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cn
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GSM
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Important Principles and
Technologies of GSM
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OBJECTIVES
To be aware of the developments of cellular mobile
technology

To understand the entities that made up GSM
Mobile System

To know the principles and services that make up
GSM

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EVOLUTION OF MOBILE
COMMUNICATIONS
One of the fastest growing and most demanding of all
telecommunications technologies.

Mobile communication existed half a century ago, but it
was in the 1980s that it was really developed.

The main goal of mobile communication is to realize
communication among any objects at any time, and in any
place.

MOBILE COMMUNICATION
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EVOLUTION OF MOBILE
COMMUNICATIONS
STAGES OF PUBLIC LAND MOBILE
NETWORK
GENERATION STAGE
First Analog Mobile Telephone System
Second Digital Mobile Communication System
Third International Mobile Telephony 2000
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FIRST GENERATION OF MOBILE
SYSTEM
ANALOG MOBILE TELEPHONE
SYSTEM
NMT 450
Nordic Mobile Telephony: used in 450 MHz, started in 1981
AMPS
Advance Mobile Phone System: used in 800 MHz, started
in 1983
TACS
Total Access Communication System: used in 900 MHz
started in 1985
NMT 900
- A variant of NMT 450 at 900 MHz. Started in 1986
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FIRST GENERATION OF MOBILE
SYSTEM
CONS OF ANALOG MOBILE
TELEPHONE SYSTEM
No public air interface between various systems
Problem in inter-operability with digital networks
Low frequency availability thus reducing network capacity
Low degree of subscriber security and safety

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SECOND GENERATION OF MOBILE
SYSTEM (1)
DIGITAL MOBILE COMMUNICATION
SYSTEM
1. TIME DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS
(TDMA)

2. NARROW BAND CODE DIVISION
MULTIPLE ACCESS (N-CDMA)
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SECOND GENERATION OF MOBILE
SYSTEM (2)
DIGITAL MOBILE COMMUNICATION
SYSTEM (TDMA)
D-AMPS
Digital AMPS: used in either 800 or 1900
MHz, started in 1991
PDC
- Personal Digital Cellular: used in 1900 MHz,
started in 1994
GSM
- Global Systems for Mobile
Communications: used in 900 MHz, started in
1991

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SECOND GENERATION OF MOBILE
SYSTEM (3)
DIGITAL MOBILE COMMUNICATION
SYSTEM (TDMA)
GSM 1800
Digital Cellular System: used in 1800
MHz, started in 1992
GSM 1900
Personal Communication System: used
in 1900 MHz, started in 1995
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INTRODUCTION TO GSM
GROUPE SPECIALE MOBILE
GLOBAL SYSTEM for MOBILE
COMMUNICATIONS
WHAT IS GSM?
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INTRODUCTION TO GSM
Why was there a need to develop a cellular
standard?
Incompatibility among existing cellular systems
which were mostly analog
Spectrum Efficiency
International roaming capability
Low mobile and Station Cost
Good subjective voice quality
Ability to support new services
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MAIN FEATURES OF GSM (1)
1. Spectrum Efficiency

2. Capacity

3. Strong Anti-Interference Capability
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4. Open Interfaces

5. Security

6. Interconnection with other networks

7. Roaming
MAIN FEATURES OF GSM (2)
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SECOND GENERATION OF MOBILE
SYSTEM (4)
DIGITAL MOBILE COMMUNICATION
SYSTEM (N-CDMA)
A mobile communication system developed
mainly by companies leaded by the Quacomm
Co. on basis of IS95.
The specifications of North American digital
cellular systems are drawn up by the American
Telecom Industry Association(TIA).
This system has been adopted by China
Unicom in 2001
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THIRD GENERATION OF MOBILE
SYSTEM
INTERNATIONAL MOBILE
TELEPHONY 2000 (IMT 2000)
The future of mobile network that will allow the
multi-media support of high flow of services
and mobility, with performances higher than
those currently offered by the GSM/ GPRS
Designation of frequency bands is
harmonized universally in the vicinity of 2 GHz
Ideal transmission speed is 2 Mbps
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THIRD GENERATION OF MOBILE
SYSTEM
IMT 2000 MAIN FEATURES
Multiple System Inter-operability
With a high degree of consistency in
worldwide design
Compatibility between IMT-2000 services
and fixed networks
High quality
Small portable terminals used worldwide.

