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# THE FORCE DUE THE FLOW

## AROUND A PIPE BEND

Consider a pipe bend
with a constant cross section
lying in the horizontal plane and
turning through an angle of .
Because the fluid changes direction, a force will act in the bend.
If the bend is not fixed it will move and eventually break at the joints.
We need to know how much force a support (thrust block) must withstand.
FORCES ON PIPE BENDS
In order to properly size thrust blocks, hangars, or other devices to hold a pipe
in place, the momentum equation is used to compute the necessary resistive
force to hold the pipe stationary.
Forces in a pipe bend in the horizontal plane are caused by the fluid's
momentum and pressure.
If the pipe undergoes a bend in the vertical plane, where the entrance to the
bend is above the exit (or vice-versa), then the weight of the liquid and pipe
material within the bend will contribute to the force.
Since computing the volume of fluid and pipe material within a bend requires
considerably more input, we kept our calculation relatively simple by keeping
it in the horizontal plane.
The forces F
x
and F
y
computed by the calculation are the x and y components
of the total force F.
F
y
= P
2
A
2
sin(b) + d V
2
Q sin(b) F = (F
x
2
+ F
y
2
)
1/2

Q=VA A= D
2
/ 4
P
2
= P
1
+ d (V
1
2
- V
2
2
) / 2
F
x
= -P
1
A
1
- P
2
A
2
cos(b) - d Q [V
1
+ V
2
cos(b)]
THEORTICAL BASIC
Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems
Objectives
Identify the various kinds of forces and
moments acting on a control volume.
Use control volume analysis to determine
the forces associated with fluid flow.
Use control volume analysis to determine
the moments caused by fluid flow and the
torque transmitted.
Newtons Laws
Newtons laws are relations between motions of
bodies and the forces acting on them.
First law: a body at rest remains at rest, and a body in
motion remains in motion at the same velocity in a straight
path when the net force acting on it is zero.
Second law: the acceleration of a body is proportional to the
net force acting on it and is inversely proportional to its
mass.
Third law: when a body exerts a force on a second body,
the second body exerts an equal and opposite force on the
first.
NEWTONS EQUATION OF MOTION
FOR RIGID BODY
dt
dV
m ma F = =
Fdt mV d
sys
= ) (
ma F =
Manipulation into momentum
Resultant of vektor
E F
MOMENTUM
IMPULS
MOMENTUM BALANCE
FOR FLUID FLOW

+ =
x out
out
x in
in
x
sys x
F m V m V
dt
mV d

) (
in
V

+ = Fdt dm V dm V mV d
out out in in sys
) (

+ = F m V m V
dt
mV d
out out in in
sys

) (
SISTEM
Component-x
out
V
Manipulation
Force on the Control Volume
( )
0
x sys
d mV
dt
=
External
pressure
Gravity
xin in xout out x
V m V m F = +

Identify forces
PEOCEDURE OF CALCULATION
Draw a control volume
Decide on co-ordinate axis system
Calculate the total force
Calculate the pressure force
Calculate the body force
Calculate the resultant force
Draw a control volume
Decide on co-ordinate axis system
Calculate the total force
In the x-direction: In the y-direction:
Calculate the pressure force
Calculate the body force
There are no body forces in the x or y directions. The only
body force is that exerted by gravity (which acts into the
paper in this example - a direction we do not need to
consider).
Example : pipe nozzle
total force
Calculate the pressure force
We use the Bernoulli equation to calculate the pressure
Calculate the body force
The only body force is the weight due to gravity in the
y-direction - but we need not consider this as the only
forces we are considering are in the x-direction.
Calculate the resultant force
MENGHITUNG GAYA YANG BEKERJA PADA BAUT
PENGIKAT FLANGES

+ =
x out
out
x in
in
x
sys x
F m V m V
dt
mV d

) (
A nozzle is attached to a fire hose by a bolted flange. What is the force tending to tear apart that
flange when the valve is opened. When the valve is opened the fluid steadily flow out at a velocity
of 100 ft/s, the area of nozzle 1 in2. the pressure still 100 lbf/in2 gauge What is the force tending to
tear apart that flange now.
nozzle
P
in
=100 lbf/in2
A
out
=1 in
2
A
in
=10 in
2
V
out
=100 ft/s
SYSTEM
Flanges
F
bolt
=?
P
out
=P
atmosfir

+ =
x out
out
x in
in
x
F m V m V 0
1
10
10
out
in xout xin
in
A ft
V V V
A s
= = =

out x out out in
V A m m = =
( )
x in atmosfir in x unknown
F P P A F

E = +
nozzle
P
in
=100 psig
A
out
=1 in
2
A
in
=10 in
2
V
out
=100 ft/s
SYSTEM
Flanges
F
bolt
=?
P
out
=P
atm
=0psig

( ) ( )
x xin xout in atmosfir in
F m V V P P A = +
3
3 62
ft
lbm
.
water
=
2
2
2 3
1 100 62.5 43.3
144
ft ft lbm lbm
m in
in s ft s
= =
2
2
2
43.3 (10 100 ) (100 10 0) 121 1000 879
32.2
f
m
x unknown f f f
m
lb s
lb lbm ft ft
F in lb lb lb
s s s lb ft in

= + = + =
MENGHITUNG GAYA YANG BEKERJA PADA BAUT
PENGIKAT FLANGES
879 ( kiri)
x unknown f
F lb arah

