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Zeno phenomenon

The name Zeno comes from the ancient Greek

philosopher, Zeno of Elea, born around 490BC

He was a student of Parmenides, whose teachings

rejected the ideas of plurality and motion as illusions
generated by our senses

The main contribution of Zeno was a series of

paradoxes designed to support the view of his mentor
by showing that accepting plurality and motion leads
to logical contradictions

Zeno phenomenon

One of the better known ones is the race of hare and the tortoise

The paradox: The hare never catches up with the tortoise

The solution: Convergent series
The problem: Infinitely many switches in finite times

Zeno phenomenon

This type of phenomenon where the conditions or situations that have infinitely
many switches in finite time
Example: bouncing ball
This is bad:
Simulation crash
-the simulation program in the computer crashes
Model is not accurate
-our system is giving errors and not accurate as planned
System behaviour fundamentally beyond the zeno point
-we cant really define what the system doing beyond that point

Zeno phenomenon

For example, the switching condition of hybrid automation

In theory, the system start to switching continuously repeated once it hits x=0
The system is not good
Super Zeno phenomenon occurs

Zeno phenomenon

Types of zeno phenomenon

Type 1: Super Zeno phenomenon

-The system switches infinitely many times
in a single time instant
-when the system actually hits x=0
-the more common type and it can be handle
-what should this system do?
Type 2: not type 1 (bouncing ball type)
-When the system occurs infinitely many switches over a time interval
-its hard to deal and remedy it

Sliding mode control

The purpose is to ensure trajectory of the system goes to sliding surface beyond
the zeno point
Slide along the switching surface

Switching surface:

Both vector f1 and f2 pointing in the wrong direction

We should keep sliding along the switching surface
What is the condition to slide along the switching surface?

Sliding mode control

The condition to slide along the switching surface

Take the vector normal to the switching

surface, which is the gradient
Take the inner product of the vector field
and the gradient
Sliding occurs if

Derivative of g in direction of f = Lfg = Lie derivative

This condition actually tell us whether the system

have sliding along the switching surface or not
What actually happen beyond the zeno point?
-how do we slide?


How do we actually slide along the switching surface?

How do we move beyond the zeno point?

The condition for sigma

Sigma need to be +ve to not allows the sliding move backwards

Sum of the sigma 1 and 2 is equal to 1 which respect to dynamic motion


Back to the example:

From the value of sigma, we can compute the induced mode, xdot of the sliding
mode actually is


The induced mode in general

Solve for sigma 1

Solve for sigma 2

The induced mode is


Regularization of type one zeno Hybrid Automaton

How to regularize it?

What to do to add extra sliding mode?

Here it is