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THIRD GENERATION OF MOBILE
SYSTEM
IMT 2000
2 Mb/s
384 Kb/s
EDGE
GPRS
160 Kb/s
64 Kb/s
HSCSD
1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
Bit rate
CS data - SMS, 9.6Kbits/s
9.6 Kb/s
Technology
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GSM
SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
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GSM SYSTEM
NETWORK DIAGRAM

BTS
BSC
MSC
VLR HLR AuC EIR
PSTN,
ISDN...
OMC
OMC
NMC
X.25 links
GSM interfaces
Voicemail Server
SM-SC
MS (Mobile Station)
BSS (Base Station System)
NSS
(Network Switching
Subsystem)
OMM (Operations & Maintenance
Management)
MS
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GSM SYSTEM
LOGICAL NETWORK CONFIGURATION
BSC

A
Abis

Um
BTS

BSC

TRAU
MSC/VLR/GMSC

MSC/VLR/GMSC

NSMU FSMU
TRAU
Ater A
OMC
Qx
HLR/AUC
EIR SMC
PSTN / PLMN /
PSPDN / ISDN
BTS

BTS

BTS

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GSM NETWORK ENTITIES
BSS: Base Station Subsystem
BSC: Base Station Controller
BTS: Base Transceiver Station
MSC:Mobile Services Switching Center
OMC:Operation and Maintenance Center
AUC:Authentication Center
EIR:Equipment Identification Register
GSM SYSTEM
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GSM NETWORK ENTITIES
HLR:Home Location Register
VLR:Visitor Location Register
MS:Mobile Station
ISDN:Integrated Services Digital Network
PSTN:Public Switched Telephone Network
PSPDN:Packet Switched Public DataNetwork
PLMN Public Land Mobile Network
GSM SYSTEM
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MOBILE STATION (MS)
Mobile stations are not fixed to one subscriber
MS comprises of the following:
1. Mobile Equipment
2. Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)
Personal Identification Number (PIN) is used to
prevent unauthorized use of SIM Card
GSM SYSTEM
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MOBILE STATION (MS)
GSM SYSTEM
Mobile Equipment
SIM
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MOBILE STATION IDENTIFICATION
NUMBERS
International Mobile Equipment Identifier (IMEI)
Consists of GSM Type permission code and related
manufacturer product number
International Mobile Subscriber Identifier (IMSI)
This number is also stored in Home Location Register
(HLR)
GSM SYSTEM
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NETWORK SWITCHING SUBSYSTEM
(NSS)
Performs the following main functions:
Switching functions
Database functions
Mobility Management
Safety Management
Manages communication among GSM Mobile
subscribers and other communication network
subscribers
GSM SYSTEM
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NETWORK SWITCHING SUBSYSTEM (NSS)
GSM SYSTEM
MSC
VLR
MSC
HLR/ AUC
EIR
VLR
BSC/ TRC
A
B
B
G
C
F
D
E
C
D
F
Network Switching Subsystem
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NSS ARCHITECTURE
SIX FUNCTIONAL UNITS
GSM SYSTEM
1. Mobile Service Switching Center (MSC)
2. Home location Register (HLR)
3. Visitor Location Register (VLR)
4. Authentification Center (AUC)
5. Equipment Identification Register (EIR)
6. Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC)
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NSS ARCHITECTURE
MOBILE SERVICES SWITCHING CENTER (MSC)
GSM SYSTEM
The core of GSM Network which provides
switching functions
Connects mobile subscribers with fixed network
subscribers or with other mobile subscribers
Provides interfaces to other communication
networks and interconnection with other MSCs
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OTHER FUNCTIONS OF MSC
GSM SYSTEM
MSC obtains all the data for processing subscriber
call requests from 3 types of databases (HLR,
VLR and AUC).
Series of services provided by MSC:
1. TELECOM SERVICES eg. Telephony, fax,
emergency call, etc
2. SUPPLEMENTARY SERVICES eg. Call forwarding,
call barring, etc.
3. BEARER SERVICES eg. Security and authentication,
etc.
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NSS ARCHITECTURE
VISITOR LOCATION REGISTER (VLR)
GSM SYSTEM
Dynamic subscriber database

Stores all related information of mobile
subscribers entering the MSC Service Area

