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Ancient Egypt

By Jose Rosario
1. Two large physical features have
dominated Egypt — the Nile River &
the Sahara Desert .
a.The Nile is the world’s longest river & the
Sahara Desert is the largest desert on
b.The Saharais
Sahara hot & dry, rainfall is lest than
4 inches of rain a year, & during day light
temperatures can reach 129º F.
c. One fifth of the Sahara consists of sand
d.The Nileis
Nile the most important physical
feature of this country. It flows north for
4,187 miles into the Mediterranean Sea.
e.Most Egyptians live along the river & its
delta (land that is form by the mud &
sand as they are deposit by a large river
at its end or mouth).
2. Ancient Egyptians divided their land into
the Lower Egypt (the delta) & the Upper
Egypt (higher lands).
a.The river helps the Egyptians provide water
(irrigation) to their farmers.
b.Mixture of water & soil called silt help the
farmer to keep the land fertile.
c. They dug irrigation ditches & built dams to
control the flow of the water.
d.Along the Nile a large reed that grows wild,
called papyruswas
papyrus very important to
them. They made boats, ropes & paper
of this material.
e.The Nile River served as a highway to the
ancient Egyptians.
Ancient Egyptian Farming
Ancient Egypt Map
• With the color pencils in the back of
the classroom, color your Egypt
• Identify & Locate the following
– The Cities of Cairo, Alexandria, Giza &
– The River Nile, the Gulf of Suez, the
Red Sea, & the Mediterranean Sea
– The Sinai Peninsula & the Sahara
Ancient Egyptians Society

By Jose Rosario
Continue on page 13 in
1. The word Pharaoh meant originally
Great House, or the King place,

a.It later stood for the pharaohs

b.They have absolute power & they
were considered gods.
c.The Egyptians looked upon them as
the living god-king.
d.They obeyed the pharaohs because
the thought that their well being
depended on their wisdom.
2. The Nile was for the Egyptians a
highway, it connected them with
cities & villages.
a. They had a single
ruler for all parts
of the Nile (Lower
or Upper Nile).
b.Pharaoh Narmer
(3,000 BC) united
& established his
capital at
c. He established the
first dynasty
(ruling family) he
passed down the
right to rule to
3. Every society has unique, or
special, characteristics in its culture.

a.Culture is the language, religion,

customs & ways of life of a specific
b.The Egyptians believed everybody had
a spirit, which they called Ka (a
small copy of a person).
c.They thought that the Ka goes to live in
the after life.
d.That the longer the body was preserved
from decay, the greater the chance
that the ka achieves the after life.
e.A mummy is the process of preserving
the body after death.
Egyptian Society

Page 14
1. We divide the history of the
Egyptians into three periods: the Old,
the Middle & the New Kingdoms .
2. They divided the people
into different classes:
a.the pharaoh,
pharaoh the ruling class (priests
& nobles),
b.the middle class (craftsperson &
c.the peasants & slaves (farmers &
prisoner of wars)
d.Women in ancient Egypt could own
properties, work in a business &
mixed freely with men in public.
e.Hatshepsut was a woman pharaoh,
she built the temples & monuments.
3. Pyramids are tombs built by the
pharaoh, where his body was put to
rest, with the most value
a.It took 30 years to Cheops to build
the Pyramid at Giza, which is as
big as ten football fields.
b.They were supposed to protect the
Pharaoh’s body.
c.King Tutankhamen’s tomb is the
most famous of all tombs. King Tut
ruled Egypt in the 12th century BC.
The Pyramids
Ramesses IIthe Great [39]
he Hittites at the Battle of Kadesh in 1275 BC, after
Ramses II Temple in Abo
4. The Rosetta Stone is a
black slab of stone about 4
feet high.
a.On it were
carved three
two in ancient
Egyptian &
one in Greek.
b.An Alphabet was
found on it.
5. Privileged Egyptian children were allowed
in school, they studied math, geometry,
astronomy, language arts & others.
a.The Egyptian calendar had 365 1/4 days,
where the months have 31 days.
b.Their medicine was advance: performing
surgeries, recognized diseases, &
invented medicine for them.
c.The sphinxes are statues of creatures with
a body of lions & head of human.
d.They produced sculptures & painting that
show us how this people looked like.