256
31
128
256
256
256
31
2 x 64
2 x 128
2 x 256
2 x 256
2 x 31
2 x 128
2 x 256
2 x 256
2 x 256
2 x 31

Presentation / Author / Date

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

BSS11.5
ownwards

BSC Type
BSCE, BSC2,
BSCi, BSC2i

Solution
Verification

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

(E)GPRS Optimization
Connectivity Planning Cells / PCU

Solution
Verification

Assessments &
Analysis

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Work orders

Solutions

Priorization

Analysis

Solutions

Project
report

Project
Ends

The following configuration types were


defined:

The following table shows the number


of EGPRS cell / PCU calculations for
the different configuration types.
EGPRS BSS Configuration
Portfolio (ETSI)

extra small
(XS)

Extra small
Small
Medium
Large
Extra large
Data monster

small
(S)

lowest cost
per EGPRS
cell: maximize low cost: high
EGPRS cells
EGPRS cells per
per PCU
PCU ratio

Use case

Parameters
CDEF
DAP

medium
(M)

(CDEF1 RTSL, DAP 3 TSL)


(CDEF 2 RTSL, DAP 4 TSL)
(CDEF 4 RTSL, DAP 6 TSL)
(CDEF 4 RTSL, DAP 8 TSL)
(CDEF 4 RTSL, DAP 11 TSL)
(CDEF 4 RTSL, DAP 16 TSL)
large
(L)

High data volume


Basic EGPRS site EGPRS site

extra large
(XL)

Extra high data


volume site

data monster
monster
Data
(DM)
(DM)

Data hot spot


site)

Data hot spot site

1
3

2
4

4
6

4
8

4
11

4
16

# of cells / PCU with utilization


cells per DAP
#DAPs per PCU
#EGPRS cells per PCU
PCU Abis ch utilization
average cells per DAP
#DAPs per PCU
#EGPRS cells per PCU
PCU Abis ch utilization
cells per DAP
#DAPs per PCU
#EGPRS cells per PCU
PCU Abis ch utilization

2
16
32
88%
2.5
15
37
85%
3
15
45
88%

2
11
22
86%
2.5
10
25
82%
3
10
30
86%

2
7
14
88%
2.5
6
15
80%
3
6
18
84%

2
5
10
78%
2.5
5
12
81%
3
5
15
86%

2
4
8
81%
2.5
4
10
84%
3
4
12
88%

2
3
6
84%
2.5
3
7
86%
3
3
9
89%

Performance figures (kbps) (n+n+n)


single user peak RLC/MAC (#RTSL in DL)
cell peak RLC/MAC (gross)

186
354

237
325

237
597

237
748

237
829

Soc Classification level


141
Nokia Siemens Networks
notes fo applying

area for low


EGPRS traffic,
no
Presentation
/ Author / Date
performance
commitments

areas for low+


EGPRS traffic,
support 4 RTSL
MS FTP max
throughput

237
373
areas for medium
EGPRS traffic,
supports 4 & 5
RTSL MS
FTP/HTTP max
throughput

Hot spot site


areas for high
EGPRS traffic

areas for extra


hot spot site for
For EGPRS
high EGPRS traffic EGPRS

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

(E)GPRS Optimization - KPIs

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

DL MCS selection limited by EDAP (dap_7a)


Similar formula for DL (dap_8c)

Target values:
Good: < 75 min/GByte
Bad: > 150 min/GByte

DL_TBFS_WITH_INADEQ_EDAP_RES (c076008)
c76008 includes lack of PCU resources (c76020
DL_MCS_LIMITED_BY_PCU ) as one reason.
If c76008 is updated but peak EDAP usage is less than 100%, reason
is that c76008 has been updated because of lacking PCU resources,

Soc Classification level


142
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

(E)GPRS Optimization - KPIs

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

DL MCS selection limited by PCU (dap_9)


Similar formula for UL ( dap_10)

Target values:
Good: < 15 min/GByte
Bad: > 30 min/GByte

Soc Classification level


143
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

(E)GPRS Optimization - Multiplexing

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

Channel Allocation Algorithm tends to separate EDGE TBFs and GPRS


TBFs on different RTSL to avoid multiplexing, if only one PS Territory exists
in the cell or there is high load.
UL GPRS USF on DL EGPRS TBF
TSL sharing - GPRS/EGPRS TBFs multiplexing on a TSL
The algorithm checks the need for re-allocation every
TBF_LOAD_GUARD_THRSHLD, in order to separate sessions.
The max amount of TBFs per TSL can be limited:

Parameter Name

Abbreviation

Description

Maximum Number of DL TBF

MNDL

maximum number of TBFs that a radio time slot can


have in average, in a GPRS territory, in the dow nlink
direction.