Obtains and stores necessary data from the HLR
of a mobile subscriber
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NSS ARCHITECTURE
HOME LOCATION REGISTER (HLR)
GSM SYSTEM
Central Database of GSM System
Stores all related data of a mobile subscribers controlled
by the same HLR
Important Static Data:
IMSI, Access capability, subscriber type, and Supplementary
services
HLR also stores and provides MSC(A) with (dynamic)
information of the MSC(B) area into which a mobile station
has roamed, so that any incoming call is immediately sent
to the called subscriber on a selected path.
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NSS ARCHITECTURE
AUTHENTICATION CENTER (AUC)
GSM SYSTEM
Functional unit of HLR which is especially used for
security management of the GSM System

Stores authentication information and encryption
keys for:
Subscriber authentication
Encryption of voice, data, signaling messages on radio
interfaces
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NSS ARCHITECTURE
EQUIPMENT IDENTIFCATION REGISTER (EIR)
GSM SYSTEM
Stores International Mobile Equipment Identifier
(IMEI) of mobile equipment

3 Types of List:
1. WHITE Authorized Mobile Equipment
2. GRAY MEs that should be monitored in case of
faults
3. BLACK Unauthorized Mobile equipment

Mobile operators used EIR information the
location of reported stolen MS and block it
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WIRELESS COVERAGE STRUCTURE
GSM SYSTEM
GSM Service Area
PLMN Service Area
MSC Service Area
Location Area
Cell
CELL
LOCATION AREA
MSC SERVICE AREA
PLMN SERVICE AREA
GSM SERVICE AREA
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BSS
SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
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ZXG-10 BSS ARCHITECTURE
GSM SYSTEM
BTS
B
I
E
B
I
E
BTS
SM SM TC
BSC
MSC
OMC-R
MS
Um
Interface
Abis Interface Q3 Interface
BS Interface
Ater Interface
A Interface
TC: TransCoder
SM: SubMultiplexing


BIE: Base station Interface
Equipment
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BASE TRANCEIVER STATION (BTS)
GSM SYSTEM
Radio transmission part of the Base Station
Subsystem
Controlled by the Base Station Controller
Holds cell radio tranceiver equipment
Handles conversation between BSC and radio
channels
Performs radio transmission and control function
between BTS and MS via Um interface
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BASE STATION CONTROLLER (BSC)
GSM SYSTEM

Performs the switching function of BSS

Network Connections
Several BTSs
MSC (if Transcoder is included in BSC)
OMC-R

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BSC FUNCTIONS
GSM SYSTEM
1. Manages radio network and resources
2. Supervises and manages BTSs
3. Controls the establishment, connection and
disconnection of radio links in MS and BTS
4. Handover
5. Paging of Mobile Stations
6. Operations and Maintenance functions



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TRANSCODER (TC)
GSM SYSTEM
Performs transcoding and rate adaptation

TC completes voice conversion between the
16kbit/s RPE-LTP (regular pulse excited long-term
prediction) codes and 64kbit/s A-law PCM codes. I

ZXG10-TC is located between MSC and BSC.




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FUNCTIONAL LAYERS OF GSM
OAM
RR
MM
CM
TRANSMISSION
Service Carrier
Subscriber
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FUNCTIONAL LAYERS OF GSM
Transmission: data transmission function,
providing methods of carrying subscriber data and
transmitting signalings between different entities in
various segments along the communication path.

RR: radio resources management, setting up and
releasing stable connections between mobile
stations and MSC at the call setup stage, which is
mainly performed by MS and BSC;
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FUNCTIONAL LAYERS OF GSM
MM: refers to mobility and safety management,
mobile station processing environment changing,
making choices of cells possibly belonging to
different networks, so that the calling subscriber is
able to set up a valid process; infrastructures are
required to manage subscriber location data
(location updating)
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FUNCTIONAL LAYERS OF GSM
CM : refers to communication management, i.e.,
under subscriber requests, setting up connections
between subscribers, maintaining and releasing
calls (which can be divided into CCcall control,
SSMsupplementary service management, and
SMSshort messages service)

