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Logic Families

25.3

We have seen that different devices use different


voltages ranges for their logic levels
They also differ in other characteristics
In order to assure correct operation when gates are
interconnected they are normally produced in families
The most widely used families are:
complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)
transistor-transistor logic (TTL)
emitter-coupled logic (ECL)
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Logic Family Characteristics

25.4

Complementary metal oxide semiconductor


(CMOS)
most widely used family for large-scale devices
combines high speed with low power consumption
usually operates from a single supply of 5 15 V
excellent noise immunity of about 30% of supply voltage
can be connected to a large number of gates (about 50)
many forms some with tPD down to 1 ns
power consumption depends on speed (perhaps 1 mW)
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Transistor-transistor logic (TTL)


based on bipolar transistors
one of the most widely used families for small- and
medium-scale devices rarely used for VLSI
typically operated from 5V supply
typical noise immunity about 1 1.6 V
many forms, some optimised for speed, power, etc.
high speed versions comparable to CMOS (~ 1.5 ns)
low-power versions down to about 1 mW/gate
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Emitter-coupled logic (ECL)


based on bipolar transistors, but removes problems of
storage time by preventing the transistors from
saturating
very fast operation - propagation delays of 1ns or less
high power consumption, perhaps 60 mW/gate
low noise immunity of about 0.2-0.25 V
used in some high speed specialist applications, but
now largely replaced by high speed CMOS

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OHT 25.#

A Comparison of Logic Families

25.5

Parameter

CMOS

TTL

ECL

Basic gate

NAND/NOR

NAND

OR/NOR

>50

10

25

1 @ 1 MHz

1 - 22

4 - 55

Excellent

Very good

Good

1 - 200

1.5 33

1-4

Fan-out
Power per gate (mW)
Noise immunity
tPD (ns)

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Transistor-Transistor Logic

25.7

Discrete TTL inverter and NAND gate circuits

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A basic integrated circuit TTL NAND gate

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A standard TTL NAND gate

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A TTL NAND gate with open collector output

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Characteristics of TTL
Uses the bipolar junction transistor.
The transistors used are in one of two modes: cutoff
or saturation.
In cutoff mode, the transistor acts as an open switch.
In saturation, the transistor acts as a closed switch.

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TTL Gates Internal Circuitry

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Open-Collector Outputs

A circuit that has LOW-state output circuitry, but no HIGH-state output


circuitry.
Requires an external pull-up resistor to enable the output to produce a HIGHstate.

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Totem Pole Outputs

The standard TTL output configuration with a HIGH output and a LOW output
transistor, only one of which is active at any time.
A phase splitter transistor controls which transistor is active.

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OHT 25.#