1..9, default:9

Maximum Number of UL TBF

MNUL

maximum number of TBFs that a radio time slot can


have in average, in a GPRS territory, in the uplink
direction.

1..7, default:7

Soc Classification level


144
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Range and Default

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

(E)GPRS Optimization
Multiplexing Measurements (KPIs)
Amount of TBFs / TSL
Uplink TBFs pr timeslot tbf_37d
Downlink TBFs pr timeslot tbf_38d
GPRS TBF multiplexed with EGPRS TBF
8PSK coding scheme downgrade due to GPRS multiplexing rlc_61
DL EDGE TBFs in GPRS territory tbf_60
UL EDGE TBFs in GPRS territory tbf_59
Ratio of DL GPRS TBFs in EDGE territory tbf_58a

Ratio of UL GPRS TBFs in EDGE territory tbf_57a

Soc Classification level


145
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

(E)GPRS Optimization - Multislot usage


Territory Downgrade and Upgrade

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

The territory downgrade heavily depends on the size of dedicated and


default territory.
Territory downgrade due to CSW traffic rise

Territory downgrade due to less PSW traffic

Downgrade request below Default territory because of rising CSW (c1179)

Downgrade request back to the Default territory when there is no need for
additional channels anymore (c1181)

Territory upgrade request rejection beyond default territory

Upgrade request beyond Default territory for additional resources (c1174),


which can be rejected because of:
1.
2.
3.

No (E)GPRS capable resource left (No (E)GPRS enable TRX or the maximum (E)GPRS capacity reached)
PCU and EDAP capacity limitation (256 Abis TSL per PCU)
High CSW load
Default territory

1174

5
1179

1181
1180

Soc Classification level


146
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

(E)GPRS Optimization
Free TSL Size (after CS Upgrade and Downgrade)
Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

When a downgrade or upgrade procedure is requested


following parameters can reduce or increase the border
between CSW and PSW territories:

TSL number after CS downgrade


TRX number

free TSL for CS downgrade (%)


(CSD)

70
95
99

1
0

2
1

3
1

4
1

5
2

TSL number after CS upgrade


TRX number

free TSL for CS upgrade (sec)


(CSU)

Soc Classification level


147
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

1
4
7
10

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

(E)GPRS Optimization
Multislot Usage Measurements (KPIs)

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

Actual Territory
ava_44
Peak PS territory (c2063)
Recommendation: Ava_44 and c2063 can be compared with the CDEF
settings. If too big difference, then CDEF should perhaps be changed, or more
capacity should be added to the cell.

Multislot Blocking
UL / DL multislot allocation blocking hard (tbf_15a, tbf_16a)
DL multislot blocking soft (blck_33a)
Recommendation: Too much multislot blocking shows that the territory is perhaps not
enough.

And it is also interesting to see how many timeslots which are requested (helpful in
determining the size of the default territories)
Requested timeslots for GPRS TBFs c72039-c72149, c72040-c72150, c72041c72151, c72042-c72152
Requested timeslots for EDGE TBFs c72149, c72150, c72151, c72152
Soc Classification level
148
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

(E)GPRS Optimization - Mobility Optimization

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

The aim of mobility optimization is to reduce the cell outage time during cell
re-selection.
Cell outage can be reduced by
Providing enough signaling capacity for cell re-selection (the RACH, PCH,
AGCH and SDCCH channel are not limiting the signaling flow)
Rebalancing BCFs among PCUs properly (the important neighbors are
allocated to the same PCU)
Reallocating LA/RA borders properly
Enabling Network Assisted Cell Change (NACC) feature

Soc Classification level


149
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

(E)GPRS Optimization
Outage Definition Used in Measurements

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Three delays can be


calculated from logs:
GERAN

MS

Cell outage:

In one-phase access: the time

between the last EGPRS Packet


Downlink Ack/Nack message and
the first Packet Uplink Ack/Nack.
In two-phase access: the time
between the last EGPRS Packet
Downlink Ack/Nack message and
the first Packet Uplink
Assignment.