OAM: Operation, administration and maintenance
platform, providing operation methods for operators.
The service is supplied by the transmission layer
directly.
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PROTOCOL STACK STRUCTURE
Um
MTP2
MTP3
SCCP
BSSMAP
MM
CM
LAPD
MTP2
MTP3
SCCP
BSSAP
BTSM
RR
LAPDm LAPD
BTSM
RR
LAPDm
RR
MM
CM
MS BTS BSC MSC
Radio Carrier
E1/ T1
E1/ T1
Abis A
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PROTOCOL STACK STRUCTURE
2 KINDS OF BSSAP SIGNALING
MS
BTS/ BSC
MSC
DTAP
BSSMAP
DTAP:transfer transparently through BSS (MM +CM)
BSSMAP:BSS management message
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PROTOCOL STACK STRUCTURE
A interface SIGNALING PROTOCOL MODEL (1)
The A interface is used in the message between
BSC and MSC as well as the message coming
into/out of MS
LAYER 1 Physical and electrical parameter
and channel architecture
Integration of MTP1 in Common Channel
Signaling No.7 (CSS7), adopting 2 Mbps
PCM digital link as the transmission
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PROTOCOL STACK STRUCTURE
A interface SIGNALING PROTOCOL MODEL (2)
LAYER 2 defining the data link layer and the
network layer, namely MTP2, MTP3 and SCCP.
MTP2 is a variant of HDLC protocol
MTP3 and SCCP (Signal Connection
Controlling Part) implements signaling
route selection
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PROTOCOL STACK STRUCTURE
A interface SIGNALING PROTOCOL MODEL (3)
LAYER 3 Application layer which mainly
includes BSS application part (BSSAP)
This layer maintains and manages the resources
and the connections in BSS as well as controls
both the connection and the disconnection of
service.
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PROTOCOL STACK STRUCTURE
Abis interface SIGNALING PROTOCOL MODEL (1)
The Abis interface complies with the
requirements in 08.5X series of GSM standards.

Layer 1 -Physical layer, usually adopts the
2Mbit/sPCM link in accordance with the
specifications stipulated in ITU-T G.703 and
G.704
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PROTOCOL STACK STRUCTURE
Abis interface SIGNALING PROTOCOL MODEL (2)
LAYER 2 - The data link layer employs the
LAPD protocol, which is a point to multi-point
communication protocol.
LAPD utilizes the frame structure including the
flag field, the control field, the information field,
the check field and the flag sequence. The
service access point identification (SAPI) and the
terminal equipment identification (TEI) are both
found in the flag field, used to discriminate
respectively the service and the entity to access.

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PROTOCOL STACK STRUCTURE
Abis interface SIGNALING PROTOCOL MODEL (3)
FRAME STRUCTURE OF LAPD
FLAG ADDR FCS FLAG CONTL MESSAGE
SAPI TEI N(S) N(R)
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PROTOCOL STACK STRUCTURE
Abis interface SIGNALING PROTOCOL MODEL (4)
FRAME STRUCTURE OF LAPD
FLAG: Flag
ADDR: Address
FCS: Frame check sequence
SAPI: Service access point identifier
TEI: Terminal equipment identifier
N(S): Sending frame No.
N(R): Receiving frame No.
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PROTOCOL STACK STRUCTURE
Abis interface SIGNALING PROTOCOL MODEL (4)
LAYER 3 - The upper layer part, transmits the
application part of BTS, including the radio link
management (RLM) function and the operation
and maintenance function.