= tarikan bolt=
x unknown bolt
F gaya F

=
APLIKASI NERACA MOMENTUM PADA STEDI FLOW
Soal 7--13

+ =
x out
out
x in
in
x
F m V m V 0
Q m m
out in
= =
( )
in atmosfir in x unk
F P P A F

E = +
nozzle
P
in
=40 lbf/in2
A
out
=3 in
2
A
in
=12 in
2
Q=1200in3/s
SYSTEM
Flanges
F
bolt
=?
P
out
=0psig=P
atmosfir
2
1 1
( ) ( )
x unk in in
in out
F Q P A
A A

= +
3
3 62
ft
lbm
.
water
=
2
( ) ( )
out in
x unk in in
in out
A A
F Q P A
A A

= +
2 4 4
2 2
2 4 4 3 2 2
9 .
1200 62.4 40 12 33.6 480 446.4
12 36 32.2 .
x unk
in in ft lbm lbf s lbf
F in
s in ft in lbm ft in

= + = + =
Soal 7.12
A
1
=1 in2
V=200ft/s
P
1
=30psig
F = ?
How is the force Transmitted
) (
_ _
x
out x in x
F V V m

+ = 0
P
2
=0psig
A
2
=A
1
1
0 ( ) ( 0)
x unkown
m V V P A F

= + +
1 x unknown
F PA

=
Via friction on pipe wall
kiri =
x unknown bolt
F arah F

=
Impact of a Jet on a Plane
We will first consider a jet hitting a flat plate (a plane) at an angle
of 90, as shown in the figure below.
We want to find the reaction force of the plate i.e. the force the
plate will have to apply to stay in the same position.
Calculate the total force
Calculate the pressure force.
The pressure force is zero as the pressure at both the inlet and the
outlets to the control volume are atmospheric.

5 Calculate the body force
As the control volume is small we can ignore the body force due to the
weight of gravity.
Force due to a jet hitting an inclined
plane
We do not know the
velocities of flow in each
direction. To find these we
can apply Bernoulli
equation
The height differences are negligible i.e. z1 = z2 = z3 and the pressures are all
atmospheric = 0. So
Q1 = Q2 + Q3

u1A1 = u2A2 + u3A3
so
A1 = A2 + A3

Q1 = A1u

Q2 = A2u

Q3 = (A1 - A2)u

u1 = u2 = u3 = u
Calculate the total force in the x-direction.
Remember that the co-ordinate system is normal to the plate.
2. Calculate the pressure force
All zero as the pressure is everywhere atmospheric.

Calculate the body force
As the control volume is small, hence the weight of
fluid is small, we can ignore the body forces.
F
y
=??
V=100ft/s
F
x
=??
Soal 7.8 hal
1
2
P
1
=50psig
P
2
=40psig
sistim
A=0.5 ft
2

+ =
x xout xin
F V V m ) ( 0
1
0 ( 0) ( )
x unk atm
m V F P P A

= + +
1
( )
x unk
F mV PA

= +

+ =
y yout yin
F V V m ) ( 0
2
0 (0 ( ) ( )
y unk atm
m V F P P A

= + +
2
( )
y unk
F mV P A

= +
F
x

F
y

Momentum
Masuk +, Keluar -
Kecepatan & Gaya
Kekanan, keatas +
Kekiri, kebawah -
F
R
Arah X (horizontal)
Arah Y (vertikal)
x unk y unk
F F

P
atm
=0psig
BESAR DAN ARAH GAYA-GAYA PADA ELBOW

+ = F m V m V
out out in in

0

x
y
F
F
1
tan

= |
2 2 1 1
( sin sin )
y
F m V V u u =
F
x
F
y
V
2 u
2
V
1
u
1
2
y
2
x
F F F + =
F

|
2 2 1 1
( cos cos )
x
F m V V u u =
Free Jet Flows
F
x
= m(U
xout
U
xin
) = m(U
2
cosu
2
U
1
cosu
1
)
F
y
= m(U
yout
U
yin
) = m(U
2
sinu
2
U
1
sinu
1
)
Deflector plate
F
x

F
y

U
U
u
2

control
volume
Free Jet Flows
y
x
F
y

V
V u
2

Thrust reverser
F
x

F
x
= mV(cosu
2
1) = AV
2
(cosu
2
1)
F
y
= mV(sinu
2
) = AV
2
(sinu
2
)
The figure below shows a smooth curved vane attached to a
rigid foundation. The jet of water, rectangular in section, 75mm
wide and 25mm thick, strike the vane with a velocity of 25m/s.
Calculate the vertical and horizontal components of the force
exerted on the vane and indicate in which direction these
components act.
[Horizontal 233.4 N acting from right to left. Vertical 1324.6 N
acting downwards]
) (
2 1
V V m F =

FRICTION LOSS IN SUDDEN EXPANSION
frik
F
V V P P
=

2
2
1
2
2 1 2

) ( ) (
1
2
1
1 2 1 2 1 2 2
V
A
A
V m V V m A P A P = =
) 1 (
2
1
2
1
2
1
1 2
A
A
A
A
V
P P
=

1
1a 2
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
A
A V
F
frik
frik
F V V
A
A
A
A
A
A
V =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
1 2
1
2
1
2
1
) 1 (
frik
F
A
A
V
A
A
A
A
V =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
)
2
1
2
1
( ) (
2
2
1 2
1
2
2
1
2
1 2
1
frik
F
A
A
A
A V
= +
|
|
.
|

\
|
) 1 2 (
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
) 1 (
2
1
1 2 1 2 2
A
A
V m A P A P =
Pers. Bernouli
Pers. MOMENTUM