Data outage:

Application outage:
the time between the last and the
first successfully received FTPpacket.

Presentation / Author / Date

Outage

EGPRS Packet Downlink Ack/Nack


Routing Area Update Request

Data
Outage

Packet Uplink
Assignment
Routing Area Update Accept
Routing Area Update Complete

the time between the last and the


first EGPRS Packet Downlink
Ack/Nack message.

Soc Classification level


150
Nokia Siemens Networks

Last IP packets Application

EGPRS Packet Downlink Ack/Nack


First IP packets

Cell
Outage

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

(E)GPRS Optimization
Network Assisted Cell Change (NACC)

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

NACC is in Rel 4 of 3GPP GERAN , mandatory for R4 mobiles. Nokias


S11.5 implementation is based on Rel4.
Both, autonomous and network controlled cell reselections are supported.
Support is for intra-BSC cell changes (Support of inter-BSC NACC
specification is available in Rel 5)
NACC support is for MSs in RR Packet Transfer Mode only
NACC shortens the cell reselection in two ways:

Sending neighbour cell system information on PACCH to MS in


packet transfer mode while it is camped on the serving cell

By supporting PACKET SI STATUS procedure in a target cell

Soc Classification level


151
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

(E)GPRS Optimization
CS Traffic vs. PS Traffic

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

CS and PS peak values at the


same time (BSC level data)
Bad for PS timeslot allocation
Lots of downgrading

Exercise
How to optimize PS performance on area level?

Soc Classification level


152
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

Alarms

Soc Classification level


153
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Alarms - Introduction

Solution
Verification

Assessments &
Analysis

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Alarm analysis is the 1st thing to be done in worst cell


troubleshooting! No use optimizing parameters if you have a
HW problem!
Bad performance of a cell may be caused by faulty equipment.
Check that there are no performance-affecting alarms in the cell monitored and
also in neighbour cells!
Alarms are usually transferred to the NetAct database.
Monitoring can be done through MML Commands, Nokia NetAct Top Level User
Interface

Note! Constant monitoring is needed in order to avoid critical alarms in


any network element.

Soc Classification level


154
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Alarms Groups

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

Alarm n u mb er in :

Notices
( NO T ICE )

Distu rb an ce
F ailu re
p rin tou ts
p rin tou ts
( DIS T UR)
( AL ARM S )

switching equipment 0799

10001799

O&M equipment

800 - 899

18001899

900 - 999

19001999

transmission
equipment
diagnosis report
number
base station/
transmission
equipment alarms

Diag n osis
rep orts
( DIAG N)

Base
station
alarms

Nu mb ers
T ran smission reserved f or
eq u ip men t
p ossib le
alarms
extern al
alarms

20002799
30003799
28002899
38003899
29002999
39003999

40004799
48004899
49004999
37003999
70007999

80008999

power equipment

50005499

external equipment

55005999

Soc Classification level


155
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Alarms Printout Fields

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Alarm Number
BCF number, BTS number, TRX number, Alarm Object, Unit, Date, Time, Alarm
Number
Urgency level

Note:

* Low Priority
** Med Priority

Printout type

*** High Priority

ALARM fault situation


CANCEL fault terminated
DISTUR disturbance
NOTICE notice

Event type
COMM communication failure
QUAL quality of service
PROCES processing failure
EQUIPM equipment failure
ENVIR environmental failure
Soc Classification level
156
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

The urgency level is


output in all alarm
printouts except notices
(NOTICE).

The urgency levels of


terminated alarms are
indicated by dots (.)
instead of asterisks (*).

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Alarms - Alarms in MML

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Alarms in BSC Level:


ZAHO: PRINT ALARMS CURRENTLY ON
ZAHP: PRINT ALARM HISTORY

Alarms in BTS Level:


ZEOL: LIST ALARMS CURRENTLY ON
ZEOH: LIST ALARM HISTORY

Verify if BCF, SEG, BTS,


TRX and RTSL are
LOCKED or UNLOCKED;
WO (working), BL- USR
(blocked by user) or
Restarting.