Through the Abis interface, BSC provides such
signaling control information as BTS
configuration, BTS monitoring, BTS testing, and
service control.
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PROTOCOL STACK STRUCTURE
Um interface SIGNALING PROTOCOL MODEL (1)
LAYER 1 Transmission layer (physical layer),
the lowest layer of Um interface
Provides transmission channel for radio link
and provides differently functional logic channels
(control channel and traffic channel ) for higher
layer.
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PROTOCOL STACK STRUCTURE
Um interface SIGNALING PROTOCOL MODEL (2)
LAYER 2 Data link layer, provides reliable
dedicated data link for and between MS and BTS.
Its based on link access protocol of D channel
(LAPD), but add some protocols of mobile
applications that are unique to GSM (LAPDm,
the difference is that no FCS and sync flag in
LAPDm)
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PROTOCOL STACK STRUCTURE
Um interface SIGNALING PROTOCOL MODEL (3)
FRAME STRUCTURE OF LAPDm
ADDR CONTL MESSAGE
SAPI N(S) N(R)
1 1 21
SAPI 0 : Signaling Application
SAPI 3: Short Message Application
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PROTOCOL STACK STRUCTURE
Um interface SIGNALING PROTOCOL MODEL (4)
LAYER 3 Application layer, performs
controlling and management functions. It
includes three sub-layers - CM, MM and RR,
each realizes call control, supplementary service
management and short message management
respectively.
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FREQUENCY CONCEPTS
GSM WIRELESS OPERATING BANDS
SYSTEM P-GSM 900 E-GSM 900 GSM 1800 GSM 1900
Frequencies
- Uplink
- Downlink
890 - 915 MHz
935 - 960 MHz
880 - 915 MHz
925 - 960 MHz
1710 - 1785 MHz
1805 - 1880 MHz
1850 - 1910 MHz
1930 - 1990 MHz
Wavelength ~33 cm ~33 cm ~17 cm ~16 cm
Bandwidth 25 MHz 35 MHz 75 MHz 60 MHz
Duplex Distance 45 MHz 45 MHz 95 MHz 80 MHz
Carrier Separation 200 kHz 200 kHz 200 kHz 200 kHz
Radio Channels 125 175 375 300
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FREQUENCY CONCEPTS
TIME SLOT IN TIME-DOMAIN AND FREQUENCY-
DOMAIN
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Timeslot
Interval
BP
15/26 ms
200 kHz
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Air Interface CHANNELS
CHANNEL TYPES
Channels are divided into physical and logical
channels:

1. Physical Channels the path used to carry
information between an MS and a BTS
2. Logical Channels different information
carried on the physical channels
a. Control Channels
b. Traffic Channels


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Air Interface CHANNELS
Logical
Channels
Control
Channels
Common Control
Channels
Traffic
Channels
Broadcast
Channels
Dedicated Control
Channels
FCCH
SCH
BCCH
RACH
AGCH
PCH
SDCCH
SACCH
FACCH
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Air Interface CHANNELS
TRAFFIC CHANNELS (TCH)
Traffic channel carries encoded speech or subscriber data,
including full-rate traffic channel and half-rate traffic channel:

Full-rate traffic channel (TCH/F): total rate is 22.8
kbit/s

Half-rate traffic channel (TCH/H): total rate is 11.4
kbit/s
1) Speech channel
TCH/FS: full-rate speech traffic channel
TCH/HS: half-rate speech traffic channel
2) Data channel
TCH/F9.6: 9.6kbit/s full-rate data traffic channel
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Air Interface CHANNELS
CONTROL CHANNELS
Control channels carry signaling information
used by the MS to locate a BTS, synchronize
itself with the BTS, and receive information
required to perform call setup.

There are three categories of control channels:

1. Broadcast Channel (BCH)
2. Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH)
3. Common Control Channel (CCCH)
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Air Interface CHANNELS
CONTROL CHANNEL BROADCASTING CHANNEL
(BCH)
They are used only as downward channels, i.e., one-way
transmission from the base station to mobile stations. They can
be divided into three types of channels:

a. FCCH: frequency correction channel, carrying information used
in MS frequency calibration.
b. SCH: synchronization channel, carrying information of MS frame
synchronization and base Transceiver station (BTS) identification.
c. BCCH: broadcasting control channel; this channel broadcasts
general BTS information. Among transceivers at each base
station, there is always one transceiver that contains such a
channel, so as to broadcast system information to mobile stations
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Air Interface CHANNELS
CONTROL CHANNEL COMMON CONTROL CHANNEL
(CCCH)
CCCH are shared by all mobile stations in the network. There
are 3 types of such channels:

a. PCH: paging channels, used by a base station to page
mobile stations (downward).
b. RACH: random access channel, used by mobile stations
for random access network application, i.e., requesting the
allocation of SDCCH channels (upward).
c. AGCH: access granted channel, used by a base station
to respond to random access requests of mobile stations,
i.e., to assign one SDCCH or directly assign one TCH
(downward).
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Air Interface CHANNELS
CONTROL CHANNEL DEDICATED CONTROL
CHANNEL (DCCH)
In application, the base station will assign it to a mobile station,
so as to make point-to-point transmission between the
base station and the mobile station.

a. SDCCH: a stand-alone dedicated control channel, used to
transmit such information as channel assignment.

