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Unit 4

3D Graphics:
1.
Polygon surfaces-Polygon mesh representations,
2.
Quadric and Superquadric surfaces
3.
Blobby objects;
4.
Solid modeling-Solid entities, Fundamentals of Solid
modeling-Settheory, regularized set operations; Half
spaces,
5.
Boundary representation,
6.
Constructive solid geometry,
7.
Sweep representation,
8.
Color models
9.
Application commands for AutoCAD & ProE software

Geometric modeling

Polygon mesh
A polygon mesh or unstructured grid is a
collection of vertices, edges and faces that
defines the shape of a polyhedral object in 3D
computer graphics and solid modeling. The
faces usually consist
of triangles, quadrilaterals or other
simple convex polygons, since this
simplifies rendering, but may also be
composed of more general concave polygons,
or polygons with holes

Key points of Polygon Mesh

polygon meshes is a large sub-field of computer graphics and


geometric modeling.
Different representations of polygon meshes are used for different
applications and goals.
The variety of operations performed on meshes may include
Boolean logic, smoothing, simplification, and many others. Network
representations, "streaming" and "progressive" meshes, are used to
transmit polygon meshes over a network.
meshes are distinct from polygon meshes in that they explicitly
represent both the surface and volume of a structure, while
polygon meshes only explicitly represent the surface (the volume is
implicit).
As polygonal meshes are extensively used in computer graphics,
algorithms also exist for Ray tracing, collision detection, and rigidbody dynamics of polygon meshes.

Information table of mesh modeling:1. Geometrics Table


2. Attributes Table

1. Geometrics Table:- Its contains the information like vertex


coordinate ,and other parameter to define the shape and orientation of
the polygon surface.
Geometric table consist of:
Vertices
Edges
Faces

Polygon
Vertex
Face

Edge

Elements of mesh modeling

Objects created with polygon meshes must store different types of elements.
These include vertices, edges, faces, polygons and surfaces. In many applications,
only vertices, edges and either faces or polygons are stored.

A vertex is a position along with other information such as


color, normal vector and texture coordinates.
An edge is a connection between two vertices.
A face is a closed set of edges, in which a triangle face has
three edges, and a quad face has four edges.
A polygon is a set of faces. In systems that support multisided faces, polygons and faces are equivalent. However,
most rendering hardware supports only 3- or 4-sided faces,
so polygons are represented as multiple faces.
Mathematically a polygonal mesh may be considered an
unstructured grid, or undirected graph, with additional
properties of geometry, shape and topology.

Modelling the Elegant Teapot


.

Polygon Meshes
V1
E1 P
1
E2
V2

VERTEX TABLE

EDGE TABLE

E6

E3
V3
E4

P2
V5

E5
V4

POLYGON TABLE

V1: x1, y1, z1

E1 :

V1, V2

V2: x2, y2, z2

E2 :

V2, V3

V3: x3, y3, z3

E3 :

V3, V1

or

V4: x4, y4, z4

E4 :

V3, V4

POLYGON TABLE

V5: x5, y5, z5

E5 :

V4, V5

E6 :

V5, V1

P1:
P2:

P1:
P2:

V1, V2 , V3
V1 , V3 , V4 , V5

E1 , E2 , E3
E3 , E4 , E5 , E6

Write down the Geometric table for


fig. given below:2

3
4

8
5
6

2. Attributes table
Attributes table contains the information
regarding surface characteristics like surface
reflectivity, transparency, texture and other
such characteristics.

Quadric Surfaces
Quadric surfaces describes with the second degree
equation. These are the frequently used class of object
like spheres, ellipsoids, paraboloids, hyperboloids, tori
etc.
General Equation for Quadric surfaces:-

f(x,y,z) =
a0x2+a1y2+a2z2+a3xy+a4yz+a5xy+a6x+a7y+a8z+a9 (A)

Using homogeneous coordinate the


equation can be represented as: F( x, y, z)={x y z}

a0 a3 a 5 a6
a1 a 4 a7
0
0
0 a 2 a8
a9
0
0 0

X
Y
Z
1

This 4x4 matrix called discriminant of quadric


surfaces.
Some common quadric surfaces:1. Sphere
2. Ellipsoid
3. torus

Sphere
Sphere is generate by putting the constant a0, a1,a2 =1
and rest of constant equal to zero in the general
equation(A) of quadric surfaces.
Y

Now Equation of Sphere:X2 + Y2 + Z2 =1


or
X2 + Y2 + Z2 =R2
Z

Ellipsoid
This is second type of quadric surface which define as the
extension of sphere with different radius in three mutually
perpendicular direction.
Y
Equation of Ellipsoid:(x/a)2 + (y/b)2 +(z/c)2 = 1

b
a
bb

Torus
Torus can be generated by rotating a circle or some other
conic about certain specific axis.
Equation of Torus:r-((x/rx)2 + (y/ry )2) + (z/rc)2 =1

Super quadric Surfaces


It is the generalization of quadric surfaces and provide
greater flexibility in the generation of complicated
object shapes.
These are developed by adding additional parameter
into quadric surfaces.
Super quadric provided the concept of geometric
modeling .
SQS also provide the method for producing primitives
shapes useful in CSG modeling.
These are truly solid surface.

Example of SQS
Super Ellipse:Equation for Super ellipse:[ (x/a)(2/1) + (y/b)(2/1) ]=1
Here is a variable parameter that can be assigned any real
value.
Question:- Develop the shape of super ellipse for the = 1, 1.5,
2, 2.5, 3.
Super Ellipsoid:Equation :-[(x/a)(2/2) + (y/b)(2/1) ] (1/ 2) +(z/c)(2/1) =1
Here 1 and 2 any real number value.
If 1 = 2 , designer get ordinary ellipsoid .

Solid modeling

Solid entities

Solid model of an object is created by using the three dimensional geometric entities known
as primitives of solid entities.

In CAD Syll.

CSG(constructive solid geometry)


or
C-rep
CSG also known as Building block approach of
solid modeling

These primitives are connected by the Boolean


operations.
The commonly used Boolean operations are
Union, Difference, and Intersection.

Boolean operations

CSG Tree

Boundary representation or B-rep


a

Comparison of CSG and B-rep

Sweep

Extrude and Revolve

2
2

3
3

Application of Solid Modeling

Blobby Object
Some object do not consist a fixed shape, they
tends to change their shape in different
circumstances ,these circumstances may be
working environment, some action of any
external force etc.
These changes are occurs due to change in the
molecule structure of the object, this behavior
of the object is known as Blobbiness and
object called Blobby Object.

Example of Blobby objects

Freely fall water droplet.


Melting Substance.
Breaking and isolation of molecules.
When the person flexes his muscle, shape of
muscles change.

Example of Blobby Object

Water
Drop

Isolation
of
Molecules