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NEOCLASSICISM

& ROMANTICISM
Covers approximately 1 century 1750-1850
NEOCLASSICISM - revival of classical
antiquity, linked to `enlightenment
ROMANTICISM Not a specific style but an
attitude of mind, manifesting itself in a no of
ways, incl Classicism.

NEO-CLASSICAL
ART

GENERAL:
ENLIGHTENMENT Modern Era born through American (1776) &
French revolution (1789). But the thinking began half century
earlier, by Enlightenment thinkers in France, Germany & England
(David Hume, Voltaire, Rousseau, Heinrich Heine).
Rationalist movement reaction against ornate & Aristocratic
Rococco.
All human affairs ought to be ruled by Reason & common Good,
rather than by tradition & established Authority. Return to reason,
morality in art etc.
In effect classicism (classical thinkers - `Apostles of Reason)
Re-emphasised now by Johann Joachim Winckelmann (german
art historian/ theorist concept of `Noble simplicity & calm
grandeur in art

JEAN BAPTISTE
GRENZE

The Village Bride, Oil


on canvas, 1761
Anti Rococco in content
scene of lower class
family life. The Poor, in
contrast to the immoral
rich, are full of `natural
virtue & honest sentiment
Stagelike, theatrical
figures.
At last, an artist w a
social mission morality
in art

JAQUES LOUIS DAVID


The Death of
Socrates, Oil on
canvas, 1787

David chief Neoclassical painter.

STYLE: Figures- statue like,


immobile, frozen in action. But
Realistic details (furniture, stone
texture, hands, feet)

CONTENT: classical theme,


neoclassical ideaology. Socratessentenced to death fighting for Reason/
principles virtuous. Socrates shown Sharp light insp by Carvaggio
like Christ w 12 apostles

JAQUES LOUIS DAVID


The Death of Marat,
Oil on canvas, 1793

CONTENT: Marat, a pol leader of


the revolution, killed in bathtub.
Used to write ideals on a wooden
box next to the tub. Stood for
reason, common good etc.
STYLE: Deep emotion, simplicity,
directness.
A historical+ devotional image a
masterpiece, a public memorial to
the martyr

JOHN SINGLETON
COPLEY
Paul Revere, Oil on
canvas, 1768-70
CONTENT: Portrait of a silversmith,
printmaker, businessman, patriot.
The painting an American icon.
Looks at audience w astonishing
directness, intensity.
thoughtful mood, reinf by sharp
light.
Hands on chin classic pose of
philosophers. Holding teapot, at
worktable w tools roots in a
tradition of portraiture showing
artists/ sculptos in workshops w
tools. Hence, shown as Artistphilosopher.

JEAN ANTOINE HOUDON


Voltaire seated,
marble, 1788-92
Acute sense of individual character
Entirely new standards of physical
& psychological realism reflecting
Enlightenment ideals.
Considered `Heroicised likeness on
the one hand (Roman Toga &
headband).
But Facial expression, turn of the
head as if in intimate conversation.
Image of the Modern Man unheroic, skeptical (questioning),
rationality & emotion