b. SACCH: slow-speed associated control channel, used in
combination with one traffic channel or one SDCCH, to
send some specific subscriber information, e.g.,power and
frame adjustment control information, measurement data,
etc.
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Air Interface CHANNELS
CONTROL CHANNEL DEDICATED CONTROL
CHANNEL (DCCH)
c. FACCH: fast associated control channel, combining with
one traffic channel to carry the same signals as SDCCH,
but it is assigned only when SDCCH has not been
assigned. Call connection is realized via frames borrowed
from traffic channels to transmit such commands as
hand-over

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Air Interface CHANNELS
TDMA FRAME
f
i

1 TDMA frame
1 2 3 4 5 7 6 0
TDMA
1

TDMA25 or 50
1 Multiframe
Channel 0
Channel 1
Channel 7
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Air Interface CHANNELS
CHANNEL COMBINATION
Item Configuration Combination
1 TCHFull TCH/F + FACCH/F + SACCH/TF
2 TCHHalf TCH/H)+FACCH/H+ SACCH/TH
3 TCHHalf2 TCH/H + FACCH/H+ SACCH/TH+ TCH/H
4 MainBCCH FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH
5
BCCHCombined
FCCH+SCH+BCCH+CCCH+SDCCH/4+
SACCH/C4
6 BCH BCCH + CCCH
7 SDCCH SDCCH/8+ SACCH/C8
8
BCCHwithCBCH
FCCH+SCH+BCCH+CCCH+ SDCCH/4+
SACCH/C4 + CBCH
9 SDCCHwithCBCH
SDCCH/8+SACCH/C8+CBCH
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Air Interface CHANNELS
Structure of 26-Frame Traffic Channel
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Air Interface CHANNELS
Structure of 51-Frame Control Channel
S F B C
R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R
51
S F C C S F C C S F C C I
R R R R R R R R R R
D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 A0 A1 A2 A3
S F C C
R R R R R R R R R R
I I I
D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 A4 A5 A6 A7 I I I
A1 A2 A3 I I I
A5 A6 A7 I I I
D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 A0
D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 A4
S F B C S F C C S F D0 D1 S F D2 D3 I S F A0 A1
S F B C S F C C S F D0 D1 S F D2 D3 I S F A2 A3
D3
D3
R R
R R
A2 A3
A0 A1
D2
D2
S F
S F
D0 D1
D0 D1
R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R
R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R
FFCCH SSCH
BBCCH CCCCHCCCH=PCH+AGCH+RACH
RRACH DSDCCH
ASACCH/C Iidle
BCCH+CCCH

BCCH+CCCH

8 SDCCH/8

8 SDCCH/8

BCCH+CCCH
+4SDCCH/4

BCCH+CCCH
+4SDCCH/4

(a) FCCH+SCH+BCCH+CCCH
(b) SDCCH/8(0,...,7)+SACCH/C8(0,...,7)
(c) FCCH+SCH+CCCH+SDCCH/4(0,...,3)+SACCH/C4(0,...,3)
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CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT INSIDE CELLS
Small capacity cell with only 1 TRX

TN0:FCCH+SCH+CCCH+BCCH+SDCCH/4(0,_,3)+
SACCH/C4(0,_,3);
TN1_7: TCH/F+FACCH/F+SACCH/TF

The medium-size cell with 4 TRXs

1TN0 group: FCCH+SCH+BCCH+CCCH;
2 SDCCH/8(0,_,7)+SACCH/C8(0,_,7);
29 TCH/F+FACCH/F+SACCH/TF

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CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT INSIDE CELLS
Large-size cell with 12 TRXs

1 TN0 group: FCCH+SCH+BCCH+CCCH;
1 TN2 group, 1 TN4 group and 1 TN6 group:
BCCH+CCCH;
5 SDCCH/8(0,_,7)+SACCH/C8(0,_,7);
87 TCH/F+FACCH/F+SACCH/TF

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BURST FORMATTING
TYPES OF BURST (1)
BURST the information contained in one TS of TDMA
frame over the air interface

5 DIFFERENT TYPES OF BURST

1. Normal Burst
2. Frequency Correction Burst
3. Synchronization Burst
4. Access Burst
5. Dummy Burst

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Training
Sequence
64
Training
Sequence 26
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BURST FORMATTING
TYPES OF BURST (2)
1. NB (Normal Burst): used for traffic channel
and control channels except for RACH, SCH,
FCCH.

2. AB (Access Burst): Transmitted on RACH
channel and used as access request made by
MS to BTS. AB is the sole short BP sequence
defined by GSM protocol.