BCF, SEG or BTS configuration and status


ZEEI: OUTPUT RADIO NETWORK CONFIGURATION

TRX and RTSL configuration and status


ZERO: OUTPUT TRANSCEIVER PARAMETERS

Soc Classification level


157
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Alarms - Alarms in MML

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

HW Tests:
ZUBK: HANDLE ABIS LOOP TEST
(Parameters: BTS, TRX, RTSL, Fixed or Dynamic Abis connection and
Abis TSL and Sub-TSL, looping time)

ZUBS: START TRANSCEIVER TEST


(Parameters: BTS, TRX, RTSL, test mode, RTSL,test selection, diversity
path selection,test connection, RF test signal attenuation,BTS RX
level,STM antenna attenuation,BS TX power attenuation, loop duration)

Soc Classification level


158
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Alarms - Examples

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

2993: BTS AND TC UNSYNCHRONIZATION CLEAR CALLS ON


ABIS INTERFACE
Transcoder and transmission alarm. Abis test is needed.

7045: TRX/FU DATA TRANSFER ERROR BETWEEN FU AND CU16


Base Station alarm. Observed when TCH failure rate is very high. A possible
solution can be to change the TRX.

Example of a BTS alarm printout:

Soc Classification level


159
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Alarms - Top Level User interface

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

The Top-level User Interface contains graphical views of the network, in


which network elements are represented hierarchically with symbols
One of the main functions of the Top-level User Interface in network
monitoring is to show the alarm situation in all managed objects

Soc Classification level


160
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

Implementation / Documentation

Soc Classification level


161
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Implementation / Documentation

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Project
report

Project
Ends

Optimization process is an iterative process, so there is no need to create


troublesome final report after every circle. Main items must be still written
down after every circle.

All the activities/ findings should be listed


What should be done and when
recommendation for the changes to be done" and "working orders".

All improvements should be shown


Implementation time should be shown
with improvements
Network Report
Tasks And
Results

Soc Classification level


162
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

Solution Verification

Soc Classification level


163
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution Verification

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

The purpose is to check was solution succeed


Is the trend positive or negative after aimplementations
Check that collected data is valid
EGPRS RLC Throughput kbit/s/TSL
BSC KRASNODAR
60

Parameter changes
were done 20.11

50

Throughput after
changes was improved

30

20

DL
10

UL

11
.
10
.1
1.
12
.1
1.
14
.1
1.
16
.1
1.
18
.1
1.
20
.1
1.
22
.1
1.
24
.1
1.
26
.1
1.
28
.1
1.
30
.1
1.
2.
12
.
4.
12
.

11
.

8.

11
.

4.

2.

31
.1

29
.1

27
.1

25
.1

23
.1

21
.1

Soc Classification level


164
Nokia Siemens Networks

6.

11
.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0
19
.1

kbit/s

40

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

Monitoring

Soc Classification level


165
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Monitoring Introduction

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

The basic idea to monitor network is to see how the


optimization project is ongoing and how the network is
performing
KPI monitoring
Testing & post processing

Alarm monitoring
Schedule monitoring

Investments checking
Resource monitoring

Soc Classification level


166
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Monitoring Reporting Suite

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Before Reporting Suite


can be started,
connection to NetAct
must be done
Reporting Suite can be
used for KPI monitoring

Soc Classification level


167
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

More detailed inputs


(if necessary) based
on assessment

INPUTS

Monitoring Reporting Suite

Project
Starts

Performance
Problems

Solution
Verification

Implementations

Are Criterias
Fulfilled

Monitoring /
Data collection

Project
report

Project
Ends

Different KPI group can


be seen here
Example of final KPI report

Soc Classification level


168
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Assessments &
Analysis

Work orders

Analysis

Solutions

Priorization

Solutions

Tools to be used

Soc Classification level


169
Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Tools to be used

Example of tools to be used in Solution finding


Statistics
(Reporting Suite,
Metrica etc.)

Performance optimization
Traffic and Capacity optimization
Coverage Optimization
Frequency Optimization
Neighbor Optimization
HO Optimization
(E)GPRS Optimization

Soc Classification level


170
Nokia Siemens Networks

x
x
x
x
x
x
x

Presentation / Author / Date

Planning tools
(NetAct Planner,
Asset etc)

x
x
x
x
x

Configuration tools
(Plan Editor, RAC tools,
etc)

Optimizer

Drive test tools (Nemo


Outdoor. TEMS, Actix
etc)

x
x
x
x
x

x
x
x
x
x

x
x
x
x
x