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# CHAPTER 1

DESIGN OF RC COLUMNS

Prepared By Mesfin D.
1
Columns are members that are subjected to axial compressive load
and bending moments.
The bending effect may be due to the lateral loads, end moments,
and/or due to eccentricity of the axial loads.
based on how the horizontal loads are transmitted from the super
structure to the foundation, concrete columns are classified in
EBCS 2, as un-braced (sway) or braced (non-sway)
Braced columns (in non-sway frames):lateral loads in a frame
are transmitted to the foundation through a system of bracing or
shear walls
Un-braced Columns (in sway frames): frame action is used to

INTRODUCTION

Second order effect or P- effect: Consider a slender
column

Braced & unbraced Contd
3
a)
b)

Based on the type of load applied on the column,
columns can be classified as pure Axial column, uniaxial
eccentric column and Biaxial eccentric column.

Column classification.
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On the basis of the slenderness ratio columns may be
classified as short or long (slender).

Classification Contd
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a)
b)
Slenderness ratio: For isolated columns, the slenderness
ratio is defined by

Generally, the slenderness ratio of concrete columns shall
not exceed 140.

Contd..
6
i
L
e

A
I
i
Columns can be classified as short columns in the
following cases and hence (Second order effect (P-D
effect)) can be neglected.

Contd
7
A f
N
sd
c cd
sd
d

Consider a slender column

Case a). column is subjected only to equal and
opposite end moment, M,
The column is bent into a single curvature with a
maximum deflection at the mid height
The maximum moment in the column is M

P-D Second order) effect
8
Case b). column is subjected to an axial load P and
equal and opposite end moment, M,
The column is bent into a single curvature with a
maximum deflection at the mid height
The maximum moment in the column is M+P
This additional bending moment larger than the
applied moment M is referred to as P- effects.
If the column is short, P- effect is negligible and If
the column is slender, P- effect should be
considered.

Contd..
9
The effective height (length) of a column is the distance
between the two consecutive points of contra flexure or zero
bending moments.

Effective length of compression
members

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In accordance with EBCS-2, 1995, the effective length Le
for a RC Column with the model shown is given as,

Effective Contd
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Effective Contd
12
a
i
0 for fully fixed end and a
i
1 for pin ended column.
2
2
e
e
cr
L
EI
N

## Reinforcement arrangement &

Minimum Code Requirements
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Functions of Lateral Reinforcement

Design of Members
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Main or Longitudinal reinforcement

Purpose of Minimum reinforcements :

Design (Contd...)

15

Design of short Columns subjected to Axial compression
The ultimate capacity of an axially loaded short column
can be determined by
P
du
= f
cd
(A
g
- A
s
) + f
yd
A
st
= f
cd
A
g
(1 ) + A
g
f
yd

Design (Contd...)
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For long (Slender) columns a load reduction factor C
r
is
introduced in such a way that the concrete concentric
design axial load capacity can be given by

Design (Contd...)
17
; 12
b
L
e

Interaction diagram: It is a plot of axial load capacity of a
column against the bending moment it sustains.
To illustrate conceptually the interaction between axial load and
moment in a column, an idealized, homogeneous and
linearly elastic column with compressive strength f
cu
equal
to its tensile strength f
tu
is considered.
Design of Columns with moments
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P
d

M
d

e
P
d

It shows the interaction (or) relationship between P and
M at failure.

Design (Contd...)
19
But in reality Reinforced concrete is not elastic, and it
has f
t
<< f
c
.
Therefore, calculation of interaction in concrete member
is complicated and hence the general shape of the
diagram resembles the figure given below.

Design (Contd...)
20

Design specifications from EBCS 2, 1995
Total eccentricity

e
e
=equivalent constant first-order eccentricity

Design (Contd...)
21

e
2
= Second-order eccentricity and is ignored if column is
short.

Design (Contd...)
22

Steps For Design of Uniaxial bending
23

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A column may receive moments from beams framing to
biaxial loaded rectangular section is shown below
Design of columns for biaxial
bending

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Uniaxial y-y
Uniaxial X-X
Biaxial bending
Three-dimensional interaction diagram

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However, in EBCS 1995, interaction charts are prepared
for this purpose and they can be easily used for actual
design where the following procedures need be
followed.

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THE END