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BURST FORMATTING
TYPES OF BURST (3)
3. SB (Synchronization Burst): Transmitted on
SCH channel and used for initial
synchronization seizing by MS.

4. FB (Frequency Correction Burst) : Used for
carrier frequency correction of MS.

5. DB (Dummy Burst): Has the same format with
NB, mainly used for bit filling

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TRAINING SEQUENCE OF GSM
Binary
BN61 - BN86
0 970897 00100101110000100010010111
1 B778B7 00101101110111100010110111
2 10EE90E 01000011101110100100001110
3 11ED11E 01000111101101000100011110
4 6B906B 00011010111001000001101011
5 13AC13A 01001110101100000100111010
6 29F629F 1010011110110001010011111
7 3BC4BBC 11101111000100101110111100
TSC Hexadecimal
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TRAFFIC
Traffic refers to the numbers of subscribers the network can
support and is usually described as follows:

A= nT/3600
where,
n- calls made by a subscriber within an hour
T- average duration of each call(in seconds)
A - Traffic, in Erlang

Problem: If one call is made by a subscriber within an
hour and last 120 seconds, the traffic is calculated as:
=1120/3600=33mErl

For convenience of engineering calculation, the traffic is
usually defined as 25mErl per subscriber.

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GRADE OF SERVICE (1)
Grade of ServiceGOSGOS refers to the
degree of network congestion or call loss rate.
GOS=2% means that 98% of subscribers can
make calls successfully and 2% of
subscribers will end up with unsuccessfulness.

For network operators, 2-5% of GoS is adopted.
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GRADE OF SERVICE (2)
0.020 0.050 0.001 0.002
2 0.22 0.38 0.05 0.07
4 1.09 1.52 0.44 0.54
5 1.66 2.22 0.76 0.90
10 5.08 6.22 3.09 3.43
20 13.18 15.25 9.41 10.07
24 16.63 19.03 12.24 13.01
40 31.00 34.60 24.44 25.60
70 59.13 64.67 49.24 50.98
100 87.97 95.24 75.24 77.47
Erlang B GoS Capacity
Number of Channels
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GRADE OF SERVICE (3)
#Trunks Erlangs #Trunks Erlangs #Trunks #Trunks Erlangs #Trunks Erlangs #Trunks Erlangs #Trunks Erlangs #Trunks Erlangs
1 0.0204 26 18.4 51 41.2 76 64.9 100 88 150 136.8 200 186.2 250 235.8
2 0.223 27 19.3 52 42.1 77 65.8 102 89.9 152 138.8 202 188.1 300 285.7
3 0.602 28 20.2 53 43.1 78 66.8 104 91.9 154 140.7 204 190.1 350 335.7
4 1.09 29 21 54 44 79 67.7 106 93.8 156 142.7 206 192.1 400 385.9
5 1.66 30 21.9 55 44.9 80 68.7 108 95.7 158 144.7 208 194.1 45
0
436.1
6 2.28 31 22.8 56 45.9 81 69.6 110 97.7 160 146.6 210 196.1 500 486.4
7 2.94 32 23.7 57 46.8 82 70.6 112 99.6 162 148.6 212 198.1 600 587.2
8 3.63 33 24.6 58 47.8 83 71.6 114 101.6 164 150.6 214 200 700 688.2
9 4.34 34 25.5 59 48.7 84 72.5 116 103.5 166 152.6 216 202 800 789.3
10 5.08 35 26.4 60 49.6 85 73.5 118 105.5 168 154.5 218 204 900 890.6
11 5.84 36 27.3 61 50.6 86 74.5 120 107.4 170 156.5 220 206 1000 999.1
12 6.61 37 28.3 62 51.5 87 75.4 122 109.4 172 158.5 222 208 1100 1093
13 7.4 38 29.2 63 52.5 88 76.4 124 111.3 174 160.4 224 210
14 8.2 39 30.1 64 53.4 89 77.3 126 113.3 176 162.4 226 212
15 9.01 40 31 65 54.4 90 78.3 128 115.2 178 164.4 228 213.9
16 9.83 41 31.9 66 55.3 91 79.3 130 117.2 180 166.4 230 215.9
17 10.7 42 32.8 67 56.3 92 80.2 132 119.1 182 168.3 232 217.9
18 11.5 43 33.8 68 57.2 93 81.2 134 121.1 184 170.3 234 219.9
19 12.3 44 34.7 69 58.2 94 82.2 136 123.1 186 172.4 236 221.9
20 13.2 45 35.6 70 59.1 95 83.1 138 125 188 174.3 238 223.9
21 14 46 36.5 71 60.1 96 84.1 140 127 190 176.3 240 225.9
22 14.9 47 37.5 72 61 97 85.1 142 128.9 192 178.2 242 227.9
23 15.8 48 38.4 73 62 98 86 144 130.9 194 180.2 244 229.9
24 16.6 49 39.3 74 62.9 99 87 146 132.9 196 182.2 246 231.8
25 17.5 50 40.3 75 63.9 100 88 148 134.8 198 184.2 248 233.8
Erlangs
Erlang-B Traffic Tables
Abbreviated For 2% Grade of Service Only
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SUGGESTED CHANNEL
CONFIGURATION
Based on Zhongxing Traffic Model at GoS of 2%
Number of TRX 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
CCHs 1 2 2 2 3 3 3
TCHs 7 14 22 30 37 45 53
Traffic GoS 2% 2.94 8.20 14.90 21.93 28.25 35.61 43.06
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GSM CALL TRANSMISSION PROCESS
1. Analog to Digital Conversion
2. Segmentation
3. Speech Encoding
4. Channel Encoding
5. Channel Interleaving
6. Ciphering
7. Burst formatting
8. Modulation and Transmission

