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Writing the

Methodology and Results


Section
RECAP/OVERVIEW
Reports generally include
these sections in this order:
Abstract
Introduction
Literature Review
Methodology
Results
Discussion
Conclusion


Research Report Methods
The method describes the steps that you
followed in conducting your study and the
materials you used in each step. The
methods section of the report clearly
describes these materials and procedures.
The elements included in the method
section and the order in which they are
presented may differ from department to
department. However, the list in the
following box is typical and provides you
with a good model.
Research Report Methods
ELEMENTS INCLUDED IN METHODS SECTION
Overview of the Experiment
Population/Sample
Location
Restrictions/Limiting Conditions
Sampling Technique
Procedures*
Materials*
Variables
Statistical Treatment
(* always included)
(Weissberg & S. Buker, 1990, p. 92).

Structure of Methodology Section
First describe how the data was collected
Details of how you collected the data
From your own experiences and recollections
Details of how your data source collected the
data (secondary analysis)
From the article or report
Second describe how you analyzed the data
Statistical procedures used
How those procedures test your hypothesis or
answer your research question
Details of
How You Collected Your Data
Target Population Type of people residing
in what geographical area
Method of Sampling or Subject Selection
Sampling Frame
Sampling Method
Random Sampling
Systematic Sampling
Purposive Sampling
Snowball Sampling
Sample Size
Response Rate (%) = # Responding X 100
# Sampled


Details of
How You Collected Your Data
Method of Observation
Self-Report Survey (Quantitative)
Mail, email, telephone, face-to-face
Questionnaire Construction
Include a copy in the Appendix
Details of Data Collection Method
Any special precautions taken to maximize
validity or minimize harm to respondents
Any unanticipated problems with method
How data was entered into statistical
analysis data base
Details of
How You Collected Your Data
Structured Interviews (Qualitative)
Telephone or face-to-face
Number of subjects and method of
selection
General goals of the interview
Basic questions that were asked
How response data was recorded
Any unanticipated problems that
occurred as a result of the method
Details of How Your Data Source Collected
the Data (Secondary Analysis)
Get information for methodology section of
sources article or report
Do not copy or duplicate article text (plagiarism)
Cite publisher and publication information of
article
If data are not associated with a published
article
Attempt to contact data source and solicit any
information you can
Describe the limitations and strengths of
your data for testing your hypothesis

Describe How You
Analyzed the Data
Quantitative Analysis
Describe the statistical procedures used
Univariate
Variable Frequencies
Measures of Central Tendency (Mean/Median)
Measures of Variation (Standard Deviations)
Bivariate
Crosstabulations
Measures of Association (Pearsons r, Chi
2
)
T Test
Longitudinal Time Lines
Multivariate
Regression, ANOVA, Second Order Crosstabs
Describe how the procedure tests your hypothesis

Describe How You
Analyzed the Data
Qualitative Analysis
Describe how you organized your
response data
Categorization of comments
How you used spontaneous comments from
subjects to formulate new questions
Describe how you analysis method will
answer or address your research
question
Language
Passive voice is common and so is past tense:
Telephone interviews were conducted. The interviews
were conducted for a state agency. A split ballot
design was employed .Each quarter of the sample was
asked. Three open-end and one closed-end question
formats were investigated. Each question format was
drawn from previous research and was selected to be
illustrative of one approach to asking age. The
particular question format ... was randomly
determined prior to the interview. All interviews were
conducted from a centralized location.
Language
The interviewer then introduced himself/herself and
stated who was conducting the study and asked for
the potential study participants cooperation.
The questionnaire consisted of 20 questions, of which
the age question was number 15.
Actual age data were available from the state agency
for 1,324 of the individuals interviewed.
Therefore, following the completion of an interview it
was possible to compare an individuals reported age
with his or her actual age.
This in turn permitted inferences as to which question
format produced the most accurate age data
as well as which format resulted in the lowest refusal
rate or nonresponse rate.
This section should include some text, mainly to
describe the tables and graphs containing the data.
Short tables can be included directly in the text, but
extensive tables and graphs are put on separate
pages following the one on which they are first
mentioned in the text. Units should be given in the
heading of each data column and not after the
individual values listed in the table. All tables and
graphs should have titles. Graphs should be neatly
and carefully drawn on graph paper or plotted with a
computer, and axes must be properly labeled and
scaled. Raw data and sample calculation are normally
placed in an appendix. A comment on the accuracy
and reproducibility of the results is also appreciated in
this section.

Research Report Results
ELEMENTS INCLUDED IN RESULTS
SECTION
statement showing where the results can
be found- an overview
statement presenting the most important
findings
statement commenting on the results this
may include:
generalising from the results
explaining possible reasons for the results
comparing the results with what was expected
or with results from other studies

Language:
Referring to a diagram, chart etc.
As can be seen
from
in
the
chart,
diagram,
table,
graph,
figures,
statistics,
...
It can be seen
We can see
that ...




From
Table 1
Figure 2
it
can

may
be
seen
concluded
shown
estimated
calculated
inferred
that ...
the
figures
chart
diagram



EXERCISE ON METHODOLOGY

EXERCISE ON RESULTS
TUTORIAL