8 STAGES OF CALL TRANSMISSION
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CHANNEL ENCODING
Chanel encoding in GSM uses the 260 bits from
speech coding as an input and outputs 456
encoded bits.
- Special redundancy technologies adopted to
increase the bulk of transmitted information which
can be inserted at a certain pattern (encoding) at
the sending end and extracted at an agreed
pattern (decoding) at the receiving end in order to
enhance the anti-interference capacity and
transmission
- Commonly used channel coding methods are: 1)
convolutional coding; 2) Fire coding; 3) parity
check coding.
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CHANNEL ENCODING
CONVOLUTIONL CODING
50 bit (Ia) 132 bit
(Ib)
78 bit (Ic)
260 bits /
20ms
50 132 78 3 4
Fire
Code
Protection
bits
136 bit
53 bit
189
bit
CONVOLUTIONAL
CODER (1:2)
378
bit
78 bit
456
bit
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CHANNEL INTERLEAVING
Interleaving technique is adopted, by which the
continuous bits in an information block are
segmented and transmitted individually according to
certain rules.

The original continuous block in the transmission
process becomes discontinuous, forming a group of
interwoven message transmitting blocks, which are to
be recovered (de-interleaving) into the original
information blocks at the receiving end.
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CHANNEL INTERLEAVING
456 bit
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
456 bit
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
456 bit
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
456 bit
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
57 1 57 1 57 1 57 1 57 1 57 1 57 1 57 1
Block A
Block B Block A+1 Block B+1
116-bit block 116-bit block 116-bit block 116-bit block
Odd N+4 Odd N+5
Odd N+6
Odd N+7
Even N Even N+1 Even N+2
Even N+3
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MODULATION
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DISCONTINUOUS TRANSMISSION
Two aims can be achieved by adopting DTX mode.
1) Lower the total interference level in the air
2) Save transmitter power.

The DTX mode and the normal mode are optional, since
the former will slightly lower the transmission quality.
DTX
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TIMING ADVANCE
Signals sent by a base station on the broadcasting channel
help mobile stations to synchronize with the base station.
After connection is set up between a mobile station and
the base station, the base station will make continuous
tests, and provide the time advance (TA) on the SACCH
channel to all mobile stations twice every second
according to the BS-MS-BS broadcasting delay. Mobile
stations will make self-adaptive frame adjustment
according to time advance so that the time of mobile
station transmission to the base station matches that of
base station reception.
TA
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FREQUENCY HOPPING (1)
Frequency hopping refers to the hopping of carrier wave
frequencies according to a certain sequence in a very
wide frequency range.

Frequency hopping is used to avoid external interference.
In other words, it is to prevent or greatly reduce co-
channel interference and frequency selective fading effect
by converting frequencies to an extent that interference
cannot catch up with

There are two frequency hopping modes: base band
frequency hopping and synthesized hopping.
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